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The Open Court 



^Veekly Magazine 



Devoted to the Work of 



Conciliating Religion with Science. 



Volume VI, 



CHICAGO: 

The Open Court Publishing Company. 
i8q2. 



%" 



Copyright. 18St2, 



The Open Court Publishing Co. 



s."^' 



ge:ne:i^.a^l^ inde^c. 



VOLUMK VI. 



ESSAYS AND CONTRIBUTIONS. 



1776 and 1892. F. M. Holland 3367 

Affair, The Homestead : . A Criticism of the Remarks of General Trum- 
bull, and a General Consideration of the Labor Problem. E, C, 

Hegeler 335i 

Agnosticism, Non-Mystical. Ellis Thurtell 3i77 

Agnosticism, Monism and. Amos Waters 347i 

Allen, Unpublished Letter of Ethan 3271 

A Moment of My Life. Johann Friedrich Herbart 3220 

Ancient Egypt, Ptah-Hotep, the Radical of. Hiram H. Bice 3303 

An Eddy in Science. Paul R. Shipman 3509 

Arguments, The Critic of. Charles S. Peirce 339i. 34i5 

"Atlantic Monthly," Teeth Set on Edge in The. M. D. Conway 3280 

Basis of Morality, The. C. Staniland Wake 3355. 3363 

Beauty in Science, Use and. S. V, Clevenger 3211 

Belief and Happiness. Celia Parker WooUey 3160 

Benedict Spinoza. W.L.Sheldon 3127. 3i35. 

Buddhism, The Psychology oL H. H. Williams 3407. 341S 

Cabots, Columbus and the. F.M.Holland 3474 

Cholera Considerations. S. V. Clevenger 3395 

Civilising the Sabbath. Moncure D. Conway 3495 

Clergywomen, Our. F. M. Holland 3121 

Columbus and the Cabots. F. M. Holland 3474 

Common Schools, Science and. E. P. Powell 3233 

Common Schools. Farming and the. Calvin Thomas 3263 

Common Schools Once More. E. P. Powell 3305 

Community, The Relation of the Individual to the . 

Wilhelm Wundt 3183. 3207, 3217 

Comparative Method, The. Alfred H. Peters 3111 

Consciousness, Relativity and. JohnSandison 3:44 

Cooper, Thomas. In Memonam. M.M.Trumbull 3348 

Criminal Law, The Sunset Club on. M. M. Trumbull 3244 

Critic of Arguments, The. C. S. Peirce 339i 

Critic of Arguments, The. Charles S. Peirce 3415 

Current Topic, A. G. K 3343 

Current Topics : Otfices as Private Patronage.— .\ Vigorous Foreign Pol- 
icy. — Aggressive Statesmen. — The Comedy of Death. — Coveting a 
Dead Man's Chair, 3097 ; The Law Against Commercial Travellers. 
—The President's Title.— Congress and the Czar.— Charitable by Dep- 
uty.— The Folly of Studying both Sides, 3109 ; The War Fever.— Jean- 
nette and Jeannot.— National Chaplains.— Official Prayers. — Patriotic 
Self-Sacrifice.— Rights and Duties, 3124 ; What is a Shyster ?— Equal 
Rights.-— The Appetite for War. — Reforming the Senate. 3132 ; The 
Nebraska Governor.— Post-Mortem Self-Esteem.— A High Mason.— 
Etiquette at Washington, 3140 ; Free Tickets for the Grand Army. — 
Tipping the Higher Classes.— The Law as a Lottery.— The Theology 
of Spurgeon, 3147; Wasliington's Birthday.— Party Politics.— World's 
Fair, 3164 ; Suppression of The l^oice. — Plenty of Money. — Tom Mann 
• and Ben Tillette.— Labor Platform.— The Capacity to Consume, 3180 ; 
The Wake of a Statesman.— The Soul's Danger.— Fighting the Zeit- 
geist, 3189; Dummy Indictments. — Municipal Corruption. — The Mo- 
ral Difference between the Briber and the Bribed.— Party Discipline. 
— Stand by the Nominee. 3197 ; Peace at the Polls. — The Marrying 
Trade in Wisconsin. — Genius Wasted in the Newspapers. 3212; Put- 
ting Sentiment above the Law. — The School Question in Germany. — 
Public Officers as Party .\gents. 3221 ; Silver Statesmen Demanding 
Gold.— The Rhode Island Electfon.— Party Soothsayers.— Mohamme- 
dan Missionaries in England. — Easter Worship by Knights Templars, 
32281 The Key to Mr. Gladstone's Political Changes.— The Hon. 
Michael D. Harter on the Crops Abroad.— The Law-English of the 
Supreme Court in Illinois.- Congressional Liberality in the Distribu- 
tion of Literature, 3236 ; Illegal Arrests. — Are we in St. Petersburg ? 
—Judge Altgeld and his Book, 3252 ; Castle Squander.— The River 
and Harbor Bill.— Judges and Jurists.- Contrast Between the English 
and American Judiciary, 3266 ; Abuse of the Superlative Degree. — 
Mr. Polk's Will. — Forgery as a Political Expedient.— Sabbath Idola- 
try. — The President at Rochester, 3277 ; Whence Comes the Rain ? — 
Irish Humor.— The Wearing of a Badge.— What is a Mugwump ?— 
Convention Fuss. — Impossible Politics. — Are we Sycophants and 



PAGE 

Snobs ? 3301 ; Blackbirding.— Election in the United States and Eng- 
land.— Civilisation and Crime.- Is the Knowledge of Evil Evil ?— 
Convention Prayers, 3308; The Loss of the S. S. City of Chicago.— 
The Calamity Convention.— Dick Deadeye and the Platform.- The 
Pinkerton Menace.— Mr. Farwell's Three-cornered Letter, 3515; The 
"Chief Executive."— The Nerve Strain on Young Children in the 
Schools.— Education a Help to Bravery.— Carnegie to the President. 
—Patronising the President, 3324 ; Diluting the News.— Popular Idol- 
atry.— Little Tin Soldiers.— Shall the British Flag Protect Americans? 
—Consuls Changing Works.- Are We a Weil-Mannered People? 3332 ; 
Equal Rights in Speech.— Mercantile Patriotism.— Advertising on the 
Flag.— Official Anarchy.— Cruel and Unusual Punishment.— The Case 
of Governor Wall, 3339; Both Parties Under Fire.— Masterly Inactiv- 
ity.— The Ballot Box as a Medium of Exchange.— Political Garden 
Seeds.— Mr. Gladstone and the Queen, 3357; The "Form" of Gov- 
ernment.— How Constitutions Grow.— Democracy in Action.— English 
Limitations on the Power of the Speaker, 3365 ; Our Only Nobility.— 
Our Many Nobilities.— The Strike of the Musicians, 3371 ; George 
William Curtis.— Chinese Prejudice.-Gunpowder Punch.— Adultera- 
tion of Milk.— Literary Destitution in Chicago, 3380 ; Oliver Wendell 
Holmes.— John Greenleaf Whittier, 3388; The Willing Degradation 
of Labor.— The Unity of All Men.— The Universal Right to Work, 
3397 ; The Peck Report.— The Cabin and the Steerage.— The Leader- 
ship of Hill.— The Following by Cleveland. 3404 ; The Humors of a 
Presidential Election.— A Political Shell Game.— An Exchange of 
Editorials.- General John Pope.— The Naturalisation Mill.— Judicial 
Impertinence.— Theological Etiquette, 3412; What is " Un-Ameri- 
can "?— Did Peary's Project Pay ?— Did Sir John Franklin's Project 
Pay ?— A Theological Happy Family.— A Religion " Par Excellence." 
—The Parliament of all Religions, 3420 ; The Poet Laureate.— A Spirit- 
less Campaign.— Campaign Literature.— Flambeau Enthusiasm.— 
Gospel Wagons.— The Law of Treason [With Editorial Comment], 
342S ; The Quarrel of the Sects,— For Christians Only.— The Chicago 
Police.— General Miles and the Soldiers.— Literary Chicago, 3434 ; 
Wines at the World's Fair.— Drink the Liquor of the Country.— Have 
we a " National Government " ?— Vote as You Bet, 3444 ; Long Pray- 
ers or Strong Prayers— The Milwaukee Fire the Act of God.— The 
Last Deodand.— The Luther Jubilee.— The Immigration Question.— 
The Home Against the Club, 3452 ; The Thanksgiving Proclamation. 
Praying for Special Favors.— Newspapers as False Guides.— The Po- 
litical Coroner's Inquest.— The Personality of the President.— Out of 
Work and Glad of it. 3461 ; Whose Ox was It ?— A Democratic Gerry- 
mander This Time.— Advice by Negative Innuendo.— We Want not 
Work but Wages.— Will There be an Extra Session ? 346S ; Free Cloth- 
ing and Meals for School Children.— The Conservative Reaction. - 
Distinguished Gentlemen.— The Master of the Buckhounds.— The 
Hereditary Taste for Game, 3476- Witnesses in their own Cause. - 
Congress wants Pay not Work.— To Coerce Congress.— Museum Sun- 
day, 3484; The Moral of our Greed for OSice.-Do the Spoils Belong 
to the Victors ?-Earl Grey on Civil Service Reform. -The Political 
Standard of the English, 3490; The Law of Limit and Overflow.— 
Short Weight Religion.— Royal Sport.— Presidential Sport.— 1 oady- 
ism in Snobdom. -Discharge the Workmen and Preserve the Work, 
3500. M M. Trumbull. 

Dead-Letter Dogmas. Fetix L. Oswald 3264 

Declaration of Rights, The Paine-Condorcet. Moncure D. Conway 3i59 

Democracy in England. Individualism and. Amos Waters 331 1 

Dmesis. Charles S, Peirce 3399 

Dogmas, Dead-Letter. Felix L. Oswald 3264 

Donnybrook Plan of Reform. The. F. M. Holland 3i43 

Dragon and its Folk-Lore, The. L.J, Vance 3439 

Duty, The Pulpit and its, G K ' 3i3i 

Earl Grey on Reciprocity. M. M Trumbull 3503 

Eddy in Science, An. Paul R. Shipman 3509 

Education of the Masses. Higher Susan Channing 3329 

Egoism and Altruism Justice in Contrast with. W. M. Salter 3409 

Eight Hour Day, The Sunset Club on the. M. M. Trumbull 3116 

Electing Senators by the People. M.M.Trumbull 3203 

Ethics, First Principles in. William M. Salter 3191 



THE OPEN COURT,— Index to Volume VI. 



ESSAYS AND CONTRIBUTIONS— Continued. 



Ethics, Evolutionary. Thomas C. Laws 3369, 3377 

Evolutionary Ethics. Thomas C. Laws 3369, 3377 

Evolution ot the God-Idea, The. C. Staniland Wake 3323 

Facts, Philosophy Based on. John Sandison 3313 

Faith, Positivist. John Sandison 3466 

Farming and the Common Schools. Calvin Thomas 3263 

Feast, A Philosopher's. Amos Waters 3359 

First Principles in Ethics. William M. Salter 3191 

Folk-Lore. The Dragon and its. L.J.Vance 3439 

Folk-Music, A Short Study in. L. J. Vance 3287 

Folk-Songs, A Study of. L. J. Vance 3394 

Freethinkers, French. Felix L. Oswald 3507 

French Freethinkers. Felix L. Oswald 3507 

Function ot Negation, The. John Sandison 327+ 

George of the Theatre, Our Saint. Moncure D. Conway 3423 

German Politics, The New Course of, and the Purport of its World-Con- 
ception. Ernst Haeckel 3215 

Ghosts, A Modern View of. Alice Bodington 3090, 3103 

God-Idea, The Evolution of the. C. Staniland Wake 3323 

Grey on Reciprocity, Earl. M. M. Trumbull 3503 

Happiness, Belief and. Celia Parker Woolley 3160 

Herbart, Johann Friedrich. A Moment of my Life 3220 

Higher Education for the Masses. Susan Channing 3329 

Homestead Aftair, The ; A Criticism of the Remarks of General Trumbull, 

and a General Consideration of the Labor Problem. E. C. Hegeler. 3351 
Hylo-Idealism, or the Brain-Theory of Mind and Matter. R. Lewins.... 3+28 
Hypnotic States, The Nature and Induction of the, by an Hypnotic Sub- 
ject. . Arthur Howton 3137 

Immortality: A Funeral Address. T. B. Wakeman 3487 

Industry, Our One Adult. James Jefferson Dodge .' 3386 

Individualism and Democracy in England. Amos Waters 3311 

Individual, The Relation of the, to the Community. 

Wilhelm Wundt 3183, 3207, 3217 

Instincts, Moral. Felix L. Oswald 30S9 

Jefferson, An Unpublished Letter of Thomas 3255 

Jersey, The. Hudor Genone 3459 

Justice, What Is? William M. Salter 3383 

Justice in Contrast with Egoism and Altruism. William M. Salter 3409 



Landscape 
Lenau, Nic 
Life, A Mo 



iting. Modern. Louis J. Block 3167 

s. Emma Poesche 3288, 3298 

t of My. Johann Friedrich Herbart 3220 



Mania. S. V. Clevenger 
Masses, High 



t Club c 



Mind ; 
Moder 
Moder 



nd M 

1 View of Gh< 
Landscape P, 



nd Mat 
Monism and Agnostic 
Moral Instincts. Fell 
Morality, The Basis o 
Mother of Washingtoi 
Music, A Short Study 
My Friend the Sociali 



for the. Susan Channing 

n the Way to Uplift the. M. M. Trumbull. . . 

nisni and. Paul R. Shipman 

i. The. J. G. Hertwig 

nparative. Alfred H. Peters 

Y_Hylo-Idealism or the Brain Theory of. R. Lewins. ... 

;, A. Alice Bodington 3090, 

nting. Louis J. Block 

m. Paul R. Shipman 

ni. Amos Waters 

L. Oswald 

C. Staniland Wake 3355, 

The. Moncure D. Conway 

1 Folk-. L. J. Vance 

. William Schuyler 



3123 
3329 
3155 



3363 
3385 
3287 
3282 

Naden's, Miss, "World-Scheme." G. M. McCrie 3335, 3344, 3360 

Natural Religion, Professor Seeley's. Ellis Thurtell 3255 

Negation, The Function of. John Sandison 3274 

Non-Mystical Agnosticism. Ellis Thurtell ^^. < 3177 

Oracles of Reason, Revolutions and. M 
Oracles of Reason, Ethan Allen's. Moc 

Our Clergywomen. F. M. Holland 

Our One Adult Industry. J.J.Dodge 3386 

Our Right to Trade Freely. F.M.Holland 3425 

Painting, Modern Landscape. Louis J. Block -^l6^ 

Paine-Condorcet Declaration of Rights. Mono 
Paine, Unpublished Letter of Thomas. To Jan 



shingt. 

Philosophy Based on Facts. John Sandison.. 

Philosopher's Feast, A. Amos Waters 

Philosophy, Rfenan's. Felix L. Oswald 

Pilgrimage, Tennyson's. Moncure D. Conway 

Play, A Study Of. E.P.Powell 

Politics and the Purport of its World-Ci 

German. Ernst Haeckel 

Positivist Faith. John Sandison 

Prison Problems. Felix L. Oswald 

Problems, Prison. Felix L. Oswald 



3247 
3313 
3359 
3447 
3455 



ptu 



, The New Course of 



3215 
346S 
3402 
3402 



Progress, Tides of. Felix L. Oswald 3175 

Psychology of Buddhism, The. H. H. Williams 3407. 34l8 

Ptah-Hotep. The Radical of Ancient Egypt. Hiram H. Bice 3303 

Public Schools, What Shall the. Teach ? A Debate of the Sunset Club. 

M. M.Trumbull 3172 

Pulpit and its Duty, The, G. K 3131 

Pythagorics. Charles S. Peirce 3375 

Quantity, The Unknown. Hudor Genone 3332 



Reform, The Donnybrook Pla 
Reform on Scientific Principl 
Reforms, The Relation of Soc 
Relativity and Consciousness 
Relation of the Individual I 



Df. F. M. Holland 3143 

, F.M.Holland 3223 

1. Davis R. Dewey 3295 

John Sandison 3144 

the Community, The. Wilhelm Wundt 

3183, 3207, 3217 

Religious Truth. John Burroughs 3319 

Religion, Professor Seeley's Natural. Ellis Thurtell 3255 

Renan's Philosophy. Felix L. Oswald 3447 

Renan's " The Future of Science." Atherton Blight 3451 

Renan's Life, Two Phases of. The Faith of 1850 and the Doubt of 1890. 

John Dewey 3505 

Revolutions, and Oracles of Reason. Moncure D. Conway 3087 

Rights, The Paine-Condorcet Declaration of. Moncure D. Conway 3159 

Right to Trade Freely, Our, F. M. Holland 3425 

3231 



Saint of New York. The. Moncure D. Conway 

Saint George of the Theatre, Our. Moncure D. Conway 

Sabbath, Civilising the. Moncure D. Conway 

Senators, Electing, by the People. M. M. Trumbull 

Science, Use and Beauty in. S. V. Clevenger 

Scientific Principles, Reform on. F. M. Holland 

Science and Common Schools. E. P. Powell 

Science, We Want Science and More than. W. Stewart Ross 

Science, An Eddy in. Paul R. Shipman 

Signs and Symbols. Ernst Schroeder. 3431, 3441, 

Socialist, My Friend the. William Schuyler 

Social Reforms, The Relation of. Davis R. Dewey 

Songs, A Study of Folk-. L. J. Vance 

Spinoza, Benedict. W. L. Sheldon 3127, 

State, The Meaning of. J. G. Hertwig 

Study of Play, A. E. P. Powell 

Study in Folk-Music, A Short. L. J. Vance 



Study of Folk-Songs 
Sunset Club, The, on 
Sunset Club on Crim 
Survival of the Unfit 
Symbols, Signs and. 



L J. V 
the Way to Uplift the Masses. M. M. Trumbull . . 

inalLaw,The. M.M.Trumbull 

The. Alice Bodington 3327, 

Ernst Schroeder 



3423 
3495 
3203 
321 1 
3223 
3233 
3479 
3509 
3463 
3282 
3295 
3394 
3135 
3171 
3271 
3287 
3394 
3155 
3244 
3337 
3463 



Tarift Reform, 1776 and 1892. F. M. Holland 3367 

Tennyson's Pilgrimage. A Discourse given in South Place Chapel, Lon- 

Moncure D. Conway 3455 



Teeth Set on Edge in "The Atla 
Tides of Progress. Felix L. Oswal 
Theatre. Our Saint George of the. 
The Homestead Affair : A Criticis 
bull, and a Gene 



Hegele 



3280 
3175 
3423 



3351 



The Jersey. Hudor Genone 3459 

Three Letters from the Poet Whittier. M. G 3426 

Topic, A Current. By G. K 3343 

Trade Freely, Our Right to. F.M.Holland 3425 

Truth, Religious. John Burroughs 3319 

Two Phases of Renan's Life. John Dewjey 3505 

Unfit, The Survival of the. Alice Bodington 3327, 3337 

Unknown Quantity, The. Hudor Genone 3332 

Unpublished Letter of Thomas Paine 3247 

Unpublished Letter of Thomas Jefferson, An 3255 

Unpublished Letter of Ethan Allen 3271 

■Walt Whitman. Moncure D. Conway 3199 

Washington, The Mother of. Moncure D. Conway 3385 

Waves and Rays. Paul Spies 3239, 3247 

We Want Science and More than Science. W. Stewart Ross 3479 

What Shall the Public Schools Teach? M.M.Trumbull 3172 

What Is Justice ? W.M.Salter 3383 

Whitman, Walt. My Little Wreath of Thoughts and Memories. Mon- 
cure D. Conway 3199 

Whittier, Three Letters from the Poet, to Professor Gunning and Mrs. 

Mary Gunning. M. G 3426 

Whittier, Some Personal Reminiscences of the Poet. M. G 3427 

World-Conception, The New Course of German Politics and the Purport 

of Its. Ernst Haeckel 3215 

" World-Scheme," Miss Naden's. A Retrospect, George M. McCrie.. 

3335.3344.3360 

3274 



Zeus : A Little Fable. Hudor Ge 



EDITORIALS. 



Affair, The Homestead : A Criticism of the 
Remarks of General Trumbull, and a Gen- 
eral Consideration of the Labor Problem. 

E. C. Hegeler 3351 

After the Distribution ot the Type 3234 

Anthropogeny, Professor Haeckel's 3125 

Argument, The Highest Trump in 3266 

Beetle, The Mysterious 3321 



Belief in Ghosts, Ghosts and the 3106 

Capital and Labor 3258 

Charity 3307 

Christopher Columbus 3435 

Clock, The, or the Watches 3292 

Columbus, Cliristopher 3435 

Conciliation of Religion with Science, A 3285 



Does the State Exist ? 3449 

Dross, The, Is Discarded but Nothing Is Lost. 3244 

Eight Hour Day, The Sunset Club on the, A 

Review of the Debate 3115 

Ethics, The Ethical Societies and Their Views 

of 3145 

Ethical Societies, The, and Their Views of 

Ethics 3145 



THE OPEN COURT.— Index to Volume VI. 



EDITORIALS— Continued. 



Does Utility Explain 3314 



Faith and Reason, A Review of Fechner's 
Method of Conciliating Religion with Sci- 



Ghosts and the Belief in Ghosts. 



Haeckel's Anthropogeny, Professor 

Hegeler, Gisela. A Funeral Address 

Highest Trump in Arsument, The 

Homestead Affair, The: A Criticism of t 
Remarks of General Trumbull, and a Gf 
eral Consideration of the Labor Proble 
E.C. Hegeler 



"Is" and the " Ought," The. 

Labor, Capital and 

Materialism, Monism or 



3225 

3106 

3125 
3279 
3266 



3194 
3258 
3154 



of Thought ? In Re- 



3154 
3i7« 



Monism or M; 
Monism, Is, A Ter 

ply to Mr. 
Morality, Nature and. An Examination of tht 

Ethical Views of John Stuart Mill 

3186, 3201, 3210 

Moral Ouglit, An Analysis of the 3161 

Mysterious Beetle, The 3321 

Nature and Morality 3itJ6, 3206, 3210 

Ought, An Analysis of the Moral. Comments 

Upon Prof. H. Sidgwick's View 3161 

" Ought," The "Is" and the 3195 

People By the Sea, The 3275 

A Review of Fechner's 
liliating Religion with Sci- 



Religion, the Love of Truth, and the Applica- 
tion of Truth 3480 

Science, A Conciliation of Religion with. . 3285 

Sea, The People by the 3275 

State Exist ? Does the. 3449 

The Homestead A£fair : A Criticism of the Re- 
marks of General Trumbull, and a Gen- 
eral Consideration of the Labor Problem. 

E. C. Hegeler 3351 

Thought, Is Monism a Terminus of ? 3178 

Trump in Argument, The Highest 3266 

Truth. Religion, the Love of Truth and the 

Application of 3480 

Type, After the Distribution of the 3234 



'ith Science, A Co 



Utility Explain Evolution, Does ? 
Watches, The Clock or the 



3314 
3292 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Arguments, The Critic of. Morris Gibbs, 
Boston Society for Ethical Culture, The. 



. Clara M. Bisbe 



3437 

3173 



Conciliation of Science with Religion. [With Editorial Note.] John 

Maddock 

Criterion of Ethics, Ethical Societies and the. J. C. F. Grumbine 

Critic of Arguments, The. Morris Gibbs 

Danger of Nationalism, One. F. M. Holland : 

Doctrine of Necessity, The. [ With Editorial Note.] John Maddock. .. ; 

Does the State Exist " John Beverley Robinson 3454, 3477, ; 

Does the State Exist ? Theodore P. Perkins 

Eight Hour Day Question, The. W. M. Salter 

Ethical Societies and th? Criterion of Ethics. J. C. F. Grumbine 

Ethics, Ethical Societies and the Criterion of. J. C. F. Grumbine. . . ^. . . 

Ethical Culture, The Boston Society for. Mrs. Clara M. Bisbee 

Ethics, The Basis of. D. Pfleiderer : 



Hit Him in His Wind. Hudor Genone 

Homestead Affair, A Few Questions on the, and Other Matters. Adolf 

G. Vogeler 

Hymns. [ With Note by F. M. Holland, and Reply by M. M. Trumbull.) 

Louise Kennedy 

Immortality. The Idea of. [ With Editorial Note.] J. Frey 

Is Nationalism Cheap? Ella Ormsby ■ 



3174 
3237 
3340 
3260 



Naden, Constance, Further Reliques of. R Lewins 

Nationalism Cheap ? Is. Ella Ormsby 

Nationalism, One Danger of. F. M. Holland 

Nationalism, Some Further Arguments in Favor of. Ella Ormsby.... 
Necessity, The Doctrine of. [With Editorial Note] John Maddock 
Necessity, The Problem of. L With Editorial Note.] Hudor Genone. 

Path of Least Resistance, The. Leroy Berrier 

Problem, The Resurrection. R. Lewins 

Problem of Necessity, The, [ With Editorial Note.J Hudor Genone 

d Other Matters, A Few. Adolf G. 
th. [With Editorial Note.] John 



■ 3174 

■ 3267 

■ 3309 

■ 3373 

■ 3204 
. 3214 



Religion, Conciliation of S( 

Maddock 

Resistance, The Path of Least. Leroy Berrier. 

Resurrection Problem, The. R. Lewins 

Right to Labor, The. C. S. Darrow 



3165 
3149 
3406 



Science with Religion, Conciliation of. [ With Editorial Note.] John 

Maddock 

Science, The Method of, and the Method of Theology. Atherton Blight. 

State Exist ? Does the. John Beverley Robinson 3454, 3477, 

State Exi'St ? Does the. Theodere P. Perkins 

Sunday, The Closing of the World's Fair on. F. M. Holland 

Survival of the Unfit, The. John Beverley Robinson 

Theology, The Method of Science and the Method of. Atherton Blight 

Unfit, The Survival of the. John Beverley Robinson 



Wind, Hit Him in His. Hudor Gt 
Women in Fine Work, The Efliciei 
World's Fair on Sunday, The Clos: 



35OJ 
3334 
3373 

3492 

3373 

3237 
3166 
333+ 



POETRY. 



A Fragment. Louis Belrose, Jr 3310 

A Plaint. By "Ignotus." [Translated from 
the Italian by Mary Morgan (Gowan 

Leal.] 3350 

Cosinotheos. Charles A. Lane 3486 

Gisela Hegeler. Phebe A. Hanatord. [With 

Note by Mr. E. C. Hegeler.] 3349 



)r Death. Volta 
itain Climbing. 



Shakespeare and Joan of .^rc. Louis Belrose, 

Jr 3166 

Sonnet. Louis Belrose, Jr 3502 

Springtide. Jean W. Wylie 3221 

The Champion. By Viroe '.. 3317 

Yonder Sits a Little Child. Mary Morgan 

{Gowan Lea) 3294 



BOOK REVIEWS. NOTES, ETC. 



PAGE 

Abel, Carl. Linguistic Essays 3157 

Abroad and at Home 3222 

Agnostic Annual, The 3+94 

Agnosticism, Monism and 3478 

Alcoit, Louisa May 3190 

Anthropology, Congress of Criminal 3270 

A New Newspaper. , 3206 

A People's Church 3238 

Arri^at, Lucien. Psychologie du peintre 3469 

A School of Applied Design for Women 33+2 



Bemmelen, P. Van. 
Berendt, Dr. Martin 

nisslebre in ihr 

Philosophie 

Bible and Science Controveisv 
Biei bower. Austin. The Mora 
ndbook of Sc'e 



Le nihilisme scientifique 3446 

, and Dr. Julius Friedlaender. Spinoza's Erkennt- 
2r Beziehung zur modernen Naturwissenschaft und 

3134 

The 3438 

iot Christ 3246 

Bithell. R. Handbook of Sc'entific Agnosticism 3493 

Bisby, James Thompson. The Crisis in Morals Sogg 

Blessings of the Wavside 3494 

Brewster, A. B. The Prison 3262 

Brinton, Daniel G. Anthropology as a Science and as a Branch of Uni- 

versiiy Education 3326 



Calmire 3389 

Chicago Folk Lore Society 3350 

Classics, English 3126 

Colbert, E. Humanity in Its Origin and Early Growth 3222 

Criminal Anthropology, Congress of 3270 

Crucifision Viewed from a Jewish Standpoint, The 3278 

Curtis, Mattoon Monroe. Philosophy and Physical Science 3318 

3470 

3134 

; de foi et la nouvelle 6coIe 3422 



Daniels, Cora Lynn. As It Is t 
Dillmann, C. Astronomische 1 
Doumergue, E. L'autorite en 1 



Educ 



iSci< 



I of Woman. 



.■■ • 3350 

3342 

English Classics 3126 

Ethics, the Value of the Study of 33^8 

Ethical Culture 3150 

Ethical Culture, Societies for 319S 

Farrer. J. A. Paganism and Christianity 3268 

Friedlaer.der, Dr. Jnlius. and Dr. Martin Berendt: Spinoza's Erkennt- 
nis^lehre in ihrer Beziehung zur modernen Naturwissenschaft und 
Philosophie 3134 



THE OPEN COURT.— Index to Volume VI. 



BOOK REVIEWS, NOTES, ETC.— Continued. 



Gardener. Helen H. Pushed by Unseen Hands 34U 

Garner, R. L. The Speech of Monkeys 3+21 

Genone, Hudor. The Last Tenet Imposed Upon the Khan of Toma- 



e, and Edward Payson Jackson : Conduct as 



The New Rehgi( 



;ws of Daily Conduct 3098 

I Gospel of Love 3390 



Haeckel'F, Professor, Anthropogeny 3125 

Harney. George Julian 3214 

Harvard Graduates' Magazine, The 3494 

Haven, Rev. Theo. W. Natural Religion 3166 

Heinemann, Karl. Goethe's Mutter 3493 

Henry, M. Charles. Une transformation de I'orchestre 3341 

Hughes, Rev. Henrv. Principles of Natural and Supernatural Morals,.. 3253 

Hugo, Victor, Unpiiblished Manuscript by 344^ 

Jackson, Edward Payson. Character Building 3098 

Johnson, Francis Howe. What Is Reality? 3204 

Jones, Jenkin Lloyd. Great Hopes for Great Souls 3238 



Longshore, Thomas Ellwood. The Higher Criticism in Theology and 
Religion Contrasted with Ancient Myths and Miracles as Factors in 

Human Evolution, and Other Essays on Reform 3382 

Lowell, James Russell, Last Poem by 3126 

Lubbock, Sir John. The Beauties of Nature and the Wonders of the 

World We' Live In 3454 

Markham, Clements R. A History of Peru 3374 

Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence 3374 

Medlicott. Henry Benedict. The Evolution of Mind in Man 3382 

McCrie. George M. Sadducee versus Pharisee 3342 

McCrie, George M. Further Reliques of Constance Naden 3142 

Monism and Agnosticism 3478 



Naden's, 
Old Test: 



, ■World-Sche 



PAGE 

, Paul. Le pessimisme Hindou 3382 

On the Heights 3494 

Parsons, Eugene. Tennyson's Life and Poetry 3310 

Patten, Simon N. The Theory of Dynamic Economics 3270 

Peirce, Charles S. On the Methods of Reasoning 3374 

Prince, John T. Methods of Instruction and Organisation in the Ger- 
man Schools 3190 

Prize Essays, Three 3238 

Professor and Other Poems, The 3261 

Psychical Research, Value of the Work Done by the Society for 3350 

Pushed by Unseen Hands 3206 

Religious Truth 3326 

Reunion Conferences 3349 

Romanes, Prof. George John. Darwin and After Darwin 3286 

Saladin. The Whirlwind Sown and Reaped ^150 

Sand, Sketches from George 3494 

Seyler, Clarence H. Evolutionary Ethics 3149 

Sketches from George Sand 3494 

Smith, James C. The Distribution of the Produce 3254 

Societies for Ethical Culture , 3198 

Springer, William M. Tariff Reform the Paramount Issue 3414 

Starr, Louis. Hygiene of the Nursery 3150 

Sterne, Cams. Natur und Kunst 3454 



Suttner, Baronin Bertha \ 



3182 



Taylor, F. M. The Right of the State to Be 3141 

Traubel, Horace L. At the Graveside of Walt Whitman 3462 

Treason, The Law of 3430 

Trumbull, M. M. The Free Trade Struggle in England 3341 

Turner, Prof. J. B. The Only Good Thing in All the Worlds 3205 

Turner's Book, Professor : 3229 



Urania of Berlii 
Voysey, Charles 



ally Illustrated by Watson Heston. 



The 3246 

Lecture on the Bible 3262 

3494 Whittier, John G 3438 • 

Woman, Emancipation of 3342 

3190 Wood, Henry. God's Image in Man 3326 



The Open Court. 



A WEEKLV JOURNAI. 



LIB'. RY . 
. CHICAGO I npvnfPd to the Work of Conciliating Religion with Science. 



No. 228. (Vol. VI.— I.) 



CHICAGO, JANUARY 7, 1892. 



( Two Dollars per Year. 
\ Single Copies, 5 Cents. 



Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



REVOLUTIONS, AND ORACLES OF REASON. 



BY MONCURE D. CONWAY. 



The finest scene of the Oberammergau Passion 
Play last year was the struggle of Pilate with a re- 
ligious mob. He had nearly mastered them when a 
priest cried, "If thou release this man thou art not 
Caesar's friend." From that moment Pilate's efforts 
to save Jesus are personal ; officially Jesus is surren- 
dered. Caesar's representative faces the fact that, in 
Judea, Caesarism rests on the same foundation with 
Jahvism. Jesus~~ had, indeed, suggested the buttress 
of the Roman throne when he said to Pilate, the mo- 
ment before, "Thou wouldst have no power against 
me except it were given thee from above." This be- 
lief that Roman supremac)' could be established there 
only by Jehovah's decree was more potent than any 
army to defend Pilate's authority ; he could not shake 
the religious superstition without endangering the ar- 
bitrary political order. And from that day to this, — 
when the Queen of England is the official head 
of Brahmanism, Mohammedanism, Presbyterianism, 
Episcopacy in their several localities, — how many 
monarchs have officially sanctioned consecrated sys- 
tems they unofficially abhorred ! 

Authority leans on authority. No power not based 
on the popular will can stand alone. Such is the tes- 
timony of all the revolutions. It is still a question 
whether the French Revolution, a hundred years ago, 
was chiefly due to the overthrow of spiritual authority. 
Buckle points out that for nearly forty years before 
that event the government had been trying to subdue 
the besiegers of religious authority. "Among those 
who suffered either confiscation, or imprisonment, or 
exile, or fines, or the suppression of their works, or 
the ignominy of being forced to recant what they had 
written, I find, besides a host of inferior writers, the 
names of Beaumarchais, Berruyer, Bougeant, Buffon, 
D'Alembert, Diderot, Duclos, Freret, Helvetius, La 
Harpe, Linguet, Mably, Marmontel, Montesquieu, 
Mercier, Morellet, Raynal, Rousseau, Suard, Thomas, 
and Voltaire." He thinks that the violence of the 
French Revolution may be largely ascribed to the 
overthrow of spiritual authority before the secular au- 
thority was attacked. But a contemporary French 



writer, F^lix Rocquain, has, in his " L'Esprit revolu- 
tionaire avant la Revolution," concluded that the po- 
litical regime was already shaken before the philoso- 
phers arose. This book has just been condensed and 
translated by Miss Hunting, in London. In an in- 
troduction to it Professor Huxley says : " It can hardly 
be doubted that the Revolution of '89 owed many of 
its worst features to the violence of a populace de- 
graded to the level of beasts by the effect of the in- 
stitutions under which they herded together and 
starved ; and that the work of reconstruction which it 
attempted was to carry into practice the speculations 
of Malby and of Rousseau. But, just as little does it 
seem open to question, that neither the writhings of 
the dregs of the populace in their misery, nor the 
speculative demonstrations of the Philosophers, would 
have come to much except for the revolutionary move- 
ment which had been going on ever since the begin- 
ning of the century." My own impression is that the 
two authorities, the secular and the spiritual, were 
alternately weakened in France, and that when at 
length, in 1791, the throne tried to save itself by sur- 
rendering its superstitious basis, its political support 
was proved to be equally superstitious. Hereditary 
authority could find no sanction in reason, but only in 
an assumed divine favoritism for a particular family. 
The Revolution of i588 in England, by the secular 
arm transferring the throne from one family to an- 
other, brought the monarchical superstition into doubt, 
and straightwayChristianity itself was shaken. One hun- 
dred years before Thomas Paine's "Age of Reason, "ap- 
pearedCharlesBlount's" Oracles of Reason. " "Blount, " 
says Macauley, "was an infidel, and the head of a 
small school of infidels who were troubled with a mor- 
bid desire to make converts. He translated from the 
Latin translation part of the Life of Apollonius of 
Tyana, and appended notes of which the flippant pro- 
faneness called forth the severe censure of an unbe- 
liever of a very different order, the illustrious Bayle. 
Blount also attacked Christianity in several original 
treatises. . . . His delight was to worry the priests by 
asking them how light existed before the sun was 
made, how Paradise could be bounded by Pison, 
Gibon, Hiddekel and Euphrates, how serpents moved 



3o88 



THE OPEN COURT. 



before they were condemned to crawl, and where Eve 
found thread to stitch her figleaves." To Blount Ma- 
cauley attributes the emancipation of the press in 
England. 

The very year after the close of the American 
Revolution appeared Ethan Allen's "Oracles of Rea- 
son." In this country the royalist superstition had been 
much stronger than inEngland. It was somewhat shaken 
by the rebellion against the Stamp Act (1763) and 
even that preface to the Revolution was attended by 
the related insurrection of Unitarianism and Univer- 
salism. But when the British throne on this continent 
lay in fragments the creeds inherited from the same 
region and regime were shaken, and a spiritual Dec- 
laration of Independence became inevitable. Before 
the Revolution, Thomas Paine had made his strongest 
point against monarchy from the Bible, expounding 
through five pages of "Common-Sense" the anger of 
Jehovah, in the time of Samuel, because the Israelites 
asked for a king. That was in 1776 ; in 1783 such an 
argument would have been smiled at. 

It is a circumstance at once picturesque and sig- 
nificant that the first American manifesto against the 
throne of Christianity should come from Ethan Allen. 
He was born (1742) in Connecticut but brought up in 
Vermont, where his youth was nursed on the vehe- 
ment disputes of that colony with adjacent states con- 
cerning their boundaries. The troubles all grew out 
of the conflicting grants of Charles II., and Ethan 
Allen's faith in royalty was early shaken. He was the 
leader of the forces that defended Vermont from New 
York. When that internal struggle was suspended 
by the breaking out of the Revolution, Ethan Allen, 
at the head of his "Green Mountain Boys" appeared 
(May 10, 1775) before Fort Ticonderoga, and de- 
manded its surrender "in the name of Jehovah and 
the Continental Congress." By this capture he gained 
great fame. He was captured in the expedition to 
Canada, suffered exceptional hardships during his im- 
prisonment on a prison-ship at New York, where he 
was exchanged in 1778. The disturbances in Vermont 
were renewed, and the English tried to foment the in- 
tercolonial strife. With this view a leading Tory of 
this region, Beverley Robinson, made tempting offers 
to Ethan Allen, who, by pretending to listen to them, 
secured the Vermonters from molestation by the Eng- 
lish. He died at Burlington, Vermont, in 1789. 

In looking through the secret archives of England 
I noted severe invectives agains.t Ethan Allen, for his 
general wickedness. His main sins, however, were 
that he surprised Ticonderoga, outwitted the British 
agents who tried to bribe him, and wrote the " Oracles 
of Reason." In America his memory has met with a 
memorable neglect ; for the King of kings has long 
kept an oubliette for revolutionists who include his 



crown with those of his subordinates. It has been 
traditionally understood that Ethan Allen's book was 
a mere boisterous assertion of "infidel" commonplaces, 
and the book has been quietly allowed to lapse into 
extinction, I myself had this impression, and never 
until lately searched out the^ork. For this I now do 
penance. I sought it out less on its own or its author's 
account than on Paine's ; for in a privately circulated 
"Account of Arnold's Campaign against Quebec," 
found among the MSS. of John Joseph Henry, it is 
stated that the "Age of Reason " was plagiarised from 
the " Oracles of Reason. " After much effort I have 
got hold of a copy of Ethan Allen's book, and found 
that there is no foundation for the statement of Paine's 
relentless orthodox accuser. But I have found more; 
namely, that Ethan Allen's work is the calm, medita- 
tive, philosophical inquiry of a religious and vigorous 
mind. In another paper I shall give some particular 
account of the volume, now rare even in public libra- 
ries. I here content myself with an extract from its 
preface. This is dated July 2, 17S2, showing that the 
book was written during the revolutionary storms, al- 
beit as quiet and self-restrained as if in a time of uni- 
versal peace. 

" In my youth I was much disposed to contemplation, and at 
my commencement in manhood I committed to manuscript such 
sentiments or arguments as appeared most consonant to reason, 
least through the debility of memory my improvement should have 
been less gradual: This method of scribbling I practised for many 
years, from which I experienced great advantages in the progres- 
sion of learning and knowledge, the more so as I was deficient in 
education. . . . To remedy this defect I have substituted the most 
unwearied pains. . . . The Bible and a Dictionary have been the 
only books I have made use of, since I have been correcting my 
old manuscripts, and making the following composition ; though 
in these manuscripts I had copied sundry passages from certain 
authors, many years prior to the completion of the subsequent 
discourse, which the reader will find transcribed with proper quo- 
tations. ... If the arguments are rightly stated, and the inferences 
justly drawn, they will stand the test of truth, although they do 
not come recommended to the public with the prelude of TJius 
sailh Ihc Loidr 

It will be remembered that when Paine wrote the 
"Age of Reason," Part First, in Paris he could not 
get hold even of a Bible. But both he and Ethan 
Allen had 'the scriptures graven in their memories, 
and had revised them in the light of the Revolutions, 
which also secured them freedom of utterance. 

" Soon after I had published ' Common Sense,' " writes Paine, 
" I saw the exceeding probability that a revolution in the system 
of government would be followed by a revolution in the system of 
religion. The adulterous connection of Church and state, wher- 
ever it had taken place, had so effectually prohibited by pains and 
penalties every discussion upon established creeds, and upon first 
principles of religion, that until the system of government should 
be changed those subjects could not be brought fairly and openly 
before the world ; but that whenever this should be done a revo- 
lution in the system of religion would follow." 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3089 



Paine perfectly recognised the generation of nega- 
tions which preceded him ; but his idea of revohition 
was constructive ; his book was written to build up 
Deism, and he founded the first ethical-deistic society 
in Christendom, — the "Theophilanthropical Society 
of Paris." Ethan Ellen, as we shall see, also aimed 
to be constructive. 



MORAL INSTINCTS. 

BY FELIX L. OSWALD. 

The defenders of Dualism have, with rare excep- 
tions, consented to assume any degree of inconsistency 
in the working-plan of their demiiirgus, in order to give 
themselves the benefit of a doubt in any mooted, or 
moocable, question. After being obliged to surrender 
to the arguments of uniformism in geology, they re- 
mained catastrophists in biology. When the hypothesis 
of special creation became untenable in the zoological 
sense, they tried to vindicate it, first in behalf of the 
human mind, and subsequently of man's moral nature, 
as distinguished from his intellectual faculties. 

And yet unbiassed observers can hardly ever have 
entertained a doubt that the moral, as well as the 
mental, characteristics of our species have their germs 
in the instincts of the animal soul. Maternal love, 
which the Cynic Helvetius pretended to trace to the 
"mutual benefit association of a child needing milk 
and a mother wishing to reduce a surplus of it," as- 
sumes a very different phase, even in animals<of such 
comparatively low development as the smaller rodents. 
The little harvest mouse {Mus minitus) will run after 
the despoiler of her nest, and the common flying 
squirrel will risk its life six times over in order to res- 
cue its young from the very hands of their captor, and 
carry them, one by one, to a safe hiding-place in the 
top of a hollow tree. Without the "stimulus of pleth- 
oric mammary glands," brood-birds will fling them- 
selves directly in the path of an intruder, in order to 
divert his attention from their nest. The European 
field-lark and several species of North American par- 
tridges frequently come to grief in trying that strata- 
gem on cats, and I have twice seen a spaniel catch 
birds that had deliberately braved that risk by simulat- 
ing lameness, and fluttering along slowly, as if with 
crippled wings and with the peculiar squeaking cry of 
a half-fledged nestling. 

In several species of quadrumana that instinct of 
self-sacrifice becomes altruism, in a much wider sense. 
The South African Chacma-baboon and several of its 
congeners will rush instantly to the rescue of a wounded 
companion, and in captivity often protect helpless 
animals of all sorts and run considerable risks in try- 
ing to prevent acts of real or apparent cruelty. I have 
for years owned a female babuin or dwarf-baboon that 
seems unable to witness a dog- fight or a scuffle of 



schoolboys (who often enact sham- battles for her spe- 
cial benefit) without trying to part the combatants. 
One winter I kept her in a kitchen, next cage to a 
family of opossums that occasionally paid her a neigh- 
borly visit, the younger marsupials being able to crawl 
out of their wire door, and at such times the mere 
sight of a dog threw her in a state of indescribable 
agitation. She would rush to and fro with shrieks in- 
tended to attract the attention of a human protector 
or to warn the objects of her solicitude, and when a 
hound once really made a rush for one of the juvenile 
ringtails scampering about the floor she managed to 
snatch it up in the nick of time and drag it in through 
the bars of her own cage, where she insisted on de- 
taining it till the danger was past. The distress of 
any small fellow-creature, but especially of a young 
mammal, at once enlists her sympathy, and she will 
sit for hours nursing a lame rabbit or a crippled rat. 

That sympathetic propensity is not limited to the 
females of the species. A large male mandrill in the 
zoological garden of Cincinnati used to assume the 
role of protector in chief of his small fellow-prisoners. 
Five of them were Asiatic fourhanders of the species 
known as macaques, not special friends of the grim- 
visaged African, but in their frequent family-feuds the 
worsted parties were almost sure to throw themselves 
on his generosity by clinging to his hind feet. On 
such occasions he would back into a corner, proteg^ 
and all, and bristle up at the approach of all comers 
till time seemed to have assuaged the vindictive pas- 
sions. 

The "Gorilla" or " Lion- Killer, " advertised by 
the proprietor of a traveling circus, proved to be a 
mane-baboon {Cynocephalus Geladd), a surly and rather 
silent old male ; but the same establishment carried 
another misnomer: a " Happy Family " of wretched 
dogs, foxes, prairie-wolves, cats, and raccoons. One 
young poodle seemed to be especially out of place in 
the rough-and-tumble fights of that heterogenous as- 
sembly, and in the midst of a general melee the yelps 
of the poor puppy were often answered by the protest- 
ing whoop of the "gorilla" : a sort of coughing roar, 
accompanied by a violent rattle of iron bars and other 
emphatic demonstrations of the would-be peace-maker. 

The theory of "special endowment" might, of 
course, be applied to such instincts as well as to the 
sympathetic emotions of human altruists, but it is 
highly probable that both have been as naturally 
evolved as the instinct of philoprogenitiveness or the 
faculty of direction manifested in dogs and migratory 
birds. The fellow-feeling of our fourhanded relatives 
may now and then lead to the sacrifice of individuals, 
but oh the whole, its activity must have given the tribe 
a great advantage over less altruistic rivals. 

In domestic animals the artificial instincts devel 



3090 



THE OPEN COURT. 



oped by the influence of habit can assume a form not 
easy to distinguish from that "sense of duty" which 
dualists often claim as an exclusively human faculty. 
Relay-horses, released at the top of an up-grade 
street, will trudge back to their starting point — pos- 
sibly to avoid the persuasive expedients of an irate 
driver, whom they know to be near, if not actually in 
sight. It is also possible that hunting-dogs perform 
their functions as a superlative pleasure rather than as 
an irksome duty, but that explanation can hardly be 
applied to the toils of a shepherd-dog driving a troop 
of refractory sheep along a dusty road in the noon- 
hour heat of a summerday. Opposite a ferry-landing 
in a city of the Ohio Valley there is a tavern where 
the dogs, as well as the crew of the ferry-boat are now 
and then treated to a liberal lunch ; but in the midst 
of such repasts one of the dogs will often rush out in 
wind and weather to volunteer his assistance in the 
embarcation of pigs or cows. Experience has con- 
vinced him that an associate cur will not fail to take 
advantage of his absence, and a tussle with an obstrep- 
erous sow snapping away left and right or rolling in a 
mixture of sleet and mud, can hardly be included 
among the amenities of canine life, but neither frost 
nor hunger ever prevent that dog from leaving an un- 
finished meal at the first sound of a drover's shout, 
and often without the least monition on the part of 
his master, who at that moment may be sitting behind 
the tavern- stove, smoking his pipe in neutral silence. 

Phrenologists recognise an instinct of "acquisi- 
tiveness" that can be trusted to exert its influence 
without the aid of training, but in many animals of 
the colder latitudes that propensity will even assert it- 
self under circumstances involving the necessity of 
considerable self-denial. At certain times of the year 
squirrels, hamsters and wood-rats will forage from 
morning till night, heedless of temporary hunger, to 
lay in stores for the season of darkness and cold. A 
pair of California spermophiles ("ground-squirrels," 
as they call them in the San Joaquin valley) was found 
to have thus gathered a peck of grain and a peck and 
a half of walnuts, all of which had been pilfered from 
a plantation at a distance of a mile and a quarter, and 
must have involved at least four hundred round-trips. 
The first ripe nuts could not have been found more 
than a week before, and during that time the little tithe 
collectors could hardly have indulged themselves with 
a five-minutes recess for dinner. That instinct, too, 
has, no doubt, been evolved by a process of natural 
selection, but in which particular can it be said to 
differ from the Utilitarian "virtue of foresight, that 
foregoes a temporary gratification and voluntarily un- 
dergoes temporary hardships, in order to secure a fu- 
ture greater benefit, or avoid a future greater evil?" 

That animals have a sense of justice and of pro- 



prietary rights is proved by their prompt rebellion 
against wanton aggression and the violation of their do- 
mestic sanctuaries. A dog surprised in a flagrant 
transgression will put up with a good deal of rough 
usage from the same persons which he would visit with 
the immediate penalties of the lex talionis if they 
should outrage his sense of fair-dealing by an unpro- 
voked attack. The little fly-catchers (tnuscicapa) that 
could hardly cope with an English sparrow, will not 
hesitate to charge a hawk they happen to see prowling 
in the neighborhood of their nests, and in those acts 
of self-defense they are frequently aided by such birds 
as crows, that have no individual apprehensions from 
the rapacity of the robber and can therefore hardly be 
supposed to attack him as a common enemy, but who 
appear to join in the hue and cry on general principles. 



A MODERN VIEW OF GHOSTS.* 



BY ALICE BODINGTON. 



' In that sleep of death what dreams may co 
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil. 



" What world, and what vast regions hold 
The immortal mind that hath forsook 
Her mansion in this fleshly nook." 

Milton. 

In the observation of phenomena the majority of 
mankind have commonly been in the right ; in the in- 
terpretation of phenomena they have commonly been 
in the wrong. We can take no more pertinent instance 
than the apparent course of the sun through the sky 
from east to west ; no fact could be to all appearance 
more firmly established than this, yet of course the in- 
terpretation of the fact was the very reverse of the 
truth. Again and again have popular beliefs been 
ridiculed ; have been proved to be utterly absurd and 
triumphantly slain ; only to raise their heads again 
with renewed vitality, and force fresh inquiry from 
sheer impudence in asserting themselves. No atti- 
tude of mind is more absolutely unscientific than that 
which refuses to receive fresh evidence on any sub- 
ject, lest that evidence should clash with preconceived 
opinions. Again and again this attitude of mind has 
retarded the advance of truth ; as when preconceived 
opinions as to the age of the world and the date of the 
first appearance of man, caused all evidence as to the 
real antiquity of the human race to be thrown aside 
with scorn, and thus retarded the science of anthro- 
pology for a century. In the same manner was phi- 
lology unable to quit the empirical stage, whilst the 
minds of students were influenced by the preconceived 

* We do not agree with the " modern view of ghosts " as taken by Mrs. 
Alice Bodington, yet we have accepted her article for publication, so that our 
readers may have the benefit of having the arguments that can be brought forth 
in favor of the objective reality of ghosts collected and presented by an author 
of scientific as well as literary repute. An editorial on the same subject pre- 
senting the other side of the case will appear in the next number of The Open 
Court. — Editor. 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3091 



idea that Hebrew was the primajval language ; and 
the science of zoology was blocked in its advance by 
preconceived ideas as to special creation and fixity of 
species. In the course of inquiry preceding the true 
interpretation of phenomena, it frequently happens 
that the grain of truth in popular belief is so overlaid 
with falsities, absurdities, and charlatanism, that sci- 
entific inquirers reject the whole mass with disgust, 
the falsities and absurdities with their attendant char- 
latanism and the grain of truth with them. In this 
case the grain of truth proves as tenacious of life as 
that long buried grain of Egyptian wheat of which 
the lapse of centuries had not destroyed the vitality. 
Just at the moment that the scientific world believed 
that all the tales as to demoniacal possession, stigmata, 
faith healing, electro-magnetism, table turning, mes- 
merism, and above all — ghosts, had been relegated for 
ever and ever to the limits of exploded absurdities, 
the whole class of subjects begins to pass under the 
reign of law and to enter true scientific ground, under 
the guidance of modern psychology. The term su- 
pernatural may be at once discarded for the whole 
class, since nothing can be above nature, unless we 
imagine the Supreme Being Himself to be so ; every 
phenomenon must be natural and under the guidance 
of unswerving laws ; whilst at the same time the num- 
ber of phenomena of which the laws are unknown to 
us may be very great. 

Only after throwing up these defensive breast- 
works which I fear may prove ineffective, in such a 
desperate cause, do I venture to say that the evidence 
in favor of some form of energy persisting after death 
appears to me conclusive. We are on ground which 
science is only beginning to explore, but in the re- 
searches of modern psychology we have a slender clue 
to aid us. As in the case of the apparent path of the 
sun in the heavens, popular evidence may [under cer- 
tain strict limitations] be accepted as right, whilst 
popular interpretation has been wrong. To quote the 
words of one, amongst a band of scientific workers 
who have devoted themselves to the elucidation of 
this question, Mr. F. W. H. Myers: "The popular 
"view regards a 'ghost' as a deceased person, per- 
" mitted by Providence to hold communication with 
"survivors. This short definition contains-, I think, 
"at best three unwarrantable suppositions. In the 
"first place such words as permission and Providence 
"are simply neither more nor less applicable to this 
"phenomenon than to any other. We conceive that 
"all phenomena alike take place in accordance with 
"the laws of the universe ; — and consequently by per- 
" mission of the Supreme power in the universe. . . . 
•'But there is no reason whatever for assuming that 
"they are permitted in any special sense of their own, 
"or that they form exceptions to law instead of being 



"exemplifications of law. If we attempt to find in 
"these phenomena any poetical justice, or manifest 
"adaptation to human cravings we shair be just as 
"much disappointed as if we endeavored to find a 
"similar satisfaction in the ordinary course of terrene 
" history. 

" In the second place, we have no warrant for the 
"assumption that the phantom seen, even though it 
"be somehow caused by a deceased person, is that 
" deceased person, in any ordinary sense of the word. 
"Instead of appealing to the crude analogy of the 
"living friend who, when he has walked into the room 
"is in the room, we shall find for the 'ghost' a much 
" closer parallel in those hallucinatory figures or phan- 
" tasms which living persons can sometimes project to 
"a distance. When Baron von Notzing, for example, 
"caused by an effort of will an apparition of himself 
" to a waking percipient, out of sight, he was himself 
"awake and conscious in the place where, not his 
"phantom, but his body stood. Whatever then that 
"phantom was, however generated or conditioned, it 
"was not Iiimself. Instead of describing a 'ghost' as 
"a dead person permitted to communicate with the 
"living, let us define it as a manifestation of personal 
"energy, or as an indication tliat some kind of force is 
"being exercised after deat/i." When we reflect that 
apparitions are observed as clotlied, as the phantom 
which usurped " that fair and warlike form " in which 
"the majesty of buried Denmark did sometimes 
"march," was beheld by Horatio "in the very armor 
"he had on, when he the ambitious Norway com- 
" bated, " we have conclusive proof that objective 
vision has nothing to do with the matter, but that 
whatever be the interpretation of the phenomena the 
effect is a mental one an impression of mind upon 
mind, which impression appears as projected into outer 
space. For a long time the argument that "there can 
"be no ghosts of clothes" settled the argument as to 
apparitions as far as I was concerned ; so unanswer- 
able did it appear. But as it is contrary to the whole 
habit of my mind to shelve awkward facts, I was again 
and again met by statements which according to the 
ordinary laws of evidence could not be set aside as 
having no foundation ; and which appeared to me to 
be more directly explained by the supposition of some 
energy existing after death, than as being caused by 
dreams or hallucination. Before proceeding to give 
an abstract of some of the cases of post mortem appear- 
ances given by Mr. Myers, I will give the description of 
such an appearance, as related to me by the percipient, 
in the presence of her husband. That an impression 
was produced in some manner by one mind upon an- 
other was the conviction then forced upon me, whilst 
at the same time the conviction was equally strong 
that the impression was purely subjective. Not only. 



3092 



THE OPEN COURT. 



as will be seen, were there ''ghosts of clothes," but of 
three different persons' clothes, one of these persons 
being dead and two others alive. I had been residing 
for some months with a naval official and his wife, 
Capt. and Mrs. R. near a seaport town in the South of 
England. Mrs. R. was a woman devoted to house- 
hold pursuits, a model of quiet common sense and in- 
dustry. One afternoon as I sat in their drawing room 
with Mrs. R. and her husband the conversation 
turned upon the subject of appearances after death, 
and I remarked that the evidence seemed to me irre- 
sistible that such appearances were possible. Mrs. 
R. hesitated a little while, then looked towards her 
husband, and said, "Now I know you will not laugh 
" at me, I should like to tell you something that hap- 
" pened to me." The substance of her story was as 
follows : She was living in Spain with her brother at 
the time of her marriage with Capt. R. His first 
wife had died about a year previously, leaving a baby 
boy who had been placed out at nurse. When Capt. 
R. and his second wife returned to England, the nurse 
to whom the baby had been confided had disappeared, 
and could nowhere be traced, to the great distress of 
the father. Before rejoining his ship Capt. R. and 
his wife went to London, where they occupied fur- 
nished lodgings. The rooms were so arranged, that 
access to the bedroom could only be attained through 
the sitting room, there was no second door. Mrs. R. 
informed me that she awoke one night and observed 
that the fire was still burning brightly in the sitting- 
room, and at the same time she felt a consciousness 
that some one was there. As she looked at the door 
she saw a very beautiful lady enter the bedroom, ac- 
companied by a poorly dressed woman carrying in her 
arms a child in a yellow pelisse. The lady came up 
to the side of the bed, and smiling said to Mrs. R. : 
" This is Johnny ; you will know Johnny again. She 
turned as she spoke [or seemed to speak] and pointed 
to the woman and child, and in a second the whole 
vision had vanished. So realistic had it been that Mrs. 
R. turned to see if there were any other possible mode 
of exit than the sitting room door, but there was none. 
She then awoke her husband, and told him what she 
had seen. He said, "I do not know what it means, 
" but you have exactly described my first wife." Mrs. 
R. tried to divert her thoughts from what she endeav- 
ored to convince herself must have been a dream. 
Some days after she and her husband visited West- 
minster Abbey, and on their return endeavoring to 
take a short cut, they lost their way in one of the nar- 
row streets that abound in that neighborhood. Sud- 
denly Mrs. R. said to her husband, "That is the 
woman I saw, and that is the baby." Coming towards 
them in fact was a poorly dressed woman carr3'ing a 
child wearing a yellow pelisse. Capt. R. advised 



caution, but in passing the woman he said, "That 
"seems a fine little boj' of yours." "I wish I could 
"find them he belongs to," said the woman ; "he 
"isn't mine, his father is an officer in the navy." Fi- 
nally, whether wisely or unwisely, they decided to 
take the child solely — as I understood — on the strange 
evidence of the words, "This is Johnny; you will 
"know Johnny again." The baby of the yellow pe- 
lisse grew up, and himself entered the navy, and at 
the time his stepmother told me the story she was 
wearing mourning for him. One stormy night he had 
fallen from the mast and was never seen again. It is 
a fanciful notion, but one would like to think the 
mother found her boy again when he was lost to earthly 
eyes forever. 

The phenomena of hypnotism give one a clue to 
the explanation of part of this story, since nothing can ■ 
be easier than to impress a given subject with the 
hallucination that he or she sees or hears everything 
the experimenter chooses to suggest. The conviction 
of certainty in the subject's mind as to what he or she 
has heard or seen is absolute ; though everyone else 
knows the impression has been purely mental, the 
subject is sure of its objective nature. One new fac- 
tor is introduced into otherwise familiar everyday phe- 
nomena, that the experimenter in this case was no 
longer in the flesh, and that the influence was one of 
mind upon mind, in a more absolute sense than most 
people will at present allow to be possible. But as 
after all, however closely and intimately mind or con- 
sciousness is bound up with the physical brain, it can- 
not itself be termed matter by the most materialistic. 
We may conceive that mind conceived as energy can 
work according to some determined but unknown law, 
without the intervention of matter. Just as a man re- 
siding in a house must either look out of the windows 
and doors, or not see and be seen at all ; yet if he is 
out of the house he becomes quite independent of its 
conditions, its door and its windows, in manifesting 
himself to the world. So may mind as forming part 
of the Universal Mind be subject to the conditions of 
matter in all its manifestations wliilst in the flesh, but 
may rise above these conditions when it has cast off 
"the body of this death." I know not: the path to 
this knowledge has ever been dark to mortals, and 
flickering and deceptive have been the tapers by which 
men have sought to illuminate it. Light may be at 
hand ; we see perhaps the faint gleam which will lead 
us into a brighter day. 

I will now give an account of some of the more re- 
markable stories given by Mr. Myers ; premising that 
none are admitted by the Society for Psychical Re- 
search except such as are signed by the percipients 
and attested to as genuine signatures by their friends. 
Moreover many of the appearances recorded are ab- 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3093 



solutely purposeless and one may say senseless ; some 
appear — again to borrow analogies from hypnotic phe- 
nomena — as emanating from the mind of the highest 
self; others as "dead men's dreams " of the second 
self, persistent yet purposeless. The first "ghost" 
story I will mention, whilst pleasant and satisfactory 
as a story, seems to me the most open to interpreta- 
tation as an hallucination, resulting from agitation and 
distress of mind in the dreamer. But it must be re- 
membered that whilst we often appear to ourselves to 
awake in a dream, whilst we are still asleep and con- 
tinuing the dream, we are always conscious of the real 
toakiitg. In this case the percipient felt ccmscious of 
being awake from first to last. Mrs. P. lost her father, 
to whom she was fondl}' attached, very suddenly ; she 
had left home to recruit her health, and on her return 
found she was too late ever to behold her father again 
alive. Mrs. P. says that she "shared the room of a 
" motherly looking personage, whom I supposed to be 
"my cousin's nurse. She occupied the larger bed in 
"the room, and I a similar one placed at some dis- 
" tance from hers. She was soon asleep, but I was 
"lying in deepest anguish, beset not only with grief 
"at the sudden loss sustained but with the wretched 
"fear that my beloved father had died too suddenly 
"to find peace with God. ... As the night wore on, 
" the pain of heart and thought grew worse and worse, 
"and at length I knelt in prayer, earnestly pleading 
"'that my distressful thoughts might be taken away, 
" and an assurance of my father's peace be given me. 
" No immediate relief came however, and it was early 
" dawn when I rose from my knees. . . . Now a longing 
"suddenly seized me to creep into that kind-faced 
"woman's bed, and to feel perhaps less lonely there. 
" Her bed was opposite a window, over which a white 
" blind was drawn, and as I softly lifted the bedclothes 
" and sat for a moment after drawing my feet up into 
" the bed, I noticed the pale dawn feebly lighting the 
"window, and the movement of a little bird on the 
"sill outside; but the room itself was as j'et almost 
" dark. 

" I was just about to slip quietly down into the 
" bed when on the opposite side of it (that on which 
"the nurse was sleeping) the room became suddenly 
" full of beautiful light, in the midst of which stood my 
"father absolutely transfigured, clothed with bright- 
" ness. He slowly moved towards the bed, raising 
"his hands as I thought, to clasp me in his arms, and 
" I ejaculated : " Father ! " he replied "Blessed for- 
"ever my child, forever blessed ! " I moved to climb 
"over the nurse and kiss him, reaching out my arms 
" to him, but with a look of mingled sadness and love, 
" he appeared to float back with the light towards the 
" wall and was gone ! The vision occupied so short a 
"time that, glancing involuntarily at the window again 



"I saw the morning dawn and the little bird just as 
" they had looked a few minutes before. I felt sure 
"that God had vouchsafed to me a wonderful vision 
" and was not in the least afraid, but on the contrary 
"full of a joy that brought floods of grateful tears and 
"completely removed all anguish except that of hav- 
"lost my father from earth. I offer no explanation 
"and can only say most simply and truthfully that it 
" all happened just as I have related." 

Taken by itself this case — beautiful as a story — 
easily comes under the head of self-suggestion during 
religious excitement. But the next case related by 
the same percipient cannot possibly come under this 
head, the phantasm — however caused — having been 
seen by both the lady and her husband, at a time when 
Mrs. P.'s thoughts were happily occupied with the 
care of a baby girl. The baby, Gertrude usually woke 
about half past nine, and Mrs. P. having put every- 
thing ready for the night, wrapped herself up in a 
dressing gown and waited till the little one should 
wake for her supper, "thinking of nothing," she says, 
"but the arrangement for the following day. When 
"to my great astonishment, I saw a gentleman stand- 
"ing at the foot of the bed, dressed as a naval officer, 
"and with a cap on his head having a projecting 
"peak. The light being in the position 1 have indi- 
" cated,* the face was in shadow to me, and the more 
" so that the visitor was leaning upon his arms, which 
"rested on the foot- rail of the bedstead. I was too 
"astonished to be afraid, but simply wondered who 
"it could be; and instantly touching my husband's 
"shoulder said, 'Willie, who is this?' My husband 
"turned, and for a second or two lay looking in in- 
" tense astonishment at the intruder; then lifting him- 
"self a little shouted 'What on earth are you doing 
"here, Sir?' Meanwhile the form, slowly drawing 
"himself into an upright position, said in a command- 
"ing yet reproachful voice 'Willie ! Willie !' I looked 
"at my husband, and saw that his face was white and 
"agitated. . . . He sprang out of bed as if to attack 
"the man, but stood by the bedside as if half afraid, 
"or in great perplexity, while the figure slowly moved 
"towards the wall. As it passed the lamp a deep 
"shadow, as if a material person shutting out the 
"light, fell upon the room, and he disappeared, as it 
" were, into the wall. My husband now in a very agi- 
" tated manner caught up the lamp, and turning to me 
"said 'I mean to look all over the house and see 
"where he is gone.' He unlocked the door, hastened. 
"out of the room, and was soon searching the whole 
"house. Sitting there in the dark, I thought to my- 
"self, 'We have surely seen an apparition ! Perhaps 
" my brother Arthur is m trouble ' (he was in the navy, 
"and at that time on a voyage to India). In some 

* A plan of the room and position of the furniture therein is given. 



3094 



THE OPEN COURT. 



" such way I pondered with an anxious heart . . . un- 
" til my husband came back looking very white and 
"miserable. 

"Sitting upon the bedside, he put his arm about 
"me and said, 'Do you know what we have seen?' 
"And I said 'Yes, it was a spirit. I am afraid it was 
"Arthur, but could not see his face,' — and he ex- 
" claimed 'Oh, no ! it was my father !' 

' ' My husband's father luxd been dead fourteen years ; 
"he had been a naval officer, but had left the service 
" before my husband was born, and the latter had only 
"once or twice seen him in uniform, /had never 
"seen him at all. My husband and I related the oc- 
" currence to my uncle and aunt, and we all noticed 
" that my husband's agitation and anxiety were very 
"great; whereas his usual manner was calm and 
"reserved in the extreme, and he was a thorough 
"and avowed sceptic in all — so-called — supernatural 
"events." Mr. P. in course of time informed his 
wife that at the moment the warning phantasm of his 
father appeared, he was inclined to take the advice of 
a man who would have led him to financial ruin; in- 
deed that he would have yielded to him had it not 
been for the warning voice. 

This is one of the few cases where the highest self 
of the deceased person appears actuated by a rational 
motive. The shadow cast, as by a solid body passing 
between the percipient and the light is paralleled by 
the experiences of hypnotic suggestion, where the sub- 
ject invests a purely imaginary object with all the 
characteristics it would have if it were objective. 

I will now proceed to a case, where not only was 
there no expectant attention, but there was not any 
consciousness of having seen a phantom, nor any pre- 
vious knowledge of the appearance of the deceased 
person, nor any purpose whatever in the appearance. 
If any motive at all can be attributed it is that vague 
consciousness of impending death by which the "pro- 
jectors" of these phantasms seem to be endowed. 

Madame de Gilibert, granddaughter of the Earl of 
Egerton, describes her experience as a little girl, when 
staying at Petworth, her grandfather's house. "My 
"grandfather's room was on the south side of a long 
"passage. . . . Opposite his door, on the north side of 
"the passage, was a swinging, red baize door, which 
"led to a corridor. This corridor had on one side 
"two doors, one of my mother's bedroom and the 
"other of my father's dressing room. On the other 
"side was a small staircase, leading to two rooms oc- 
" cupied by Garland, a superior servant, who took care 
"of my grandfather who was very old." Madame de 
Gilibert goes on to say, that they were all as children 
very fond of Garland, and in the habit of going to her 
rooms ; that one day she had been up to see Garland, 
and finding the latter had not returned from dinner. 



she proceeded to amuse herself by sliding down the 
stairs. Just as she was about to start she was sur- 
prised to see "a figure which came from the baize 
"door; a female figure in soft, clinging drapery, grey- 
"ish whitish, — some sort of shawl or kerchief crossed 
"over her bosom ; the features well-cut, delicate, and 
"of an aquiline type; but what struck me most was 
"the head dress or coif, which had lace lappets or 
"strings which, passing under the chin, were tied in 
"a bow on the top of the head. So many people did 
"go about the house that it never occurred to me to 
"be anything supernatural. But when the figure 
"glided past the two doors I have mentioned, a sort of 
"revulsion took place in me. I let myself slide down 
"the balustrade and rushed to stop her and tell her 
"there was 'no way out.' (There was a disused door, 
"which had been long blocked up.) I could not have 
"been five seconds behind the figure, but when I 
"reached the blocked door it was gone. I knew no 
"one could pass, but I ran round to the nurseries 
"with which the blocked door had communicated, 
' ' and asked the nurses if they had seen ' an old woman 
"in a white dressing gown and grey shawl, and lace 
" ribbons under her chin tied on the top of her head?" 
The nurses only laughed at the child and snubbed 
her, but Garland appeared vexed and scolded so that 
she was "shut up"; "Nevertheless," she continues, 
"I knew I could not account for it, and every detail 
"of dress, feature and gait is as vivid now as it was 
"at the time." Many years after Madame de Gilibert 
related the above narrative to her cousin Madame de 
Valmer, who had been brought up by her aunt, Lady 
Carnarvon. Madame de Valmer at once said, "My 
"dear, you have described your great aunt to the mi- 
" nutest item of her dress and appearance. She came, 
"you say, from the swing door leading to your grand- 
" father's room. She came to fetch her brother. He 
"died very soon after." In point of fact the nurseries 
with wiiich the disused door communicated had been Lady 
Carnarvon' s apartments, and she had died there. Mad- 
ame de Gilibert adds that the only portraits of Lady 
Carnarvon at Petworth represented her as a child ; 
and as a young woman whose brown hair was tied 
with a ribbon ; not in the least resembling the muffling 
head dress of the phantom. Another case is given re- 
lated by Miss Pearson, of 15 Fitzroy Square, W. C. 
(London) where three percipients beheld the grotesque 
figure of an old aunt who had died six years previously, 
and who seems to have been disturbed'from her re- 
pose — wherever it was — by the approaching death of 
a sister. "We saw," says Miss Pearson, "some one 
"pass the door, short, wrapped up in an old shawl, a 
" wig with three curls each side and an old black cap. 
"Mrs. Coppinger (a cousin) called out 'Emma, get 
"up, it is old Aunt Ann.' I said. So it is, then Aunt 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3095 



"Harriet will die to-day. We jumped up and Mrs. 
"John Pearson (a niece by marriage of Aunt Ann and 
"Aunt Harriet)came rushing out of Aunt Harriet's 
"room and said, 'That was old Aunt Ann.' No ex- 
" planation has ever been given of this appearance 
"except that it was old Aunt Ann come to call her 
"sister, and the latter died at 6 P. M. that day." Here 
two the of percipients were in one room, and the 
third in another room. And which of us, accustomed 
as we are to a misty idea of the dead as clothed in 
some kind of heavenly nightgown, could ever have had 
an expectant attention of a possible saint in glor}', in 
a wig with three curls and an old black cap? The 
very grotesqueness of the apparition conveys the con- 
viction to my mind that a personal influence conveyed, 
I know not how caused, a subjective vision of the dead, 
who appeared to herself in her habit as she lived, and 
raised a similar idea of herself in others. The first in- 
stance given by Mr. Myers of an apparition is related 
by a commercial traveler of Boston. Nothing could 
be more different to the ordinary Christmas ghost- 
story ; there was no motive in the appearance of the 
phantom, nor was it seen in the place where she died, 
nor did it follow any time-honored rule. But one 
slight incident connected with the apparition is most 
remarkable, and difScult, I think, to explain away on 
any other hypothesis than that the percipient was in- 
fluenced by his dead sister. Mr. F. G. relates that his 
only sister, to whom he was strongly attached, had 
died a year or so before the incident which follows. 
He says he had "drummed" the city of St. Joseph, 
Mo., very successfully, and had consequentl}' returned 
to his hotel in a thoroughly contented frame of mind. 
His thoughts were of his orders, and how pleased his 
house would be with their large amount. He con- 
tinues "whilst writing out my orders, I suddenly be- 
" came conscious that some one was sitting on my 
"left, with one arm resting on the table. Quick as a 
"flash I turned and distinctly saw the form of my 
" dead sister, and for a brief second or so looked her 
"squarely in the face; and so sure was I that it was 
"she, that I sprang forward in delight calling her by 
"name, and as I did so, the apparition suddenly van- 
" ished. . . . She appeared as if alive. Her eyes looked 
"kindly and naturally into mine." Mr. F. G. says 
that he was so much impressed with what had oc- 
curred that he took the next train home. His father, 
a man of strong good sense, was inclined to ridicule 
him. But when Mr. F. G. mentioned having dis- 
tinctly seen a " bright, red line or scratch " on his sis- 
ter's face, his mother rose trembling to her feet and 
nearly fainted away. As soon as she recovered her 
self-possession, she exclaimed with tears running down 
her face that he had indeed seen his sister, as no liv- 
ing mortal but herself was aware of that scratch, which 



she had accidentally made while doing some little act 
of kindness after her daughter's death. Neither Mr. 
F. G.'s father nor any of his family were aware of the 
incident, "yet," he says, ^"^ I saw the scratch as bright 
"as if Just made." A few weeks later the mother died, 
happy in the belief that she should rejoin her favorite 
daughter. A very curious instance is given of a strong 
and undoubtedly subjective impression, by Mrs. Pittar, 
a near connection of the Bishop of Ripon. Travelling 
in Switzerland in the year 1867, Mr. Pittar stayed at 
the Chateau de Prangias near Nyon, with her husband. 
They occupied a large, oblong room, overlooking the 
Terrace and Lake Leman, with an old fashioned black 
writing table in the middle of it. In the middle of 
the night Mrs. Pittar woke suddenly from a deep 
sleep, and saw the room was flooded with brilliant 
moonlight. A strange feeling possessed her, a "sort 
"of certainly, that a tall thin old man in a flowered 
"dressing gown was seated and writing at the table in 
"the middle of the room." Not once did she turn her 
head in that direction, nor did it occur to her at the 
time how odd it was that she felt the old man was 
there without seeing him ! Her cries woke her hus- 
band, who naturally thought she had had a night- 
mare, and could not understand his wife's persistent 
assertions that an old man in a flowered dressing gown 
was in the room. When at last he persuaded her to 
look, there was no one there. 

"Next morning," says Mrs. Pittar, "my husband 
"mentioned my extraordinary nocturnal terror; the 
"account, to my great surprise, was received as a 
"matter of course, the landlady's married daughter 
"merely remarking 'Ah, you have seen Voltaire.' It 
"appeared on inquiry, that Voltaire in extreme old 
"age used often to visit this Chateau, and the room 
" in which we slept was known to have been his sitting 
"room. Of this neither my husband nor myself knew 
"anything. I had not been thinking about Voltaire, 
"nor looking at any portrait of him." 

I will mention one more curiously purposeless ap- 
pearance. Mr. J. librarian in the X. library gave Mr. 
Myers the account vivd voce. He is personally known 
to the latter, and is widely known in the scientific 
world. The initials given are not the true ones. 

Mr. J. had succeeded a Mr. Q. as librarian of the 
X. library ; he had never seen his predecessor, nor 
any photograph or likeness of him. One evening he 
was hastily leaving the librarian's room in order to 
catch the last train. This room communicated by a 
passage with the main room of the library. As his 
lamp illumined this passage he thought he saw a man's 
face at the further end of it. He instantly thought a 
thief had got into the library ; went back to his room 
to fetch a revolver from the safe, and proceeded to the 
main room. "Here I saw no one," said Mr. J., " I 



3096 



THE OPEN COURT. 



"called out loudly to the intruder to show himself 
"several times, more with the hope of attracting a 
"poHceman than of drawing the intruder. Then I 
"saw a face looking round one of the bookcases. I 
"say looking routid, but it had an appearance as if the 
''body were in the bookcase, as the face came closely 
" to the edge, and I could see no body. The face was 
"pallid and hairless, and the orbits of the eyes were 
"very deep. I advanced towards it, and as I did so, 
" I saw an oid man with high shoulders seem to rotate 
"out of the end of the bookcase, and with his back 
" towards me and a shuffling gait walk rather quickly 
"from the bookcase to the door of a small lavatory, 
"which opened from the library, and had no other 
"access. I followed the man at once into the lava- 
" tory, and to my extreme surprise, found no one 
"there." (Mr. J. describes his minute examination 
of a place "where there was not even hiding for a 
child.") "Next morning I mentioned what I had seen 
" to a local clergyman, who, on hearing my descrip- 
" tion said, 'Why that's old Q ! ' Soon after I saw a 
"photograph, from a drawing of Q., and the resem- 
" blance was certainly striking. Q. had lost all his 
" hair, eyebrows and all, from (I believe) a gunpowder 
" accident. His walk had been a peculiar high-shoul- 
" dered shuffle. 

" Later inquiry proved he had died about the time 
"of year at which I saw the figure. I have no theory 
"as to this occurrence." 

Mr. J. adds that he is under a pledge to the X. 
people not to make public the story in any way that 
would lead to identity, but that he will be glad to an- 
swer any private inquiries, and is willing that his 
name should be given in confidence to bona fide in- 
quirers. 

I will now give as brief an account as possible of 
one, out of the many instances of a haunting influence, 
where the deceased person has come to a violent end. 
Mr. Myers owes the narrative to the kindness of Mr. 
Wilfrid Ward (and of Lord Tennyson for whom it 
was first committed to writing some years ago). It is 
sent by Mrs. Penn6e of St. Anne de Beaupr(^, Quebec. 

Mrs. Penn6e says that in the year 1856 her husband 
took her to live at a house called Binstead, near Char- 
lottetown, P. E. Island. It was a large house, and 
had extra offices and sleeping-rooms built at the back, 
for the accommodation of the farming men. But there 
was no communication between the bed-rooms in the house, 
and the sleeping-rooms above the offices, though they were 
only separated by a wall. It was always in or near the 
spare bed-room of the main house immediately adjacent 
to the men's that the apparition was seen. "As spring 
"came on," says Mrs. Pennee, "we began to hear 
"shrieks, which would grow fainter or louder, as if 
"some one were being chased round the house, but 



"always culminating in a regular volley of shrieks, 
"sobs, moans, and half uttered words, apparently 
"proceeding from beneath a tree that stood at a little 
"distance from the dining room window, and whose 
" branches nearly touched the window of the bed-room 
"I have mentioned." All through the winter inde- 
terminate noises had been heard all over the house, 
always seeming to be in close proximity to each person. 
In February 1857, the first apparition came under 
Mrs. Penn^e's notice. Two ladies were sleeping in 
the spare bedroom, and a fire had been lighted in an 
open grate. About 2 o'clock Mrs. M. was awakened 
by a bright light which pervaded the room. She saw 
a woman standing by the fireplace. In her left arm 
was a young baby, and with her right hand she was 
stirring the ashes, over which she was slightly stoop- 
ing. Mrs. M. pushed Miss C. to awaken her, and just 
then the figure turned her face towards them, showing 
the features of quite a young woman with a singularly 
anxious, pleading look on her face. They took notice 
of a little check shawl which was crossed on her bosom. 
Mrs. Pennee herself saw nothing till the following 
spring, when she was just about to leave for England. 
She was sleeping in the spare bed-room, with her 
little daughter (now Mrs. Amyot). She says, "At 12 
"oclock I got up to give my daughter some medicine, 
" and was feeling for the matches, when she called 
" my attention to a brilliant light shining under the 
"door. I exclaimed it was her papa, and threw open 
" the door. I found myself face to face with a woman. 
"She had a baby on her left arm, a check shawl 
"crossed over her Bosom, and all around her shone a 
"bright, pleasant light. Her look at me was of en- 
" treaty, almost agonising entreaty. She did not enter 
" the room, but moved across the staircase, vanishing 
" into the opposite wall, exactly where the man serv- 
" ant's room on the other side was situated. Neither 
"my daughter nor myself felt the slightest alarm. 
"When Mr. Pennee came upstairs he examined the 
"wall, the staircase, the passage, but found no traces 
"of anything extraordinary. 

"On my return from England in 1858, I was in- 
" formed that 'the creature had been carrying on,' 
"but it was the screams that had been the worst. 
" However Harry (a farm-servant) had. had several 
"visits, but would tell no particulars. He acknowl- 
" edged that the woman had several times stood at the 
" foot of his bed, but he would not tell me more. One 
"night Harry had been much disturbed in his mind, 
" and the other man heard voices and sobs. Harry 
"would allow no one to share his room, and he was 
" most careful to fasten his door before retiring." 

Mr. Penn<^e gave up the house at Binstead in 1859, 
and it was not till 1877 that Mrs. Pennee happened to 
return to the island. One day when she was at the 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3097 



Bishop's residence, the parish priest came in with a 
letter in his hand, and asked her whether she could 
throw any light upon its contents. It was from the 
wife of the then owner of Binstead, asking him to 
come out and try to deliver them from the ghost of a 
woman with a baby in her arms. 

Subsequently Mrs. Penn6e became acquainted with 
facts, which seem to throw light on the story. 

The house at Binstead had been built by a rich 
Englishman, who, getting tired of colonial life, sold 
the property to Pigott, a man of low tastes and im- 
moral habits, but nevertheless a capital farmer. It 
was this man who added all the back wing of the 
house. He had two sisters in his service, the daughters 
of a laborer, who lived in a regular hovel three miles 
nearer town. After a time each sister gave birth to a 
boy. Pigott (not the man's real name) bore so bad a 
character that respectable people avoided the house ; 
but it was certain that one sister and one baby disap- 
peared altogether, though when and how is a complete 
mystery. The other sister returned to her father's 
house, leaving a baby with Mrs. Newbury her mother. 
She went to the States and never returned. Before 
leaving she would reveal nothing, except that i/ie boy 
7tJas her sister' s, her own being dead. It was this very 
boy, the son of the dead sister, Harry Newbury, who 
had been engaged as farm-servant. Mrs. Pennee says 
that when she left Binstead, Harry Newbury came to 
bid her farewell, saying he would never return there. 
More than ten years before Mrs. Pennee went to Bin- 
stead, a young lady (at that time a child) remembers 
being afraid of sleeping in that room, on account of 
the screams she heard outside, and also the "woman 
with a baby " whom she saw passing through the room. 
It is noticeable that the percipients noticed a frilled 
cap on the woman, a fashion so obsolete that they cer- 
tainly would not be prepared to see a ghost thus 
decked. 



CURRENT TOPICS. 



The President has taken into his cabinet a gentleman by the 
name of Elkins, and the newspaper comments thereon expose the 
skilful manner in which the trifling matter of the public service 
has been withdrawn from party politics. The effect of the ap- 
pointment on the political fortunes of Mr. Harrison or Mr. Blaine, 
or Mr. Somebody else is its chief attraction, and the incidental 
question of the public interest is regarded as a grave impertinence. 
A leading democratic organ says, " The experience of Mr. Elkins, 
though exceedingly useful to himself, is of the kind that is never 
of any good to the public." That bit of sarcasm has no sting in it, 
because it is a partisan sneer from the opposite side ; but a great 
republican organ says this, " Neither does the appointment of Mr. 
Elkins mean that his presence in the cabinet is desirable for the 
promotion of any given policy of public advantage." This con- 
fession amounts to a claim that a man's fitness for an office is of 
no concern at all to anybody but himself and the appointing 
power. In the reign of James Buchanan, Colonel McNab was 



appointed Register of the Land Office at Marbletown, whereupon 
the rival faction in the party became virtuously shocked because 
of his unfitness for the place. A public meeting was called and a 
resolution drawn up requesting the president to revoke the ap- 
pointment, because Colonel McNab lacked the ability to perform 
the duties of the office. Just as the chairman was about to put 
the question, the Colonel exclaimed: " Fellow citizens ! When- 
ever was it required in the democratic party that a man should 
have any ability for an office, except the ability to get it ? " The 
argument was invincible, and the resolution was defeated. The 
McNab doctrine has now become the law of both parties ; and all 
the ability required for an office is the ability to get it. 

* * 

In spite of what ought to be its moral impossibility we seem 
to be drifting into a war with Chili, broadside on. The danger 
lies in this, that war is not always a nationa4 defense ; it is very 
often a political expedient, as it was in 1870, when Louis Napo- 
leon assailed Prussia to prop his falling dynasty. In such a case 
religion, judgment, and all the civilising forces appeal for peace 
in vain. Pride, passion, and ambition overpower conscience, 
"cry havoc and let slip the dogs of war." Nor does the form of 
government restrain the lust of conquest. Republics will make 
war to save a political party as readily as monarchies will make 
war to save a dynasty. Our own war with Mexico is evidence of 
that. As to the merits of this present quarrel, we have a just 
cause against Chili, although we might perhaps have maintained 
it in a grander way. We have rather too affectionately petted and 
fondled and nurtured the tragedy at Valparaiso into a pretext for 
a "vigorous foreign policy" and a declaration of war. We have 
shown a disposition to shut the door on settlement, and a nervous 
fear lest the government of Chili make the reparation we demand. 
At the same time the duty of our own government is plain. The 
national honor must be vindicated and the safety of American 
citizens abroad must be made secure at any cost, even at the awful 
cost of war. There is nothing in this quarrel that may not easily 
be settled by arbitration, but unfortunately, war appears to come 
in handy just now as a political expedient for the Chilian govern- 
ment. It will establish the ministry in power, and for the time at 
least, quiet the revolutionary factions. Thus peace is put in jeo- 
pardy ; and yet there is a hope that moral wisdom will prevail, 
that a fair proposition, will be made by Chili, and that it will be 
accepted by the government of the United States. 

* 

* * 

It is a great pity that even a just cause must turn to the profit 
of Jingo patriots and sutler statesmen, but that is always one re- 
sult of war. Already the noble army of contractors is rallying 
round the flag, and the valorous Pistol swaggers about the De- 
partments rubbing his hands and proclaiming to his fellows as in 

old Falstaft's day, 

"I shall sutler be. 
Unto the camp, and profits will arise." 

In every town in the United States there is a man ready to 
"raise a regiment," while warriors by trade hail the prospect of 
what they call " employment " in the field. The war means death 
to some of them, promotion to the rest ; and all of them are eager 
to take chances in this grim lottery. They are not to blame for 
that. When men belong to a warlike trade they want to work at it, 
and not for ever "hold their manhood cheap " when others who 
havd worked at it, tell of moving accidents by flood and field. I 
suppose that each generation must have its war, or leave a blank 
in history, and to that end there must be "aggressive statesmen" 
to magnetise their fellows. I once saw a hat-throwing, howling 
mob, lifted into sublime enthusiasm by an American senator, in- 
troducing the orator of the occasion as " the aggressive statesman." 
I could hardly understand the loud applause, because an aggressive 
person is rather disagreeable to me, and I think he is to everybody 



3098 



THE OPEN COURT. 



after a short acquaintance with him. Take for example the " ag- 
gressive " man in a neighborhood. Is he not usually a boisterous 
nuisance involving other people in fights and feuds, but managing 
to keep himself out of danger. Now take the " aggressive" man 
of any neighborhood, and spread him all over the United States, 
and what a national and international nuisance he can be. 

In the city of Washington it requires only a few minutes to 
make a comedy of death. A few days ago a senator died suddenly, 
and at once his neighbors began to part his official garments among 
them, and upon his political vesture to cast lots. By all accounts 
he was a sturdy bit of western product, with some democratic 
stamina still surviving in him although he had been fourteen years 
in the senate. I have seen a tragi-comic picture representing the 
death of a king of France, I forget his name, wherein the poor 
king on his pallet, the breath hardly out of him, furnishes the 
tragedy ; while his ministers and attendants hurrying out of the 
room to salute the new king, make the comedy. It all seems very 
heartless, but it is very human too ; and the scenes following upon 
the death of Senator Plumb, remind me of that old picture. Be- 
fore his body was arrayed for burial all interest in hira was fore- 
closed, and his retainers were scampering away to hail the coming 
man. The governor of Kansas, whose duty it is to appoint the 
new senator, was annoyed and shocked by the premature zeal of 
claimants for the place, as appears by the following dispatch from 
Topeka; "Governor Humphrey arrived at Topeka to-night to 
find several delegations waiting to urge a successor to Senator 
Plumb." The governor at least is a man of some natural delicacy 
and refined feeling, for he gave the hungry horde this very sen- 
sible rebuke, " I consider it in very bad taste for friends of Senator 
Plumb to be discussing his successor before his body is buried. 
There is no occasion for this disgraceful hurry. I do not under- 
stand the mad scramble for this place." The governor may not 
have meant to be ironical, but there was iron enough in the word 
' ' friends " to make a barb-wire fence for a Kansas farm ; and 
shocking as the "mad scramble" was, it had method in it. 

The chair of Senator Plumb was in a desirable part of the 
Senate house, being, says The Cmii-t Ciitiilar, " next to the middle 
aisle and directly in front of the presiding officer " ; and long be- 
fore his body was cold the chair was gambled for and scrambled 
for by his brother senators in the back rows. It reads like a story 
of the ghouls, that account of the senatorial hustling for the 
empty chair, so business like and stoical the whole proceeding was. 
By a rule which ought to have been inverted, the prize fell to the 
man who had shown the hottest haste and the coldest calculation. 
It seems that the Vice-President of the United States, as President 
■ of the Senate, assigns the vacant chairs, and here's the way the 
ghostly story runs ; "At least eight applications were made to the 
Vice President yesterday, and this made the competition so great 
that it had to be decided by the hour at which the various letters 
were mailed. Senator Warren had his letter at the city post office 
over a mile away from his residence by two o'clock, as the stamp 
of the office shows that it was received some time before two 
o'clock, P. M. In the mean time he must have written the letter 
and carried it this considerable distance." There is an artificial 
precision there that makes the reader shiver as he reads ; but the 
summing up is warm hearted as a tombstone, and mathematical 
as old Euclid ; here's the way it runs ; " As Senator Plumb died 
at 11.50, the haste with which this application was made is evi- 
dent. Other senators dropped their applications in the boxes along 
the streets, so that the hour at which they were stamped is later 
than that of Senator Warren. His close attention to business 
therefore entitles him to the seat vacated by the distinguished 
Kansan, as soon as the emblems of mourning are removed." This 



last condition appears to be too sentimental altogether. To the 
business mind it is very clear that the diligence displayed by Sena- 
tor Warren entitles him to the seat before the emblems of mourning 
are removed. He ought tp have the chair with the crape still on 
it. And the Vice President ought to make him sit in it, so that all 
his countrymen might see the Senator who broke the record in 
racing for a dead man's chair. M. M. Trumbull. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



Conduct as a Fine Art. The Laws of Daily Conduct. By 
A'it/u>/irs Pni)ie Giliiian. Character Building. By Edward 
PaysoH Jackson. Boston and New York : Houghton, Mifflin, 
and Company. 

In this issue of The Riverside Press we have the outcome of 
the offer, made in the fall of 1889, of a prize of one thousand dol- 
lars for "the best essay, treatise, or manual adapted to aid and 
assist teachers in our free public schools, and in the Girard Col- 
lege for Orphans, and other public and charitable institutions, 
professing to be unsectarian, to thoroughly instruct children and 
youth in the purest principles of morality without inculcating re- 
ligious doctrine." In the opinion of a majority of the committee, 
no one of the MSS. presented fully met all the requirements, and 
therefore the prize was divided between the authors of the two 
treatises published together in 'the present volume. These were 
supposed to complement each other both in manner and matter : 
" the deficiencies of each are, in great measure, supplied by the 
other." They must be regarded therefore as forming a whole. 

In reviewing a book of this kind it is not possible, within the 
space at command, to do more than consider how far it is fitted 
for the end in view ; assuming that this end is possible of attain- 
ment. We have no difficulty in admitting this assumption, which 
is the raison d'etre of the present work. If the human race has 
not sufficiently advanced in culture to be able to formulate the 
principles of ethics, and to supply a sufficient basis for them in the 
human mind itself, without reference to a supernatural sanction, 
the asserted progress of humanity must be a mockery. This ques- 
tion has in reality nothing to do with theology, nor yet .-/ith re- 
ligion, except so far as religion is the highest and widest expression 
of morality. The authors of both these treatises profess them- 
selves "friends to religion," and they have written " from a deep 
conviction that there is a great need of instruction in morals in 
the public schools." This need is admitted by all those who have 
studied the subject, and, considering the opposition in this country 
to religious instruction evidenced by the action of The American 
Secular Union, through the initiative of its late President Dr. 
Richard B. Westbrook, it is very desirable that the want should 
be earnestly and systematically dealt with. Educational works are 
important aids for this end and it is to be hoped that the book un- 
der review will be of the service its promoters and authors desire 
for it. 

That Mr. Oilman has treated his part of the subject with suc- 
cess we have no hesitation in affirming. He aims directly at actual 
practice and omits ethical theory, justifying this course on the 
ground that the great facts and the main laws of the moral life 
are obvious to all mature men and women. It is true that each 
generation has to learn them afresh, but "it learns every-day 
morality as an art, not as a science. The difficulty lies in the prac- 
tice not in the theory. Philosophers may dispute as to the exact 
reason why a man loves, or should love, his mother ; but the duty 
of loving one's mother is not a question considered open to discus- 
sion in common life." We are glad to read this, because we have 
heard it publicly asserted that it is not the duly of children to love 
their parents. As to how the art of conduct is to be imparted, the 
author takes the right view that both the home and the school 
should share in the work. At present, unfortunately, it is too 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3099 



often the case that the duty of moral training is neglected by both 
parents and teacher, each leaving it to be performed by the other. 
Probably to this vicious practice is due the extraordinary develop- 
ment of the Sunday school system. 

Mr. Oilman well remarks that the child is growing as a moral 
being in school hours as well as out of them, and therefore the 
teacher who neglects the moral education of his pupils is guilty of 
ai offence. His aim is to aid the common-school teacher in per- 
forming his duty in that respect by making clear the nature and 
limits 01 the moral training which may advisably be given in the 
schoolroom. The view he takes is embodied in fifteen short chap- 
ters, in which, after showing "what it means to live, as mankind 
does, in a law-abiding universe," the special significance of Moral 
Law and Obedience is explained. Self-control must be funda- 
mental in the nature of a moral being, and through its exercise he 
will be able to practice Truthfulness, Justice, and Kindness, as 
perpetual forces working steadily from within. The " great words 
of morality," such as duty and conscience are then treated, lead- 
ing up to the consideration of the duties connected with home, 
work, honor, and personal habits. Then comes a chapter on Pa- 
triotism and Political Duty, followed by a consideration of Char- 
acter and Moral Progress, the whole concluding with a chapter on 
life according to the Golden Rule. All these subjects are treated 
well and effectively, although concisely, as an example of which 
may be cited one of the concluding paragraphs : ' ' The Golden Rule 
demands that justice be done in a spirit of kindness, and that the 
truth be spoken in love." The treatise is summed up by the au- 
thor, when he states that its iiietJiod is to hold fast to the concrete 
and the actual, and its spirit is to cleave to righteousness as the 
great matter in human life. 

As to the application in teaching of the principles laid down 
in his treatise, Mr. Gilman recommends talks about conduct, not 
at set times, but occasionally, as a suitable opportunity offers itself. 
He suggests that " some incident of the school-room life that has 
just occurred, or some matter in the lesson in reading or history, 
may well interrupt the routine of the ordinary recitation." While 
agreeing with this view to some extent, we must say that we think 
the author does not dwell sufficiently on the value of example in 
influencing a child for good. True, this is not forgotten, and it 
may be replied that the use of the book will act as a moral edu- 
cator of the teacher himself, and thus ensure that its principles 
shall be illustrated in his life. But example may be drawn frcm 
the conduct of others, and it will be a sad day for humanity when 
the lessons to be learned from the lives of the great men and wo- 
men of the past are forgotten. 

Accepting, however, the principle of moral instruction laid 
down by Mr. Gilman, how far does the supplementary treatise of 
Mr.Jackson conform to it ? No objection can be made to the general 
ideas embodied in the latter ; although exception will be taken by 
some persons to the remarks on the subject of habits, especially in 
relation to tobacco-smoking, which he condemns while saying 
nothing of the worse habits of tobacco-chewing and allied practices. 
Mr. Jackson's treatise, indeed, fits in so well with that with which 
it is combined that their mutual relation is an example of remark- 
able coincidences. The former is in the form of "a master's talks 
with his pupils," and thus superficially it carries out Mr. Oilman's 
notion. But the value of these talks except as conveying hints, 
which could have been supplied as well, and probably better, in 
another form, is doubtful. If the chapters are read to the pupils 
as written, the teacher will have to personate half a dozen different 
characters, and they will, moreover, become cut and dried dis- 
courses on moral topics such as are quite inconsistent with Mr. 
Oilman's "occasional talks." Besides there is something incon- 
gruous in putting into the mouths of children, ideas which even 
the " younger and more inexperienced" common- school teacher, 



for whose guidance the joint work has been composed, would not 
in its absence entertain. On the whole, well-intentioned as Mr. 
Jackson's effort is, we question whether it will be of much practical 
value, beyond " giving hints " to the teacher who can adopt them. 
A well selected series of readings, with annotations for the teacher's 
guidance, would have been much more efficacious. Undoubtedly, 
however, taken in connection with Mr. Oilman's treatise, it will 
do something towards aiding teachers to instruct their pupils in 
"the purest principles of morality without inculcating religious 
doctrine," which is the object of the present work. il. 



The Crisis in Morals. An Examination of Rational Ethics in 
the Light of Modern Science. By James Thompson /ii.\/iv. 
Boston : Roberts Brothers, 1891. 

The author of this book criticises Mr. Spencer's data of 
ethics confessedly from the standpoint of religion ; yet his religion 
is of a very broad kind, it is rational as well as scientific. The 
criticism is keen, kind tow-.rd Mr. Spencer, and just. He points 
out that Mr. Spencer's ultimate moral end and test, which is " con- 
duciveness to happiness" is very indefinite and unsatisfactory as 
a standard for conduct. He further shows the inconsistency be- 
tween the happiness theory and the principle of evolution. In the 
beginning of the Data of Ethics Mr. Spencer is consistent with 
the evolution theory, when he says: "Evolution becomes the 
highest possible when the conduct simultaneously achieves the 
greatest totality of life in self, in offspring, and in fellowmen." If 
Mr. Spencer, says Dr. Bixby, had consistently pursued this path 
it "would have led to the discernment and enunciation of an ulti- 
mate end of Nature's ascending path, namely, the highest perfec- 
tion of the highest class of beings that we have to deal with." 
This would have been the logical outcome of Mr. Spencer's phi- 
losophy. "But suddenly he stops short and faces in quite another 
direction and asks. Why should we promote life ? There is no 
reason for so doing, he says, unless life has a surplus of pleas- 
ure," and in connection with this term Mr. Spencer says : "Tak- 
ing into account immediate and remote effects on all persons the 
good is universally the pleasurable," and again : " the absolutely 
right in conduct can be that only which produces pure pleasure, — 
pleasure unalloyed with pain anywhere." Virtue accordingly in 
Mr. Spencer's system, says Dr. Bixby, " has no intrinsic worth or 
authority. . . . Mr. Spencer has criticised most severely the meth- 
ods of Bentham, but he has in fact adopted his ultimate end." 

The negative part of criticism, however, is supplemented by 
a positive part of a theory of ethics constructed upon the basis of 
ethics and scientific knowledge. The source of moral principles 
is the fundamental unity of life and the moral relations of man in 
society. The ultimate moral end is a larger and higher existence. 
The measure and purpose of progress is the unfolding of a nobler 
self and the highest possible development of man's spiritual per- 
sonality. Dr. Bi'.by would come very near to the position of T/io 
Open Court as defined by its editor in "The Ethical Problem," 
and in several of his editorials (especially "The Test of Progress," 
No. 208) if he were not under the influence of the transcendental- 
ist conception of v?hat "spiritual" means. The moral "ought" 
is to him, (he quotes from Sidgwick, ) "an ultimate and unanalys- 
.able fact," and thus his otherwise clear and scientific views are 
sprinkled over with just enough mysticism and dualism to remind 
us that the author of the book stands upon the old theologipal 
platform. 



MR. C. S. PEIRCE has resumed his lessons by correspondence in the 
Art of Reasoning, taught in progressive exercises. A special course in logic 
has been prepared for correspondents interested in philosophy. Terms, $30. 
jor twenty-four lessons. Address ; Mr. C. S. Peirce, "Avisbe," Milford, Pa. 



3IOO 



THE OPEN COURT. 



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THREE INTRODUCTORY LECTURES ON 
THE SCIENCE OF THOUGHT. By F. 

MaxMuller. (Sole Agents in England: Long- 
mans, Green, & Co.) 

I. The Simplicity of Language ; 2. The Identity of Language and Thought ; 
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thinks because he speaks." Language is thought, no thought is possible with- 
out seme symbols, be they spoken or written words. 

THREE LECTURES ON THE SCIENCE OF 

LANGUAGE. By Prof. F. Max Muller. 

with a Supplement " MY PREDECESSORS." Cloth, 75 Cents. 

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THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ATTENTION. By Th. 

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THE DISEASES OF PERSONALITY. By Th. 

RlIlO r. Authorised translation. Cloth, 75 Cents. 
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THE OPEN COURT. 



3101 



THE MONIST. 

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CONTENTS OF NO. 228. 

REVOLUTIONS, AND ORACLES OF REASON. Mon- 
cure D. CONWAV 3087 

MORAL INSTINCTS. Felix L. Oswald 3089 

A MODERN VIEW OF GHOSTS. Alice Bodington 3090 

CURRENT TOPICS. Offices as Private Patronage. A Vig- 
orous Foreign Policy. Aggressive Statesmen. The Com- 
edy of Death. Coveting a Dead Man's Chair. Gen. 



M. M. Trumbull. 



3097 

BOOK REVIEWS 3098 



The Open Court 



.\ WBEKLV JOURNA.I, 



Devoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion ^vith Science. 



No. 229. (Vol. VI.— 2. 



CHICAGO, JANUARY 14, 1892. 



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A MODERN VIEW OF GHOSTS. 

BY AtlCE BODINGTON. 

The extraordinary case mentioned by General Bar- 
ter C. B. seems to come under Mr. Myers's denomina- 
tion of "a dead man's dream." General Barter was 
in 1854 a subaltern in the 75th Regiment quartered at 
the hill station of Murree in the Punjaub. He rented 
a house belonging to a Lieutenant B. who had died 
the previous year at Peshawur. Gen. Barter had just 
said good night to some friends who had paid him a 
visit, and whom he had accompanied some distance 
towards their own home, and he had turned to go back 
to his house. He had two dogs with him, which were 
hunting about in the brushwood. It was a lonely night 
and the moon at the full. Suddenly he heard "the 
"ring of a horse's hoof as the shoe struck the stones 
"coming along the bridle path — just before it takes a 

"sharp bend — and -in a few seconds round the 

"corner appeared a man mounted on a pony with two 
"syces or grooms. At this time the two dogs came 
"and crouching at my side, gave low frightened whim- 
" pers. The moon was at the full, so bright that you 
"could see to read a newspaper by its light, and I 
"saw the party before me advance as plainly as if it 
"were noonday; they were above me some eight or 
"ten feet on the bridle road. On the party came till 
"almost in front of me; and now I had better de- 
" scribe them. The rider was in full dinner dress, 
" with white waistcoat and wearing a tall chimney-pot 
" hat, and he sat on a powerful hill pony [dark brown, 
"with black mane and tail] in a listless sort of way, 
"the reins hanging loosely from both hands. A syce 
"led the pony at each side, but their faces I could'nt 
"see, the one next to me having his back to me, and 
" the one furthest off being hidden by the pony's head ; 
"each held the bridle close up by the bit, the man 
"next me with his right, the other with his left hand, 
"and the other hands were on the thighs of the rider 
"as if to steady him in his seat. As they approached, 
"I, knowing they could'nt get to any other place but 
" rny own, called out in Hindustani ' Quon hai ?' (who 
"is it?) There was no answer, and on they came 
"till right in front of me, when I said in English, 



" ' Hallo, what the d — 1 do you want here ? ' Instantly 
"the group came to a halt, the rider gathering up the 
"bridle reins with both hands, turned his face which 
"had hitherto been looking away from me, towards 
" me and looked down upon me. The group was still 
" as in a tableau, and I recognised the rider as Lieut. 
" B. whom I had formerly known. Tlic face was dif- 
" ferent fromii'hat I had known it: in place of being 
"clean shaved it was surrounded by a fringe (what 
"used to be known as a Newgate fringe) and it was 
" the face of a dead man ; the ghastly waxen pallor of 
"it brought out more distinctly in the moonlight by 
"the fringe of dark hair by which it was encircled ; 
" the body too was far stouter than I had known it in 
"life. 

" I marked all this in a moment, and then resolved 
"to lay hold of the thing whatever it was. I dashed 
"up the bank, and the earth giving under my feet, I 
"fell forward on my hands. Recovering myself in- 
" stantly I gained the road, and stood in the exact 
"spot where the group had been, but which was now 
"vacant. The road stopped at a precipice twenty 
"yards beyond ; it was impossible for them to go on ; 
"impossible for them to have turned back in a second. 

"Next morning I went up to Lieutenant Deane 
"who belonged to the same regiment as B.; and grad- 
" ually induced him to talk of him. I said, ' How very 
"stout he had become lately, and what possessed him 
" to allow his beard to grow into that horrid fringe ! ' 
" D. replied, 'Yes, he became very bloated before his 
"death ; you know he led a very fast life, and while 
" on the sick list he allowed his beard to grow in spite 
" of all we could say to him, and I believe he was bur- 
" ied with it.' I then asked where he had got the 
" pony I had seen, describing it minutely. 'Why,' 
"said D., 'how do you know anything about all this? 
"You had'nt seen B. for two or three years, and the 
" pony you never saw. He bought him at Peshawur, 
" and killed him one day riding in his reckless fashion 
"down the hill toTrete.' I then told him, what I had 
"seen the night before." 

General Barter adds that though he knew B. had 
built the house, the fact had not interested him ; he 
had never talked about B. nor thought about him. 



3I04 



THE OPEN COURT. 



He says that during the six weeks they spent in this 
house his wife and himself repeatedly heard the sound 
of a man riding rapidly down the path to the house. 
He doubts whether anyone but B. who was a reckless 
rider had ever ridden down that path. "Once," he 
"says, "when the galloping sound was very distinct, 
"I rushed to the door of the house. There I found 
"my Hindoo bearer, standing with a tattie in his hand. 
"I asked him what he was there for. He said there 
"came a sound of riding down the hill, and 'passed 
"him like a typhoon' and went round the corner of 
" the house, and he was determined to waylay it what- 
"ever it was. He added ' Thitan ka ghar hai' (It is 
"a devil's house)." Mrs. Barter corroborates the 
hearing of the sounds of violent riding. In this case 
if we accept General Barter's evidence, the incidents 
connected with his reckless riding at Murree seem to 
have so strongly impressed the miserable B. that even 
after death the impression was sufficiently strong to be 
conveyed (as an apparently objective vision) to another 
person. Moreover if we attach weight to the corrob- 
orative evidence, the mind (if I may be forgiven the 
expression) of the deceased seems to have dwelt per- 
manently on those incidents in his life at Murree which 
culminated in the death of his unfortunate pony. As 
the surviving part (I know of no fitting name) saw it- 
self after death, so it imagined itself passing through 
the scenes at Murree, in dream-like confusion. 

I think that the favorite explanation of rats, indi- 
gestion, hallucination, or incipient fever, as sufficient 
to account for all "ghosts" are as absurdly wide of 
the scientific explanation made possible by modern 
psychology ; as Voltaire's celebrated dictum that the 
shells found on the top of the Alps were dropped there 
by pilgrims, was absurdly wide of the scientific ex- 
planation given by geology. In Voltaire's time the 
position of these fossils was adduced as a proof of the 
Noachian account of the Deluge ; no other theory was 
then possible, except Voltaire's, which was more ab- 
surd and impossible than the orthodox one. In the 
same way a few years ago, stigmata were either mir- 
aculously or fraudulently produced ; Joan of Arc was 
miraculously inspired or she was an impostor ; there 
was no alternative hypothesis known. And ghosts, 
clothes and all, were either beheld with our bodily 
eyes ; or they were rats, fever, indigestion or trickerj'. 
The whole series of phenomena are now capable of 
examination from a scientific point of view. Mr. Myers 
remarks, "Considering how long this scattered belief 
" in the appearances of dead persons has existed it is 
" really extraordinary that so little trouble has been 
"taken to determine whether that belief be well 
"founded or no. For be it observed that there has 
"been just as Utile diligeiice. Just as little acumen, 
" shcmi/i amongst tlie scoffers as amongst the eiedutous. In 



'fact so far as any exact investigation goes, the present 
' subject is almost absolutely new. Something will have 
' been done, I hope, to encourage the quest for further 
' evidence if I am thought to have suggested a parallel 
' between the no7v knoivn tnodes of action of the embodied 
'mind, and. the possible modes of action of the disem- 
' bodied mind, which may enable us to see something 
'logically probable — rather than something gro- 
' tesquely meaningless — in the reported behaviour of 
' the ordinary apparition. Most assuredly if these 
' phenomena are to be explained at all, they must be 
' explained by finding some laws which govern at once 
' these post mortem manifestations and the manifesta- 
' tions of spirits still in the flesh. Two such laws I 
' believe to exist. In the first place I believe that 
' telepathy — the transference of thought through other 
' than sensory channels, exists both between embodied 
' spirits, and as between embodied and disembodied 
'spirits. I hold that there is a continuous series of 
' manifestation of such power beginning with thought 
' transference experiments and hypnotism at a distance, 
' proceeding through experimental apparitions and ap- 
' paritions coincident with crisis or death, and ending 
' with apparitions after death ; the results, in my view, 
' of the continued exercise of the same energy by the 
' departed. 

"And in the second place I hold it analogically 
'probable that the thesis of multiplex personality, 
' [see The Open Court, Nos. 169-171, 'The Hidden 
'Self'] namely, that no known current of man' s con- 
' sciousncss exhausts his whole consciousness, and no 
' known self- manifestation expresses man's whole po- 
' tential being — may hold good for embodied and for 
' disembodied men. And consequently I believe that 
' the self- manifestations of the departed, being com- 
'munications between states of being almost impass- 
' ably disunited — must needs form an extreme type of 
' those fugitive and unstable communications between 
'widely different strata of personality of which living 
'minds offer us examples; and that 'ghosts' must 
' therefore as a rule represent .... mere auio?natic 
'projections from consciousnesses which have their cen- 
' tres elsewhere. . . . The present need is not of specu- 
' lation but of evidence ; of a real direction of compe- 
' tent intelligence towards the collection and criticism 
'of a large mass of well attested narratives. It may 
' indeed be that such records may prove explicable — 
' I can scarcely say by known laws — but by laws whose 
'discovery will only slightly further extend experi- 
' mental psychology in some of the directions in which 
' it is now rapidly advancing. It may be that these 
' long despised narratives will prove the smooth stones 
' from the brook, and find a vulnerable point in that 
' Goliath of our inscrutable Destiny, against whom so 
' many prouder weapons have been levelled in vain." 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3105 



Whether we consider the matter a pure coincidence 
or as a faint adumbration of real psychical facts, it is 
remarkable that a belief in a multiple personality per- 
sisting after death is one of the most widely spread of 
ethnological beliefs. In this case, as in so many others, 
popular belief as to facts may be right, whilst inter- 
pretation is false. Rainbows and eclipses are phe- 
nomena resulting from well-known and well ascer- 
tained laws and raise no feelings but those of admira- 
tion or intelligent interest in a modern observer. The 
savage and the semi-civilised man also observed these 
phenomena, which to the semi-civilised were portents 
expressing respectively divine repentance for anger, 
or divine wrath at men's sins ; and to men on a lower 
social plane appeared as animals or demons ; the rain- 
bow serpent of the Zulus ; the rainbow demon of the 
Karens,* which devour men. Eclipses were thought 
by various American tribes to be caused by huge dogs 
chasing and tearing the moon (Chiquitos); by a demon 
which hated light (Caribs), by a monstrous beast (Pe- 
ruvians), by a jaguar (Tupi), all seeking to devour the 
sun or moon. The idea of the sore danger of sun and 
moon has run through folk-lore, and comes out in 
popular belief down to our own day. A recent writer 
on French folk-lore was surprised during a lunar eclipse 
to hear sighs and exclamations, " Mon Dieu, qu'elle 
est souffrante ! " and found on inquiry that the poor 
moon was believed to be the prey of an invisible mon- 
ster seeking to devour her. So the popular belief 'in 
multiple personality, however smothered in supersti- 
tion and loaded with absurdities, may be the result of 
very real phenomena. 

The Dakotas say that man has four souls, one re- 
maining with the corpse, one staying in the village, 
one going in the air, and one to the land of spirits. 
The Karens distinguished between the " ta " which 
may be defined as the personal life-phantom, and the 
" thah " which is the responsible moral soul. The 
Fijians distinguish between a man's "shadow " which 
goes to Hades, and his "light spirit" which remains 
near where he dies. Amongst civilised peoples, 
Egyptian mythology taught that the living man con- 
sists of a body, a soul, an intelligence, and an ap- 
pearance or eidolon the "ka." The shadowy and im- 
perceptible "ka" was supposed to dwell in the tomb 
with mummied body and to perish if the latter were 
destroyed. Esoteric Buddhism teaches that whilst 
the soul which has concerned itself with moral and 
spiritual interests, enjoys unspeakable bliss in "de- 
vachan " — in the internal between one incarnation and 
another ; the lower soul which has concerned itself 
with material things is in the condition of "karma," 
and haunts the earthly dwelling place of its body. By 
a pure and holy life, "karma " will no longer exist as 

* Primitive Culture, Vol. I, pp. 266, 296-302. Tylor. 



a condition ; and the purified higher soul passes no 
longer into "devachan," but returns into the bosom 
of the All, and thus enters Nirvana. In reading of the 
utterly aimless haunting of the scenes of their life his; 
tory which is so commonly met with in well-attested 
cases of phantasms of the dead, I am strongly re- 
minded of the doctrine of karma. (See especially a 
case given pp. 35-41 of the Proceedings for Dec. 1S89). 
The threefold division of shade, manes and spirit is 
thus described as existing amongst the Romans.* 

" Bis duo sunt homini, manes, caro, spiritus, umbra : 
Quaiuor htec loci bis duo suscipiuni . 
Terra tegit carnem, tumuluvt circumvolat umbra. 
Manes Orcus habet, spiritus astra petit." 

I have often been puzzled at the confusion which 
reigns throughout folk-lore, and in the minds of the 
peasantry of England and Europe, as to the destina- 
tion of the soul after death. I see now in this ap- 
parent confusion, ideas roughly corresponding to the 
"karma" and "devachan" of Buddhism. The peas- 
ant is taught by his Church that his soul after death is 
destined to go to heaven or hell — with of course in 
the Catholic church the alternative of Purgatory. How- 
ever devoutly the Catholic peasant believes in this 
doctrine and that his soul, if it is saved, will be ad- 
mitted by St. Peter to Heaven, he at one and the 
same time believes that he will be conscious of his 
resting place in his native village, and of the general 
state of affairs around him. The old ballads of Great 
Britain, Ireland and Europe are full of this theme ; of 
this eerie consciousness of the dead as they lie in 
their graves; the mother who "under the moulds" 
heard her children crying with cold and hunger and 
comes to comfort them ; the dead lover who keeps his 
tryst ; the mother who cannot rest in her grave be- 
cause her child's tears trickle through, and fall upon 
her. In Brittany there is a special night when the 
dead souls pass across the "Bale des Trepasses " on 
their way back to the old British land in Cornwall, and 
their sighs and moanings are heard in fancy by the 
dwellers on the shore. Yet the Bretons are devout 
Catholics, and believe in Heaven and Hell and Pur- 
gatory as the alternative destinations of the soul after 
death, at the very same time that they think they will 
be conscious after death of that which has interested 
them on earth. I have heard a poor old woman ex- 
press a wish to be buried near a certain little path 
leading to the side door of our parish church, because 
it would be "so comfortable " to hear the people pass- 
ing by to church. Personally, whilst I have little 
hope, I have a passionate desire for the continuance 
of life and of personal identity, after the death of the 
body. But the desire is for a higher life than this, 
for something more sublime and lasting than "de- 
vachan"; and I think any one of us would welcome 

• Primitive Culture, Tylor, iS;i. Vol. i, p. 392. Art.: " Animism." 



!io6 



THE OPEN COURT. 



the idea of annihilation, rather than face conditions in 
which the disembodied spirit hovers round the scenes 
of its earthly career. But in this case, as in all others, 
the scientific mind must seek to know the truth and 
the truth only. 

In concluding this article, I would earnestly en- 
treat any reader interested in the subject, not to rest 
contented with the brief and most imperfect account 
I have been able to give of Mr. Myers's researches, 
but to read for themselves the chapter (III) "On 
recognised Apparitions occurring more than a year 
after death " of the Proceedings of the Psychical So- 
ciety, for December, 1889. Part XV. — Part XIV con- 
tains an article on "Apparitions occurring soon after 
Death," by the late Edmund Gurney. Address the 
Assistant Secretary, 19 Buckingham Street, Adelphi, 
W. C, London. 



GHOSTS AND THE BELIEF IN GHOSTS. 

There is a wholesale revival of a belief in ghosts 
sweeping over the world and rabid iconoclasts become 
converts to spiritism and theosophy. Are these the 
signs of the time? If they are, what kind of a future 
do they portend ? 

This theosophic and spiritualistic craze will not be 
a surprise to those who have watched the materialistic 
tendencies of our age. It is simply a reaction against 
that philosophy which feels satisfied to think that 
mind is matter and consciousness an accidental by- 
play of force. When materialists become confronted 
with facts of psychical life with which they are 
not familiar, they are struck with the untenableness 
of materialism and will naturally go to the other ex- 
treme, viz. to some form of spiritism. Mrs. Besant 
presents the following eight reasons which induced 
her to embrace theosophy. She says in the Review of 
Reviews, Dec. 1891 : 

" Could find no answer to problems of life and mind in ma- 
terialism, especially as touching — 

1. Hypnotic and mesmeric experiments, clairvoyance, etc. 

2. Double consciousness, dreams. 

3. Effect on body of mental conceptions. 

4. Line between object and subject worlds. 

5. Memory, especially as studied in disease. 

6. Diseased keenness of sense-perception. 

7. Thought-transference. 

8. Genius, different types of character in family, etc." 

If Mrs. Besant had ever considered the sole and 
simple fact of consciousness as it exists in herself and 
as every healthy person experiences it, she would not 
have been so strangely struck by the abnormal forms 
of consciousness as they appear in hysterical and men- 
tally diseased people. Hypnotism, mesmerism, and 
clairvoyance so-called are not more wonderful than the 
normal consciousness ; nor are double consciousness, 
hypera;sthesia and the diseased forms of memory 



stranger than a simple sensation or an act of memory 
as we experience them thousands of times in every 
hour of our life.* 

As to thought-transference, we should say, that this 
miracle takes place whenever two men communicate 
with each other either orally or in written or in printed 
language. This kind of thought-transference wonder- 
ful though it is, is a perfectly intelligible fact, there is 
nothing mystical about it, for we know the means by 
which it takes place. There are other kinds of thought- 
transference. Some such people as Mr. Cumberland 
know the art of deciphering with great certainty the 
physiognomical expressions, and of reading certain 
ideas out of the slight involuntary and emotion-be- 
traying muscular contractions of their fellow-men. 
However,any thought-transference without any means 
whatever has never been proved and it would upset 
all science and philosophy if it ever could be proved. 

Mr. W. T. Stead has devoted the whole Christmas 
number of The Review of Reviews to "Real Ghost 
Stories," and Mrs. Bodington presents us in The Open 
Court with a number of queer accounts collected by her- 
self. She accepts Mr. F. W. H. Myers's view that 
a ghost is a manifestation of personal energy after 
death and considers it as an indication that some 
kind of force can be exercised by a deceased person. I 
must confess that the accounts given by Mr. Stead as 
well as by Mrs. Bodington are not of such a nature as 
to convey any argument that would convince me of 
the realit}' of ghosts, doubles, thought-bodies, etc. 

I should say with Mrs. Bodington that so far as I 
can see all these strange phenomena must be inter- 
preted as being " mental," but it appears that I under- 
stand something quite different by "mental." Men- 
tality, as I understand it, is subjectivity. Or more 
fully expressed it is the symbolism of subjectivity, the 
symbols of subjectivity being representative of objec- 
tive existences, of relations, of qualities, or any feat- 
ures of objective realities. In other words, mental 
phenomena are states of awareness, they are feelings, 
representing some objective state of things. Mrs. 
Bodington conceives mentality as some kind of force 
or energy. However, this force or energy apparently 
does not possess the qualities of that which is usually 
called force or energy. The ghost, she declares, does 
not act upon matter but on " mind." It has nothing to 
do with that energy the sum total of which remains 
constant in the whole system of the universe as stated 
in the law of the conservation of energy. It is not a 
force that can be measured by the acceleration it im- 

* For an explanation of the facts of experimental psyctiolopy, hypnotism, 
double consciousness, hyper?esthcsia, see the author's 77ie Soid o/ Man, T^p. 
238-332. In the same book are discussed the problems of the normal facts of 
soul life, especially the main problem, viz. that of memory (pp. fto-65 ^nd 418- 
424) and also the philosophical questions as to the relation between subject 
and object and the origin of mind (p. 23-45). 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3107 



parts. Hence the usage of the word is very objection- 
able and must produce confusion in the very begin- 
ning. 

It would lead me too far here to discuss the ac- 
counts of the ghost stories in detail. I see in every 
one of those of Mr. Stead as well as in those of Mrs. 
Bodington, which I have critically read, some flaw 
that renders it worthless as evidence. So, for in- 
stance, people who at once jump to the conclusion 
that when something or somebody has been seen to 
pass by, it must have been a ghost, people who say, 
"It is old Aunt Ann — then Aunt Harriet will die to- 
day," are not reliable witnesses. That house will soon 
be haunted, where people live who believe in ghosts ! 

Mrs. Bodington says about a strange apparition : 
"The phenomena of hypnotism give one a clue to the 
explanation of part of this story." They certainly do 
give us a clue, but not in the sense that Mrs. Boding- 
ton means. A hypnotised person will actually see the 
things suggested as if they were real, and people who 
believe in ghosts are predisposed to become suggest- 
ible. 

But there are stories when two see a ghost at the 
same time! Is that not a proof of the apparition's object- 
ive reality? It seems to me, that it is not. Two or sev- 
eral persons who believe in ghosts, will easily suggest 
to one another hallucinations. And it is well known, 
through experiments made on hypnotic subjects, that 
even memories can be suggested. An hysteric subject 
can very easily be made to believe that he or she rec- 
ollects this or that circumstance or event which in re- 
ality never happened. 

I consider as the best and most striking story of 
marvellous events the account of Swedenborg's tele- 
pathic vision as told by no less an authority than the 
great German philosopher Immanuel Kant. I quote 
from Frederick Gerhard's book "The Coming Creed 
of the World," p. 399-400 : 

' ' One of the most striking cases of this kind is the well-known 
foresight which Swedenborg had of the fire of Stockholm. Kant 
wrote about it to a friend as follows : 'Toward the end of Septem- 
ber 1756, Swedenborg came on a Sunday afternoon, about four 
o'clock, to Gothenburg. He was received by a friend, who ac- 
companied him to his house, where a little party had been ar- 
ranged, to which fourteen people had been invited. In the midst 
of this cheerful company Swedenborg became suddenly silent, 
and his face had an expression of profound grief, It was about 
six o'clock in the afternoon. Swedenborg left the room, and re- 
turned in a few moments in a state of great terror and anguish. 
When he was asked what was the matter with him, he said that 
just at this moment a fire had broken out in Stockholm, near St. 
Mary's Church, and was spreading with terrible rapidity. He left 
the room repeatedly in a state of great excitement. Among other 
details, he told the company that the house of one of his friends, 
whose name he gave, had already been completely destroyed, and 
that his own house was in great danger. About eight o'clock he 
exclaimed, in a tone of great joy : " God be thanked ! The fire has 
been extinguished, within only three houses of my own." The 



Governor, who had heard of this incident, sent for Swedenborg on 
Monday morning. The latter gave to the Governor the most de- 
tailed description of the fire — the number of houses that had been 
destroyed, and also the time of the duration of the fire. On Mon- 
day evening a messenger arrived who had been sent by a Stock- 
holm merchant to a business friend in Gothenburg ; and on the 
following morning a special courier was sent with a description of 
the fire to the Governor. Both these men, in every detail, con- 
firmed what Swedenborg had told the previous afternoon.' " 

This communication to a friend is a letter to Friiu- 
lein Charlotte von Knobloch, dated Konigsberg, Au- 
gust 10, 1758, and is found in Kant's collected works. 
(Ed. Hartenstein, Vol. II, pp.' 29-43). 

Kant says that of all wonderful stories this account 
of Swedenborg's prophetic vision of the Stockholm 
fire "seerrts to possess the greatest force of evidence 
and takes away all imaginable doubt." He adds : 

" What can be said against the credibility of this event ? The 
friend who writes me this, has investigated all himself not only in 
Stockholm but also in Gothenburg, which he visited about two 
months ago. He knows there the best families and had the op- 
portunity of gathering a complete information from a whole city 
in which most of the eye-witnesses since that short time of 1756 
are still living. He has also given me some account about the way 
how, according to Mr. von Swedenborg, his communion with 
spirits takes place and his ideas about the state of spirits. This 
portrait is strange. I have no time to give it here. How much do 
I wish to question this strange man personally, for my friend is 
not well versed in the methods of questioning for that which in 
such cases can give the most light." 

Did Kant, one of the most critical minds of the 
world, give countenance to a story of telepathic vis- 
ion ? It almost appears so. At least he was confronted 
with an account which he considered in every respect 
reliable. Mr. Gerhard, a believer in spiritualistic 
phenomena, quotes the story of Swedenborg's tele- 
pathic vision as if it were endorsed by Kant. Yet the 
quotation although quite correct, is as it stands nev- 
ertheless false. It is incomplete. Kant does not lend 
countenance to the story. The quotation is evidence 
only of the fact that Kant did not refuse ghost stories 
off-hand but investigated them carefully. Yet after a 
thorough investigation Kant found that there was 
nothing in it, and he was almost ashamed of having 
been the dupe of his own credulity in what is often re- 
garded as a reliable account of an undubitably honest 
and well meaning witness. Kant wrote a book on the 
subject entitled "Dreams of a Visionary explained by 
the dreams of Metaphysics." In a prefatory remark, 
he says : 

" The empire of shades is the paradise of phantastic people. 
Here is an infinite territory where they can build at pleasure. 
Hypochondriac vapors, nursery tales, the marvels of monasteries 
afford building material in plenty. . . . Where is a philosopher 
who has not at least once cut a ridiculous figure by being placed 
between the affirmations of a rational and fully convinced eye 
witness and his inner remonstrance of insuperable doubt ? Shall 
he entirely deny the correctness of all such ghost-apparitions ? 
What argument can he propose against them ? Should he grant a 



3io8 



THE OPEN COURT. 



single one only o£ the tales as probable, how important would this 
concession be ! What astounding consequences are drawn if only 
one such event could be assumed to be proved ! 

" Since it is with many an equally stupid prejudice to disbe- 
lieve without any reason anything o£ that which with some appear- 
ance of truth is told and to believe without inquiry all that which 
is commonly related, the author of this book in order to avoid the 
former was partly carried away by the latter. He confesses, not 
without humiliation, that he was good natured enough to investi- 
gate the truth of certain stories of said kind. He found, — as 
commonly wherever nothing is to be sought, — he found nothing. 
Well 1 This in itself may be a sufficient cause to virite a book ; but 
there was added something else which has oftener than once in- 
duced modest authors to write books — the impetuous request of 
known and unknown friends." 

The problem in my mind is not so much to explain 
the ghost stories as to explain how people of- a scien- 
tific education who have accomplished some great 
things in a certain line of science, such men as Wallace 
and Crooks, can believe in the reality of ghost stories. 
We cannot here attempt to discuss the problem, but 
we may indicate the solution which will explain it. 
The craving for immortality is as strong in man as the 
desire for self-preservation, for both are actually one 
and the same instinct in two forms called by two dif- 
ferent names. Those people who cannot conceive 
the soul in any other way than as an ego so-called, as 
a metaphysical entity behind the actual reality of psy- 
chic life, as a thing in itself independent of time and 
space and possessing an actual existence as a separate 
individual being, — such people will naturally hanker 
after a proof of the reality of such a kind of soul, and 
as actual proofs are missing, like drowning people they 
will catch at straws. 

It is unnecessary to add that if the soul really were 
such a being independent in its action of time and 
space, that proofs of it ought to be plenty, that every- 
body could experiment with his own soul and should 
possess an all-sufficient evidence in his own experience. 

Mrs. Bodington speaks about the object of her ar- 
ticle as a "desperate cause," and I grant it is a des- 
perate cause, nor do I believe that it will ever become 
a hopeful cause. But then suppose that there be some 
truth in the idea of a reality of ghosts, and wraiths, of 
telepathy, telepathic vision, thought-transference, etc., 
how shall the believers ever prove it, if the unbelievers 
reject even the evidence of well reputed, rational, and 
apparently honest eye-witnesses ? The believers will 
say that the case becomes desperate only through the 
stubborn hard heartedness of the unbelievers, and not 
from lack of evidence. What evidence will convince, 
if this be rejected ? Is there no evidence that would 
be accepted ? 

Yes ! There is an evidence, I should say, that I 
would accept as convincing. Apply telepathy to prac- 
tical use and show that it works. Mr. Stead declares 
that it does work, but he is apparently mistaken. He 



says that the Police of London and Chicago occasion- 
ally consult clairvoyants. So I wrote to the Chief of 
the criminal police of Chicago the following letter : 

Xoit IV. McClaughrey, Esq., Chief of Police. 

Dear Sir: The Review of Revieivs contains in its Christmas 
number the following passage concerning " telepathic vision " so 
called : 

"Concerning the enormous advantages which such an astral 
camera would place in the hands of the detective police, I was not 
surprised to be told that the officers of the Criminal Investigation 
Department in London and Chicago occasionally consult clair- 
voyants as to the place where stolen goods are to be found, or 
where the missing criminals may be lurking." 

I have great doubts as to the correctness of this statement, 
and as I am about to discuss the subject in a forthcoming number 
of TJid Open Court, I should like to have a word of information 
from you directly. Yours truly, 

Dec. 29th, i8gi. P. Carus. 

The reply reads as follows : 

So far as I know, no officer of the Police Department of Chi- 
cago, has ever consulted a clairvoyant. If any officer has done 
so it has been on his own account, without any order or counten- 
ance from the undersigned or, as I believe, from any of his prede- 
cessors. 

F. H. Marsh, R. W. McClaughrey. 

Chief Inspector. Gen. Supt. Police. 

Dec. 30, i8gi. 

The two gentlemen when receiving my letter, which 
was delivered in person by our bookkeeper, Mr. M. A. 
Sacksteder, enjoyed, as I expected, a hearty laugh, 
and Mr. Marsh who is in charge of the criminal cases, 
said, if it were sOj it would save them many a sleep- 
less night. 

How much cheaper, more direct, and more exact a 
telepathic communication would be than a cablegram 
and even than a letter, if it were practicable ! How 
convenient would it be to acquire information con- 
cerning some event of importance in history, in the 
courts or anywhere through the assistance of mental 
vision so called. Whenever we are in doubt concern- 
ing some grave case, how welcome would be the as- 
sistance or advice of some ghost endowed with knowl- 
edge and wisdom. If this world of ours were the 
haunting place of ghosts and if we ourselves possessed 
some telepathic capabilities, all our ethics should be 
altered. We should devote all our efforts to the de- 
velopment of our spirituality so called and, we should 
endeavor with might and main to find the key that 
would lock and unlock the fairyland of the ghosts. 

What marvellous possibilities lie hidden alone in 
opening the fourth dimension, which is reserved now 
to ghosts and mediums, for purposes of transfer or 
any other useful employment ! 

As soon as we shall have a civilisation in which 
telepathy is one of the means employed in actual busi- 
ness as telegraphy is now, where the appearance of 
ghosts is as reliable a fact as is now the appearance of 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3109 



witnesses cited before the court, or where the fourth 
dimension of space will be employed for the practical 
purposes of the medical profession as well as of our 
industrial enterprises, then, but not until then, any 
disbelief in ghosts and other miracles will cease, p. c. 



CURRENT TOPICS. 

A Chicago post of The Commercial Travellers Protective As- 
sociation has just been organised at the Grand Pacific hotel, to 
take part in the "social conflict." One o£ the chief objects of the 
association is the protection of commercial travellers against pro- 
tection ; or in the language of the resolution itself, " to secure the 
repeal of all municipal, count)', state, or territorial laws imposing 
or enforcing a license tax on commercial travellers." There must 
be a defect in our political economy when laws made for the pro- 
tection of one class must be repealed for the protection of another. 
It looks like the science of contradictions, and some day, perhaps, 
we shall abandon class legislation altogether. The laws against 
commercial travellers are made for the protection of home trade, 
and they are in logical harmony with our anti-commercial system. 
Commercial travellers are mischievous because they are industrious 
wheels in the machinery of commerce, active and efficient agents 
in the distribution of products. They provide for consumers bet- 
ter goods at lower prices than the local markets can, therefore the 
local merchants and producers must be protected against commer- 
cial travellers by the device of a license tax. This gathering is an 
interesting novelty, for it is the only meeting in modern times of 
any trade, profession, or calling, which has not made a " demand " 
on congress or the state legislature, or on somebody or other for 
some special and affirmative legislation in its own exclusive in- 
terest. 

* * 

One of the great Chicago dailies, in the style of an angry 
schoolmaster reproves the Chicago Freight Bureau for addressing 
the President of the United States as "Excellency" in a letter 
asking the appointment of Mr. Morrison to a place on the inter- 
state commerce commission. With solemn forefinger impressing 
the moral of his lecture on the naughty boys of the Freight Bureau, 
the schoolmaster says, ' ' It ought to revolt the self-respect of every 
American to tag the President of the United States with the puerile 
and pinchbeck handle peculiar to small and effete monarchies. As 
well call the President of the United States Tremendous Monkey 
as Excellency, or anything else except the President." The gram 
mar of that rebuke might be improved, but waiving that, the 
schoolmaster must himself go down to the foot of the class for a 
fault greater than the mistake made by the boys of the Freight 
Bureau. He actually tags the President of the United States with 
the tawdry, illegitimate, puerile, and pinchbeck nickname, "fed- 
eral executive." Oh, the offense is rank ! In sad reproof he says to 
the boys, ' ' Your letter addresses the federal executive as ' Ex- 
cellency ' " ; when he really ought to have said, "Your letter ad- 
dressed the President as Excellency." He even makes Washington 
insignificant by giving him the spurious knighthood known only to 
American snobdom, " the first executive of the nation." If it is in 
bad taste to inflate the presidential dignity by frothy, foreign titles 
like "Excellency," "Highness," and carbonic acid gas of that 
sort, it is worse to shrivel it by mock royalisms of native manu- 
facture, such as "federal executive," "chief executive," and simi- 
lar dilutions of the expressive and lawful title President. 

The failure of the crops in Russia has afforded the American 
people an opportunity in their private capacity to show a bountiful 
nature and a generous desire to relieve the hungry people of that 
remote country. This desire at least is earnest, and if the way 
were clear to send relief, the Americans would not permit a single 



Russian family to perish of hunger. That failure of the crops has 
also given us a chance in our national capacity to patronise the 
Russian government with a good deal of superserviceable sympathy 
on the one hand, and with a swaggering display of insulting su- 
periority oh the other. The Cossacks of the Don, and the multi- 
tudinous Russian tribes, are not considered a highly polished peo- 
ple, but the excuse for them is that they are as yet only a semi- 
barbarous peasantry. What will those Russians, when they read 
the debates in Congress, think of the politeness and good breeding 
of our statesmen, who after an ostentatious display of unsolicited 
assistance, refused it by a vote of 180 to 70, ornamenting the vote 
with gratuitous and insulting comments on the Russian govern- 
ment. " I will not marry you my pretty maid ; nobody asked you 
sir, she said." In like manner, but with invective and reproaches, 
we refuse the Russian government what was never asked for, and 
what perhaps it was presumptuous in us to offer. It is not easy 
to look with patience on the despotic methods of the Czar, although 
some of those methods have been practised by our own magistrates 
with a success that does them credit ; but in this case, the Russian 
law and the Czar are outside the question altogether. Our own 
position as interpreted by congress is humiliating and inconsistent, 
for after promising assistance to the starving Russians on their own 
account, we refuse it on account of their government. 

In TJu' O/ic-n Court for Dec 31st, I said, "Can a man be 
charitable by an agent any more than he can be religious by dep- 
uty ? " This, in referring to a stranger who had handed five 
hundred dollars to Judge Tuley for distribution by Mrs. Tuley in 
her charitable work. The moral I tried to draw was that the 
stranger gave the money only, while Mrs. Tuley gives the charity. 
I fear I was not successful, for I have received a letter from an 
anonymous friend in Boston, answering my question thus, "Rich, 
benevolent people are annoyed beyond measure by beggars, high 
and low, friends and strangers, wise and foolish It a person gives 
five hundred dollars to an institution or to some widely known 
cause, and his or her name is published, they are subjected to such 
continuous pleas for help, that it becomes a nuisance The only 
remedy is anonymous giving. An institution in which I am inter- 
ested has just received in pressing need a thousand dollars, but 
the donor will not give his or her name. This secrecy becomes 
necessary in self-defense. Therefore I reply, 'a man can be char- 
itable by deputy.' " 

* * 

I suspect that my correspondent is the donor of that thousand 
dollars, and takes advantage of my question to explain why he con- 
cealed his name when he gave the money. His argument seemed 
so plausible that I submitted it for the opinion of some persons 
whom I know to be experts in the very religion of self-sacrifice 
and charity. They assure me that the reason given is morally 
and religiously sound, and that a man can be charitable by 
deputy. The jury of experts to whom I submitted the problem 
was composed of three women ; and to them I put the following 
question as a puzzler, "Will the recording angel who keeps 
the eternal records give the donor of that money credit for 
five hundred dollars worth of charity in the judgment ledger of 
good and evil deeds ? " Two of them promptly answered "Yes" ; 
and then I set for them this trap, "What credit will Mrs. Tuley 
get for distributing the money ? " They were not at all confused, 
but fluently replied, " She also will get credit for five hundred 
dollars worth of charity." Then I sprung the trap like a cunning 
lawyer, and with a mocking sneer I said, " So the celestial book- 
keeper gives a thousand dollars credit for five hundred dollars, 
eh." What was my surprise to find myself in the trap, and the 
ladies outside of it saying, "Oh, certainly; for there may be a 
million dollars worth of charity in five hundred dollars, as there 
may be not a penny's worth " ; and they brought in the widow's 



3IIO 



THE OPEN COURT. 



mite as evidence of that. The third woman said that although 
Mrs. Tuley would get credit for five hundred dollars in charity, 
the masculine donor would have to submit to a small discount for 
shirking the distribution of the fund, and therefore she did not 
think that he would get credit for more than four hundred and 
ninety-five dollars. As this was a concession to my argument 
amounting to a paltry five dollars, I rejected it with disdain, and 
as women are too illogical to reason with, I surrender. Although 
not convinced, I throw up my brief, and agree that a man may be 
charitable by deputy. 

Having a foolish weakness for studying both sides of a ques- 
tion, I take a republican paper and a democratic paper, under the 
delusion that the cerebral friction made by their contradictions 
will brighten my faculties and polish up my mind. I am now con- 
vinced that the man who studies only one side enjoys his reading 
more, and keeps bis nerves in better tone than the ambidextrous 
logic shuffler who studies both sides. For instance, picking up 
my papers of Tuesday, I read about the organisation of the Ohio 
senate by the republicans ; and the democratic organ tells me that 
"In the senate an incident occurred which illustrates the partisan 
and revolutionary character of Ohio republican politics." It then 
describes the unseating of Daniel Gaumer, a democrat who it 
claims was lawfully elected, and the seating of George Iden his 
republican competitor who was not elected at all. My republican 
paper, speaking of the same transaction, tells me that "The par- 
tisan and revolutionary attempt of the democrats to seat the fraud- 
ulent "claimant" Mr. Daniel Gaumer, was promptly rebuked by 
the seating of Mr. George Iden the lawfully elected candidate." 
Picking up my papers on Wednesday, I read therein about the organ- 
isation of -the New York senate by the democrats. My democratic 
paper which had been so grievously wounded on Tuesday by the 
wickedness of the Ohio senate, had sufficiently recovered on 
Wednesday to congratulate the civilised world that " As soon as 
the New York senate was organised the democrats righteously and 
patriotically seated Charles A. Walker for the 27th district, which 
was vacant"; and this "partisan and revolutionary " proceeding 
was vehemently stigmatised by my republican paper as "the 
death blow to representative government in the United States." 
Foreigners, who do not appreciate American humor may think 
from the reading of our own papers that party necessity in this 
country consecrates any injustice and sanctifies any wrong. 



Wise is the man, I say again, who reads but one side, for he 
learns only about the wickedness of the opposite party ; while the 
inquisitive innocent who reads both sides, pampers himself into 
cynicism, making himself doubly miserable by feeding on the de- 
linquencies of both parties ; and when he croaks, as a cynic must, 
he makes other people miserable too. Seeking further instruc- 
tion and information by reading both sides, I learn from ray re- 
publican paper that "A bill has been introduced into the Ohio 
legislature to redistrict and reapportion the state, so as to correct 
the disgraceful gerrymander perpetrated by the democratic ma- 
jority in the last legislature ;" and my democratic paper of the 
same date informs me that " A bill has been presented in the New 
York legislature to redistrict and reapportion the state so as to 
correct the disgraceful gerrymander perpetrated by the late re- 
publican majority." The coincidence of expression and thought 
reminds me of the time when Bill Gibbs, an Englishman, and 
Hugh Riley, an Irishman, were opposing candidates for the office 
of Sheriff of Marble county. An English friend of mine was con- 
sulted by a fellow countryman, who inquired which of the candi- 
dates he ought to vote for ; and my friend replied, "Well, they 
both want to plunder the county in the office of sheriff. One of 



them is an English thief, the other is an Irish thief, and it is our 
business to stick to the English thief." The English thief was 
elected ; and therein lies the political ethics of ' ' the two great 
parties." M. M. Trumbull. 

MR. C. S. PEIRCE has resumed his lessons by correspondence in the 
Art of Reasoning, taught in progressive exercises. A special course in logic 
has been prepared for correspondents interested in philosophy. Terms, S30 
tor twenty-four lessons. Address ; Mr. C. S. Peirce, "Avisbe," Miltord, Pa. 



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Mental Evolution. An Old Speculatii 

LLOYD MORGAN. 
The New Civilisation Depends on Mechanical Invention. By DR. W. 

T. HARRIS. 
Religion and Progress. Interpreted by the Life and Last Work of Wathen 

Wilks Call. ByMONCURE D. CONWAY. 
Facts and Mental Symbols. By PROF. ERNST MACH. 
Professor Clifford On the Soul in Nature. By F. C. CONYBEARE. 
Are There Things in Themselves ? LDITOR. 
Literary Correspondence. 

1) France— LUCIEN AliREAT. 

2) Germany. Rece.^t Works in Psychology— CHRISTIAN UFER. 
Diverse Topics, The Clergy's Duty of Allegiance to Dogma and the Struggle 

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CONTENTS OF NO. 229. 

A MODERN VIEW OF GHOSTS. (Concluded.) Alice 

BODINGTON 3103 

GHOSTS AND THE BELIEF IN GHOSTS. Editor.. 3106 
CURRENT TOPICS. The Law Against Commercial Trav- 
ellers. The President's Title. Congress and the Czar. 
Charitable by Deputy. The Folly of Studying both 
Sides. Gen. M. M. Trumbull 3109 



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THE COMPARATIVE METHOD. 

BY ALFRED H. PETERS. 

No -MAN whose recitation days were over when the 
present century entered upon the last third of its ex- 
istence can look through a current scientific or histor- 
ical text book without feeling that something very old 
is attached to him, although his hair be yet unfrosted 
and the springs of life as forceful within him as in the 
days of his youth. This feeling comes not so much 
by reason of what has been added to these depart- 
ments of knowledge, great as are the achievements 
therein, but by reason of the contrast in method and 
tone between the text-book of thirty years ago and the 
one of the present time. For during this interval the 
predominating intellectual habit has undergone a 
change which, unless one has changed along with it, 
puts one farther away from one's own children than 
from the men of the seventeenth centurj'. This change 
consists in the substitution of the comparative in place 
of the dogmatic method of thought. By this method 
all knowledge in anywise related is made to undergo 
one and the same test of criticism. The sharpest of 
lines is drawn between what is and what may be fact. 
Every alleged cause or event is subjected on all sides 
to a most rigid scrutiny, wherefrom it must emerge 
either proven or not proven ; half proof or anything 
short of whole proof, in so far as establishing the fact, 
being tantamount to no proof. With the major part 
of all statement is involved more or less of qualifying 
statement, and in place of much hitherto affirmative 
statement there is a silence, of all evidence in proof 
of the changed mode of thought the strongest. In- 
quirers, while never more eager for facts are less con- 
fident of what is fact. Human movements and insti- 
tutions, all forms of life, and inanimate nature are 
being studied as never before in order to obtain data, 
not for postulates but for propositions. I\nowledge 
thus becomes a kind of graded movement towards 
truth, bearing all shades of relation thereto from re- 
mote possibility to indisputable certitude. 

Under this method the definition of terms as well 
as fixing the determinate degree of evidence, in the 
most part of inquiry, becomes a difficult undertaking — 
so much so that in either case the teacher shrinks from 



positive declaration and rests with declaring his own 
opinion along with the opinions of those others who 
are accepted as most competent authorities upon the 
subject. No single authority as formerly can establish 
a definition for such words as virtue, or wisdom, or 
conscience,, or light, or elasticity, or force. The same 
may be said respecting the sufficiency of whatsoever 
evidence is adduced in favor of any theory or be- 
lief — thinkers and observers being able to do little 
more than to set it forth as clearly as they may 
and leave the correctness of it for time to decide. 
This breaking down of dogmatic lines has precip- 
itated such a deluge of opinion and accompanying 
criticism upon every manner of problem that no one 
any longer may take all learning for his province. So 
many soundings are there of the ever-widening sea of 
thought that a man despairs of making himself famil- 
iar with them all. He must needs either limit his 
study to special waters, or eschew all charts and push 
off into the deep on a voyage of his own. 

The world of intellectual creation, as of science 
and scholarship, is however a limited world wherewith 
the majority is little concerned. Whatever confusion 
and indetermination may exist herein, the great world 
of action commonly is supposed to lie uninfluenced 
thereby. But not thus is the world of action inde- 
pendent of the world of thought. The time spirit — 
that mystic power before which as before fate bow the 
sons of men, is created or at least set in motion for- 
ever by the thinkers, thought being to man as is to all 
nature the element of light. The middle-aged ob- 
server therefore in order to perceive the change which 
has come over men's minds since his school days need 
contrast neither scientific nor historical treatises ; he 
may find well nigh as radical a change wrought through 
application of the comparative method in the world of 
action as in the world of thought. 

Consider the province of industry — the province 
wherein men have most in common — how are the 
lines destroyed which formerty determined the condi- 
tions therein. Who now can lay down any rules for 
business success ? To what man is perpetual readapta- 
tion so much a necessity as to the business man. To 
what a degree of subdivision and interdependence is 



-.y j 
Y ! 



3112 



THE OPEN COURT. 



all industry become refined. What device of science 
or of art; what genius, or courage, or cunning, is 
there that this modern warfare does not employ? 
Nothing so well exhibits the application of the com- 
parative principle to business as the enormous ex- 
pansion of speculation in values — speculation being 
the natural outcome of uncertainty in things both ma- 
terial and immaterial. Formerly speculation as an 
element of the business life was confined to a few ven- 
turesome spirits among the purely trading class in one 
or two great centres of trade. Now every business 
man is a speculator whether he will or no. No one 
can calculate with any certainty upon the conditions 
of supply and demand for a single week, nor upon the 
conditions of production nor the conditions of credit. 
The life of the modern man of business is one long 
exercise in comparison — a balancing of fates against 
fates in the latter- day epic of which he is himself the 
hero. 

One needs hardly to speak of the application of 
the comparative method to the province of politics. 
Such a diversity of views regarding both means and 
ends upon the problem of government was never be- 
fore known. Every system of rule and interpretation 
thereof; every manner of economic and philanthropic 
measure has its advocates and expounders if not its 
longer or shorter period of trial. Legislation is mainly 
a succession of repeals and amendments, the shibboleth 
of today becoming anathema to-morrow, whereof 
concerning the most part the best that can be said is : — 
they were well-meaning experiments. Such a din is 
there over how to govern one another satisfactorily 
that men are in danger of abandoning individual self- 
government, as if liberty in its modern meaning had 
proved too hard for them and must needs have its an- 
cient definition restored. Meantime the callous old 
world makes such shift as it may with the deluge of 
opposing counsel, swinging along its course and fulfill- 
ing its destiny maugre the hubbub of man and all his 
works. 

Confusing as is the effect of the comparative method 
in business and politics, it is even more confusing in 
its application to that province second only to the 
province of morals — the province of taste. Taste or 
the perceptive faculty is a matter about which in a 
double sense there was for a long time said to be no 
disputing. The few who were supposed to have any 
taste either followed the lead of some school of mas- 
ters or accepted institution, or had their standards set 
for them before they were born, as had the multitude 
in so far as the little to which it aspired. But with 
the advance of the comparative idea taste in all things 
whatsoever is become a matter with which the whole 
of civilisation has to do ; vexing the souls of mortals 
with no end of different standards, not only evanescent 



and fleeting of themselves, but with the difference of 
degree therein multiplied a hundred fold. Taste being 
when of high order of such eminent value socially, 
every one desires to be considered in correct taste, and 
as real taste is largely a possession beyond ourselves 
the most part of what is called taste is mere imitation. 
The question continually is : Whose taste is it safest 
to affect? a question hard to determine as the choice 
of a woman's heart or the principles of a professional 
politician. The element of personality appears to be 
stronger in taste than in any other department of hu- 
man opinion. Accuse a man of false politics or false 
philosophy and he may still remain your friend, but 
accuse a man, or still more a woman, of false taste 
and they immediately become your enemy. The mod- 
ern man of the world is as techy of any imputation 
against his taste as was the old-time man of any im- 
putation against his honor. 

But of all provinces of human action the one 
wherein the influence of the comparative method has 
told most is the province of morals, since this province 
is as it were the spring from whence all other streams 
of action proceed. Herein the human mind, anchored 
for so many centuries, is more or less adrift. Every- 
where one finds a diversity of opinion regarding the 
principle which should determine human conduct. 
Upon what foundation is to rest man's conception of 
duty ? To what extent is custom to be accepted as a 
moral criterion ? In how far may conscience be trusted 
or judgment be left to decide the right relation be- 
tween individuals ? Who shall draw the line between 
justice and mercy, between prudence and generosity, 
between self assertion and forbearance ? Questions 
like these are now forced upon every thinking man 
and woman of whom some have one answer and some 
another, and many no answer at all. The old question 
underlying all morality, the question of necessity or 
free will, appears to divide men more than ever, those 
viewing human e,xistence from the standpoint of ma- 
terialism differing among themselves no less than those 
viewing it from the standpoint of supernaturalism. 

The immediate effect of the comparative method 
being subversive rather than constructive, many would 
willingly regard it as no method at all but only a new 
phase of the effort to do away with the difference be- 
tween good and evil. Its disciples are accused of 
vagueness, inconstancy, indifference, superciliousness, 
and what is absurdly called dilettanteism. Man knows 
not what to make of a gospel which neither blesses 
nor curses. He cannot appreciate a faith which con- 
tains any doubts nor give ear to one who puts the ad- 
vocate after the judge. More however than all such 
opposition to it is the dead weight of human inertia — 
that pathetic reverence of men for anything .which 
saves them the labor of thought. But although frowned 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3113 



upon in every stronghold of tradition or of privelege 
and assailed by many alike among the wise and the 
foolish, the comparative estimate of things is every 
day entering more and more into the world's life and 
thought. And inasmuch as our age more than any 
thus far known must reckon with new methods, it be- 
hooves men to inquire diligently into the nature of this 
time-ruling one, when perchance it may be found to 
rest upon no hap-hazard theory but upon a principle 
of approved truth, the same as has every other time- 
spirit since societ}' began. 

This approved truth is the determinating quality of 
degree. Whether in morals or in taste ; whether in 
science, art, politics, society, or business, the com- 
parative method makes degree to be the measuring 
principle. Under this method " All or Nothing " gives 
place to " If not All, Something " — wherein has con- 
sisted man's real rule of life as far back as any record 
of him exists. The comparative method is an effort 
to procure the just measure of things. It does not ad- 
mit anything to be false which is partly true, nor any- 
thing to be true which is partly false. It endeavors 
as far as may be to sift the true from the false, but at 
the same time insists when this cannot wholly be done 
that the true shall not be cast out on account of the 
false. Rather it would for the sake of the true bear 
yet awhile with the false, lest haply some portion of 
truth be cast out therewith. The comparative method 
is the latest wave of that tide which began in Europe 
five hundred years ago, known in history as the re- 
vival of learning. It is a perpetual weighing of testi- 
mony in things past and a perpetual weighing of prob- 
abilities in things to come. It endeavors to trace all 
events to rational causes and is impatient of all alleged 
causes that are not revealed in the event. An inter- 
rogation point is writ large after all its conclusions 
and its every successful experiment is but a prelude to 
wider experiment. Suspense therefore is its natural 
element inasmuch as with it " nothing ever is, but is 
always becoming." Its golden age is not in some far 
back past but forever in the future, how little soever 
the present may warrant the expectation. Its energy 
is active rather than passive, grappling with instead 
of enduring evils — the Occidental as opposed to the 
Oriental spirit — all that distinguishes a centrifugal 
from a centripetal civilisation. 

Half the dispute and much more than half the dis- 
appointment attendant upon the application of the 
comparative method arises from man's slowness to 
accept degree as the determinative principle. Man 
continues to dogmatise even in making comparisons 
and insists upon finality under the new method as 
under the old. This indeed holds less true in the 
province of industry than in the province of morals or 
the province of politics or the province of taste. In- 



dustry is confessedly a constant experiment. What- 
soever methods serve its end better than do existing 
methods very soon supplant them despite all theory 
tradition or established interests. There is less dog- 
matism in business than in any other sphere of hu- 
man activity, wherefore it were well if every thinker as 
well as every man of action might serve a period of 
apprenticeship to the business life. For herein the 
lesson invariably taught is that individuals and ideas 
go only for what they may be worth toward the end in 
view. Nowhere else is the matter of degree so uni- 
formly abided by as the determinating quantity. Si- 
lently for the most part men herein fall inta the 
places where they naturally belong. He who attempts 
to do otherwise either is flung aside or ground into 
powder by the resistless machinery whose direction 
tends by natural law into the fittest hands. 

Very different is the application of the compar- 
ative method in the other fields of human activity. 
Our political, social, and moral life is still very largely 
an effort to invalidate the law of degree. The modern 
theory of politics is as intolerant of the true compar- 
ative principle as was the old. The contest between 
the ins and the outs is indeed participated in by the 
many instead of the few, but the matter of individual 
fitness or worthiness for office is as little regarded as 
ever, if true application of the comparative method in 
politics would bring about as in industry and trade 
the elevation of those most fitted for the business in 
hand. Only however when the state is in extremity 
are these called upon who being mainly in private 
station are at such juncture rarely discovered in time 
to do much more than repair the damage wrought by 
the demagogues and incompetents upon whom leader- 
ship at first devolves. The curse of politics and the 
perpetual obstacle to the comparative method therein 
is the invincible tendency of human nature to ex- 
tremes. When an institution has outlived its useful- 
ness, or when men are disappointed in the working 
of any new institution they almost surely attempt to 
set up in its stead something which is its moral or 
economical antithesis. They cannot be made to be- 
lieve that every principle when carried to an extreme, 
produces a state of affairs no more satisfactory than 
the one produced by the opposite principle. In the 
matters of law and government men forever expect 
and demand too much. 

To this same spirit is due the confusion everywhere 
prevailing in matters of taste. Men refuse to measure 
one another's progress in culture by the standard of 
degree, even while they are thus secretly measuring 
their own perceptive capacity. It appears to be a 
continual injustice of refined human society either to 
ignore or despise those who have made some measure 
of progress toward their own attainment more than 



3IH 



THE OPEN COURT. 



those who have made no progress. It is the old an- 
tipathy of the aristocracy against the middle class — a 
feeling that cannot be returned in kind inasmuch as in 
one case it proceeds from envy and in the other case 
from contempt. There is to be sure a reason for this 
injustice — the incorrigible vanity of the most part of 
such as occupy an intermediate position between the 
bottom and the top. He who has made little progress 
in culture would be esteemed equally with him who has 
made more, and he who has made more with him who 
has made most. If pride was the chief sin of the old 
order vanity is the chief sin of the new. The compar- 
ative principle requires that culture be estimated ac- 
cording to degree. Every grade of culture would then 
receive just recognition, those of a higher grade neither 
despising nor those of a lower grade envying one an- 
other, and most of all, those of the intermediate 
grades resting not upon what they would be but upon 
what they are. 

The strongest opposition however to the compar- 
ative method comes from the province of morals, that 
is to say from that large majority of men and women 
holding to the traditional sanction of morals, repre- 
sented by the various religious communions and all 
whomsoever that believe in an absolute criterion of 
right. To the comparative principle in morals, how- 
ever much they may approve of its application else- 
where, these are unalterably opposed. They acknowl- 
edge no degree either in right or wrong, the highest 
in the one case standing upon the same level as the 
lowest, and the lowest in the other case being equally 
reprehensible with the highest. To many such the 
dogmatic is the only consistent method and "All or 
Nothing " the argument supreme. It has been ever 
man's practice to apply this method collectively rather 
than individually — to require that the whole shall be 
better than the units whereof it is composed. While 
always providing for the limitations of individuals the 
dogmatic method in morals knows nothing of limita- 
tions on the part of society or the state. Men there- 
fore when they would lift a weight of immorality or in- 
justice, instead of putting forth their strength at the 
middle, invariably seize it by one end, thereby causing 
the other end to press heavier than before. One por- 
tion of society is perhaps relieved or improved at the 
expense of another portion. Thus reform is too often 
but a shifting of the burden, conservative and radical 
usually changing names wherever their respective po- 
sitions are reversed. There is both a political and a 
moral economy. Men are slowly conceding a possi- 
bility of the first. They are yet far from conceding a 
possibility of the last. 

Nevertheless the comparative principle is gradu- 
ally transforming our whole existing structure of mor- 
als. The traditional structure exteriorly is indeed but 



little altered and above it still fly the historic stand- 
ards, but in obedience to the time- spirit its defenders 
are striving to put themselves in harmony therewith. 
Both contemporary religion and politics are mainly en- 
deavors to amalgamate the dogmatic and the compar- 
ative methods, a process invariably ending in the ab- 
sorption of the first by the last. In every political 
convention and in every religious council the burden 
of discussion is upon how to make the old bottles hold 
the new wine without bursting, a long-time occupation 
to be sure among doctors of every sort — man's effort 
to compromise with the law of development ; in itself 
a perpetual application of the principle of degree. 
Men in fact are everywhere applying the comparative 
method unawares. Under the forms of the old method 
are working the principles of the new. The prevailing 
sense of the imperfection of existing institutions is an 
assertion of the new spirit. The belief that new in- 
stitutions only are needed to remedy such imperfec- 
tions is an assertion of the old. Of dogmatic specifics 
for the promotion of human welfare no end of trial has 
been made, yet the poor old world remains a hospital 
for incurables as before. Still, from the comparative 
point of view — looking back over the ages, this strug- 
gling race of ours has made some improvement. Had 
it not on the whole done so from the beginning it 
would have perished thousands of years ago, like the 
gigantic sloths and flying serpents. Time is the only 
true reformer working always, where man does not at- 
tempt to force it, in true order, true justice, and true 
taste. 

Many thinkers are accustomed to speak of our time 
as a transition age — a passing period of unrest and 
confusion between institutions outworn and institu- 
tions in process of formation which shall eventually 
be established to abide for many generations as have 
the institutions now crumbling away. The idea of 
rest has ever been one of mankind's comforting fic- 
tions. It's a matter of fact however there is for noth- 
ing possessing life any such state. There is but one 
rest in this world for either nations or individuals — the 
rest of death. Our civilisation may after a while fall 
into certain lines which shall ensure it a larger measure 
of emotional and intellectual peace, but as soon as it 
does so it will cease to be a progressive and dominant 
civilisation. In such event the dogmatic will super- 
sede the comparative method of thought, which is but 
another name for constant transition. Criticism, com- 
petition, and experiment, the disturbing forces of 
western civilisation, form the very essence of the com- 
parative method. But should our civilisation ever 
weary of these forces and substitute in their stead the 
forces of tradition usage and assent, the comparative 
method will by no means perish — it will begin to fer- 
ment in some other part of the world, perhaps in those 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3115 



parts which have been wrapped in the mantle of dog- 
matism during the whole length of their history. For 
the comparative spirit — the effort to get at the just 
measure and the true understanding of things will en- 
dure as long as life continues upon the earth. If one 
civilisation wearies of it another will take it up. 



THE SUNSET CLUB ON THE EIGHT HOUR DAY. 



A REVIEW OF THE DEBATE. 



Work is the great educator of mankind ; every progress made 
is the product of labor, and howsoever much favorable conditions 
may contribute to the general advance, no growth of the human 
soul is possible except by work. Let humanity grow ten times 
richer than it is to-day, men will nevertheless have to work, and 
it is quite possible that they will work just as hard as now and just 
as long as now, even though the eight hour day — perhaps a six 
hour day — may then be the rule for manual labor. 

The debate on the subject was opened by Mr. Salter, who 
representing the affirmative side of the question, briefly stated his 
reason why he was in favor of a reduction of the hours of labor. 
It is, he said, " that the working men may have a chance to come 
nearer living the life of human beings. If we hold that the only 
purpose of man's being here is work, (i e. manual work) then of 
course we should have no quarrel with existing conditions, but if 
we believe that man has a spiritual nature, then we cannot wish 
that his whole time aside from eating and sleeping and perchance 
a little recreation shall be takea up by manual labor." This is a 
good argument and we should say it is generally recognised, so 
much so that one entire day in every week has been set aside as a 
day of rest in which it is expected that man should attend to the 
wants of his spiritual nature. The question is whether the present 
industrial situation admits of a reduction in the hours of work or 
not. Mr. Salter says it does. Referring to the labor saving ma- 
chinery, he says, " it by no means follows that because the laborer 
works less, less will be produced." 

Mr. Murry Nelson who was introduced as the advocate of the 
negative side declared that nobody set himself up as unqualifiedly 
against the eight hour day ; the matter is one of present expediency 
only. Work is a means and not an end. That end is the ad- 
vancement of the race, the making of better men and women. The 
question is not a new one. The working day has been cut down 
before. Before we cut down the hours of the working day another 
notch, let us be sure that we are taking a step toward the advance- 
ment of the race. It is right for labor to band together to further 
its interests and protect its right ; but when men band together 
and say to an outside individual : You must do this and must not 
do that, then the world will rightly call upon such an organisation 
to give good reasons why it interferes with the individual. The 
time of working should not be limited by law ; if a man wishes to 
work over time, he ought to be allowed to do so. 

The debate on the subject grew very lively. Mr. Franklin 
McVeagh said that he for practical reasons had reduced the ten 
hours' manual work of his employees to nine ; and he declares that 
the experiment has not cost him a penny. When he started the 
business a good many years ago, the men lived very near to the 
place. But with the growth of the city they were pressed back 
into the outskirts of the city ; and it was forced upon his mind, 
that if these men had children who went to bed when they ought 
to go, they would never see them except on Sunday. So he de- 
cided, if it did not cost too much, to make the experiment of cutting 
down the time, so as to give them a chance of one hour with their 



family, and he had the gratifying result that, so far as his inves- 
tigations went, it cost him not a penny. 

Professor Orchardson objected to Mr. Nelson's idea of liberty 
that a man should not be compelled to work less than he wishes ; 
and he then spoke of the thousands of plants that lie idle and the 
hundreds of thousands of idle workmen willing and ready to work 
them. He denounced the drones, and the plutocrats and the 
aristocracy that live in idleness. Mr. Brown said that the laborers 
were not free because the natural opportunities that God had given 
to all men were monopolised by a few. 

Mr. Langworthy hinted that, if some are hungry to-night, who 
are willing to work, it is because others have what does not belong 
to them. By letting everybody work sufficiently long to earn a 
living for himself and his family, he hoped to abolish both the 
millionaire and the tramp. What advantage will accrue to the poor 
from the abolition of the rich he did not tell, but I fear the poor 
would be little benefited by this change. The same speaker re- 
vealed the remarkable fact that with every advance in the direction 
of less labor, there had been an advance in the productive power 
of the world. Did not the idea suggest itself to him that the truth 
might be exactly the reverse ? 

Mr. Rosenthal thought that the old domestic relations had 
vanished, and workmen had become members. 

"Mr. Geo. A. Schilling said: I am not an orthodox eight 
hour man. I am a short hour man. I think the time will come 
when humanity will regard eight hours as entirely too long to 
work. But I do think that in the present state of economic de- 
velopment the eight hour day is what we should make the contest 
for. The statesmanship among workmen is not always the best. 
It is not reasonable to expect that it should be. The larger num- 
ber of the labor leaders work eight or ten hours a day at the 
bench, and whatever they attempt to do for the benefit of their 
class must be done after their work is over. They are liable to 
make mistakes. There was a strike recently in our city in the 
furniture trade. Mr. Alex. H. Revell, the senior member of one 
of the largest firms involved, met me in his store a few days be- 
fore the strike and showed me a circular which he had received 
from the Furniture Workers' Union, notifying him that they de- 
sired eight hours to be a day's work on and after a certain date, 
and that if their demand was not grant.-id there would be a gen- 
eral strike in that industry. He called me into his private office 
and endeavored to show me that it was utterly impossible for the 
employers in this city to make so great a concession. He called 
my attention to Rockford, and Grand Rapids, and various points 
in Michigan where labor was cheaper than in Chicago and claimed 
that all these were competing points. Having learned by expe- 
rience — that is, defeats — I was willing to work along the lines of 
least resistance, and I made a fervent appeal to Mr. Revell to do 
what he could, notwithstanding the situation he had described to 
me, to convince his men that he was an eight hour man. I sug- 
gested to him the idea of adopting this change one half hour at 
a time each six months, thus bringing in the eight hour day in two 
years. He sent for his men and made this proposition. They 
said, 'We will take it to the Union.' They did so ; and the states- 
manship or generalship of that body did not 'see the cat' in that 
form. Some of them questioned the motives of Mr. Revell. Some 
said that it was the first sign of a general victory and that Mr. 
Revell was resorting to this means to head them off. They re- 
jected his proposal. The result was a general defeat of the or- 
ganisation in that contest. I think the leaders of the workingmen 
should recognise the fact that great results cannot be attained in 
too short a time." 

Mr. Schilling objected to state-regulation. "I believe," he 
said, "that along the lines of voluntary co-operation the most good 
can be accomplished; and the whole history of the eight hour 
movement proves it, and I state to you frankly that I would sooner 



3ii6 



THE OPEN COURT. 



spend ten weeks with an influential employer of labor to convince 
him of the feasibility and practicability of the short hour move- 
ment than I would spend five minutes with any politician in the 
state of Illinois." 

Mr. Darrow thought that Mr. Schilling was too much afraid 
of the state and was of opinion that an eight hour law could be 
enforced. The eight hour law which actually exists in the state of 
Illinois is not enforced, because it was made by politicians to fool 
the people, not to accomplish anything. Competition, he thought, 
had nothing to do with the matter, and he remarks with some 
humor : 

"It seems to me that this club is bringing about some queer 
results, Mr. Schilling growing conservative and Mr. Nelson and 
Mr. McVeigh growing radical. It may be a good thing, but it is 
a little surprising." 

Mr. Frederick Greeley gave the following story which even 
without comments is full of instruction : " I have a farm," he said, 
"near the city and have for neighbors two gentlemen, one a man- 
ufacturer, and the other I may describe as a philanthropist or 
labor leader. But we are all Farmers Mutual Benefit Alliance 
men. Now these Farmers Alliance men pastured their cows in 
one lot. The cows pastured there in peace for a long time until 
the philanthropist adopted the eight hour system. It worked ad- 
mirably on his farm. But at the end of the eight hours the phi- 
lanthropist came and let down the bars of the pasture and led his 
herd of cows to his barn. When this had been done two or three 
times the other cows belonging to the manufacturer and myself 
began to understand the operation and they joined the union. 
They insisted on an application of the eight hour plan in their 
case and even went so far as to employ force, breaking the fences. 
Our only recourse was a lockout, and we disposed of the entire 
herd of cows — three in all. The manufacturer and myself placed 
our cows on the market at a great loss. We then applied for fresh 
cows on the understanding that they were not to belong to this 
eight hour union. We have secured such cows to the exclusion of 
the philanthropist's cows snd he practices the eight hour system 
on his own domain." 

Mr. Frank H. Scott,, the last speaker, said: "We all agree 
that the hours necessary for each man to earn a living should be 
made as short as possible. The only question left is whether it 
shall be done by law, by enactment of the legislature, or by the 
hand of time itself. I think that it cannot be done by law, for 
there is no law which affords a remedy that is not founded in the 
sense of justice of the community or in the interes's of the com- 
munity to which it is to apply. It is not true that the workingmen 
have no weapons in their hands. They have, and by their asso- 
ciation they have compelled concessions. And they will in the 
future. A law enforcing this eight hour system would be a hard 
ship in many cases. I know of industries which are blessings not 
only to the persons engaged in them, but to those also to whom 
they bring the happiness and joys of life. I know of one that if 
blotted out would destroy to an extent the prosperity of an entire 
section, and I know that that industry cannot be run on a basis 
of less than ten or twelve hours a day. If such a law were en- 
acted it would blot out that industry ; and would that not be an 
injustice to the men engaged in it who are very willing to go on as 
they are now ? I think that time is bringing about the solution of 
this problem. But I also think that there are obstacles in the way 
that ought not to be in the way. It is true that some men live in 
idleness, but that class is very small. Is it not so in your own ex- 
perience ? You are all business men. How many of your ac- 
quaintances are drones and parasites ? If. iherefore, this stirring 
up of ill feeling were done away with, and by patient teaching, 
by conference, we learn where each man's own interest lies, then 
I believe the question would come to its proper solution." 



THE SUNSET CLUB ON THE EIGHT HOUR DA'^. 



COMMENTS ON THE DEBATE. 



BY M. M. TRUMBULL, 

Looking at it as a sentimental question, the advocates of the 
eight hour day had a great advantage in the discussion at the Sun- 
set Club ; even Mr. Murry Nelson, the chief debater on the nega- 
tive side, confessed that his feelings were antagonistic to his argu- 
ment, so he treated the subject in its practical form as one of social 
convenience, or as he himself expressed it as "a matter of present 
expediency only." 

Mr. William M. Salter, who opened the debate on the affirm- 
ative side, took a higher and more spiritual view of it, advocating 
the eight hour day as a measure of justice to the working men, 
deprived under the present system of the time and opportunity for 
moral and mental elevation, a claim which it is the interest and the 
duty of society to concede. He said, "I favor the reduction of 
the hours of labor, so that the working men may come nearer liv- 
ing the life of human beings." This reason was purely ethical and 
sentimental, as Mr. Salter evidently saw, for he tried to give it ma- 
terial strength and substance by showing that the reduction might 
be economically made. He contended that, " working men may 
actually do as much in shorter hours as in longer ones" ; and he 
said, " The hours of labor might be reduced without injuring pro- 
duction " ;• but in this he was unfortunately in opposition to the 
claim and purpose of the working men themselves. 

One of the chitf reasor^s given by the working men for de- 
manding the eight hour day is that a reduction of the hours of labor 
'ii'ill reduce production, and by so doing increase the demand for 
men to make up the deficiency. They bring this to a mathematical 
demonstration, and make it visible by this easy sum in the rule 
of three, " If twenty men can do a job of work in ten hours, 
how many men will it require to do it in eight hours ? " They say 
that the answer triumphantly proves the truth of the doctrine 
"less hours, more men." 

The rule of three argument, though so candid in form is falla- 
cious because all the terms of the problem are not given. The 
relation of all the product of all the labor in the community to the 
demand for laborers is concealed ; and the arithmetic assumes 
that the job of work must be done, and that the employer can just 
as easily pay twenty-five men as twenty for doing it. The Amer- 
ican working men claim as its meritorious effect that fewer hours 
employ more men by decreasing products ; and this claim was also 
made by the Trades Unions of England in the congress held at 
Newcastle in October. 

Mr. Salter placed himself on the minority side of the working 
men when he said that it was " a side issue whether an eight hour 
working day should be, or can be got by legislation." Although 
an intelligent and respectable minority of the working men agree 
with Mr. Salter in that opinion, yet the demand of the great ma- 
jority is vehement for an eight 'b.oyyc &2.y cstaHished hy law; and 
this also, while not the tinanimous feeling, was the overwhelming 
sentiment of the English Trades Unionists at Newcastle. 

As an ethical and humanitarian plea, Mr. Salter's address was 
inspiring, and very strong, as for instance, when he said, "If ma- 
chinery is introduced into any business, all of those employed in 
it ought to have some benefit therefrom," and in other places it 
was even more potential as an appeal to the consciences of men ; 
but as an economic argument it was deficient in evidence, and it 
was effectively challenged by Mr. Eastman who said in referring 
to the claim that a reduction of hours would not reduce products, 
"When that is proven the question is settled." Certainly, for 
there can be no sense in requiring men to work ten hours a day, 
for a result that may be achieved in eight hours. 

Mr. Murry Nelson, while patronising the sentimental side 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3IT7 



enough to concede that the eight hour day is something that per- 
haps " ought to be," treated the subject as one of e>:pedient econ- 
omics, and he measured every bit of Mr. Salter's argument with 
an inexorable two fool rule. The strength of his position was that 
"no interference by statute or any other regulation can be sus- 
tained in the labor market or in any other market against the law 
of supply and demand " ; which was as much as to say that it is as 
easy to shorten the natural day by statute as the working day. 
Mr. Nelson is evidently of opinion that the supply of product, and 
the demand for laborers, are so closely related that they must rise 
or fall together ; and under our present social system I think that 
he is economically right, 

Mr. Nelson took the individualistic side, and insisted that 
every man should o-m and control his own time: and he said, 
"There can be no greater tyranny than limiting or increasing the 
hours of labor against the will of the laborer." Allowing proper 
discount for the exaggeration, it seems difficult to assail this posi- 
tion either, unless we abandon the principle of individual freedom. 
At the same time, it is easy for us to soothe ourselves into con- 
scientious repose by the aid of an abstract principle wrenched 
away from the actual facts of life, out of which principles grow, 
and by which they must be qualified There is a communism of 
labor, wherein it is also a principle that as there is only so much 
work to be done, and a superabundance of men to do it, that work 
should be fairly shared among all the laborers, and workers 
ought not to throw others out of employment by monopolising 
more than their own ration. To enforce this doctrine by law is 
undoubtedly tyrannical, and so are hundreds of other laws passed 
in restraint of individual freedom ; and which laws we bring within 
the principle of special circumstance. This communism of labcr 
may be a mistake according to the rules of political economy, but 
it must be considered when we are discussing the labor problem, 

Mr. Nelson further said that "the question as to how the la- 
borer will spend his leisure time gained by shorter hours is im- 
portant"; meaning of course, important as affecting the justice or 
expediency of the eight hour day. In this I think that Mr Nelson 
was clearly wrong, and inconsistent with his own demand that the 
laborer shall be free. The question as to how a workman will 
spend his money never enters into the wages contract between the 
hirer and the hired ; nor is the matter of a man's right to certain 
hours of leisure to be affected by the impertinent question. How 
will he spend those hours ? 

The most practical and important rev-elation that appeared in 
the whole debate was the following statement made by Mr. 
Franklin McVeagh, "In the wholesale merchandise business ten 
hours has for a long time been the regulation for manual labor. 
I have tried the experiment during the past two years of nine 
hours, and I am obliged to say that to the best of my knowledge 
and belief it has not cost my firm a penny." 

The testimony given by Mr. McVeagh, verified by actual ex- 
periment in a great business, was a strong reinforcement to Mr. 
Salter, for it was worth a hatful of economic laws and speculative 
augury. Slill, as a very exact and literal member of the club re- 
marked, it was not an eight hour but a nine hour argument. While 
this was true, it was a surrender of one hour to Mr. Salter; and it 
was more than that ;' it was evidence that a humane cause even 
when politically or economically weak, may be morally very 
strong. Had there not been an eight hour agitation, it is not 
likely that Mr. McVeagh would ever have tried his nine hour 
plan, and the unscientific appeals of the eight hour agitators, may 
have reached the hearts of other men who mix conscience with busi- 
ness, and risk profits in moral experiments like that nine hour day. 

The concession made by Mr. McVeagh ought to have been a 
consolation to at least two men who were present at the Sunset 
club, Mr. Salter himself, and Mr. George A. Schilling, for these 
were conspicuous agitators in the eight hour movement of i8S6, 



and the effect of their agitation on men like Mr. McVeagh is a 
testimonial that disastrous as their failure appeared to be, their 
work was not altogether lost. 

It was remarked that both Mr. Salter and Mr. Schilling had 
modified their views, not as to the justice of the eight hour day, 
but as to the means of getting it ; and there was great significance 
in Mr. Schilling's remark that "As to state regulation I am en- 
tirely in harmony with Mr. Nelson, but in that I believe I am in 
a minority among the working men. I think the general tendency 
of the thought of organised workmen is that if they could secure 
the enactment of a law regulating the hours of labor they would 
take it." As for himself he believed, "that along the lines of 
voluntary cooperation the most good can be accomplished "; and, 
said Mr. Schilling, "the whole history of the short hour move- 
ment proves it." 

Mr. C. S. Darrow criticised Mr. Schilling for the conservative 
tone of his remarks, and said that an eight hour law could be en- 
forced as well as any other law ; and he inquired why, since the 
power of production had multiplied itself twenty times in fifty 
years, the working people had not received their share of the pro- 
duct of this power. He declared that competition had nothing to 
do with the perpetuation of the ten hour working day. He re- 
jected all political and economic reasons for and against the eight 
hour day, and advocated it on ethical grounds only, saying, 
"Whether or not you believe in the eight hour day, is a ques- 
tion of sentiment alone, and depends solely on whether you be- 
lieve in righteousness." 

Like a ghost at the banquet came the declaration of Mr. Ed- 
ward O. Brown, that the laborer was not free, and hence, all the 
previous reasoning was vain because it had no application to the 
exact status of the workingmen. He scornfully swept away the 
freedom of contract argument by declaring that the laborer could 
not sell his labor in a free market because he was compelled to 
make his bargain under the duress of hunger. He contended in 
effect that both parties must trade under equal conditions to make 
it a free contract, and he said, "It is not a free contract which 
tells a man 'you must go to work for what you can get, or starve.' " 

Mr. Brown made a very strong point of the fact that the Sun- 
set club was discussing whether or not the eight hour day should 
be given to the workingmen, and this, he said was proof in itself 
that the laborers were not free to decide. " Under our present 
social conditions," he said, " the workingmen have no free choice ; 
and this is the reason why employers discuss whether or not they 
will reduce the houis of labor." 

Mr. Brown contended further that under the present syslem 
the hirer imposes conditions which the hired is compelled to ac- 
cept, and this though in form a mutual agreement is not a free 
contract. On the one side is the ownership of the raw materials 
of all production, the very elements of life, and health, and com- 
fort ; on the other side is the ownership of nothing but muscle, 
and brawn, and brain. Here, according to the argument of Mr. 
Brown, the unequal relations of the parties to the subject matter 
of the agreement deprive it of all the qualities of a free contract. 
" If you look into this question," he said, "you will see that the 
reason why the workingmen are not able to settle this question 
for themselves is because the gifts of God, the natural opportuni- 
ties of the earth, which were intended for all men, have been 
taken for the few." 

There was more discussion, but Mr. Brown's impeachment of 
the social arrangement which practically deprived the laborer of 
any voice in the decision, and made it all dependent on the con- 
science of the employer, puzzled the club, and left no basis of 
agreement between the sentimental and the economic side. Yet 
the feeling was almost unanimous, that in some way or other, in 
order to make society itself respectable, there ought to be some re- 
duction in the length of the working day. 



3ii8 



THE OPEN COURT. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

CONCILIATION OF SCIENCE WITH RELIGION. 

To the Editor of The Open Court :— 

In The Open Court, No. 226, Mr. John Burroughs remarked, 
" Our knowing faculties are certainly outstripping our intuitions 
and our devotional instincts," and inquires, " What will be the 
upshot ? " " The upshot " will be that mankind will leave religion, 
which is but vagaries of the human mind, for pure science, just as 
fast as evolution goes on and fits mankind for it Nature has no 
use for the useless ; and religion is useless to the mind that is fitted 
for science. But you seem to have an idea that " the upshot " will 
lead to religion ; for to what has been said about " fast approach- 
ing an era of irreligion, you say, " that is not so." .... " The 
fact is that we begin to know what religion is." You admit that 
religious subjects have been deeply probed and that there is a con- 
flict between science and religion, and that " if religion is to be 
considered as the superstitions contained in the old religions, this 
age certainly is the least religious of all." 

Now if there is a conflict between science and religion, one 
side or the other must be victorious in the end. Do you mean to 
say that religion will be victorious? You say further : "But if 
religion is to be considered as the truth in the old religions, we 
are nearer to it (religion) than ever." If there is any truth in the 
old religions it is about time we had a little of it demonstrated, so 
that science can verify it. There is only one kind of truth ; and 
that is scientific. I don't know of one single truth in religious 
literature but what has been taken from science. There are not 
two real views of the universe and man's relation to it, when one 
is opposed to the other. Religion has presented the false view, 
and science is slowly but surely eating religion up, so that Mr. 
Burrough's question, " Will religion survive science,'' will be an- 
swered negatively. It will not do to assume that religion is some- 
thing else than what all scholars have understood it to be. Tht re 
must be a credential to back up such an assertion. Assumption 
will not pass for authority now. The only pope in the domain of 
science is a natural credential, and if " we are approaching a new 
reformation which will be more radical and consistant than that 
of Luther," tt must be seated upon a different basis than that refor- 
mation was. If it is to be original it cannot be founded upon a 
religious basis ; // must have Iridli for authority — religion never had 
truth. If it should come to pass that the lowly Nazarene taught 
truth and that truth mixed with error is found in the scriptures' 
that would not help religion any, because religion has expressed 
itself in dogmas, one conflicting with the other. If such should 
come to pass it would be a case of science being established' 
When Martin Luther set up the standard of justification by faith 
against the doctrine of justification by works, he did not set up 
science against religion ; he simply laid more stress upon that re- 
ligious dogma, and Rome laid greater weight upon the other. His 
movement was not so much a reformation as it was a change of 
religious base. The "new reformation" will indeed "be more 
radical and consistant than that of Luther," for it will be based 
upon science alone. Man's relation to the Universe is far difTerent 
from the standpoint of evolution, than that which religion por- 
trays. He is not a subject of probation, put here to see what he 
will do, according to the teachings of religion, but he is a sojourner 
undergoing development by the process of evolution. Religion is 
the expression of false states of consciousness which were intuitive 
and subjective, but they will all disappear before the rising sun of 
science. With science there is logical authority, but with religion 
there is none save in its anathemas. " Go ye into all the world 
and preach the gospel to every creature" was born of subjective 
guess — came from a human mind that was not objectively ac- 
quainted with the difficulties that would have to be surmounted ; 



came from a mind that did not know that millions were locked up 
hard and fast in the embrace of other religions that might outlive 
his own. All the gods, devils, and hells of religion were born of 
subjective guess also ; the same is true of all its dogmas, not one 
of them relate to anything that is real. If I am mistaken I want 
to be corrected. If there is any truth in the old religions let it 
come to the front so that I can do them justice ; so that they will 
not be defamed by this growing irreligious age. 

John Maddock. 
[Mr. Maddock's definition of Religion differs widely from ours. 
The religion of a man as we understand the term is his world-con- 
ception regulating his conduct. The old religions are based upon 
the science of the past ; to base religion upon the science of the 
present is the object of Tlie Open Court. — Ed.] 



I AM. 

BY VOLTAIRINE DE CLEYRE. 

I AM ! The ages on the ages roll ; 

And what I am, I was, and I shall be : 

By slow growth filling higher Destiny, 
And widening, ever, to the widening Goal. 
I am the Stone that slept ; down deep in me 

That old, old sleep has left its centurine trace ; 
I am the Plant that dreamed ; and lo ! still see 

That dream-life dwelling on the Human Face. 
I slept, I dreamed, I wakened : I am Man i 

The hut grows Palaces ; the depths breed light ; 

Still ON ! Forms pass; but Form yields kinglier Might ! 
The singer, dying where his song began. 

In Me yet lives ; and yet again shall he 

Unseal the lips of greater songs To Be ; 

For mine the thousand tongues of Immortality. 

MR. C. S. PEIRCE has resumed his lessons by correspondence in the 
Art of Reasoning, taught in progressive exercises. A special course in logic 
has been prepared for correspondents interested in philosophy. Terms, S30 
for twenty-four lessons. Address ; Mr. C. S. Peirce, "Avisbe," Milford, Pa. 

THE OPEN COURT. 

PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY BY 

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CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. 

CONTENTS OF NO. 230. 

THE COMPARATIVE METHOD. Alfred H. Peters. 3111 
THE SUNSET CLUB ON THE EIGHT HOUR DAY. 

A Review of the Debate. Editor 311S 

THE SUNSET CLUB ON THE EIGHT HOUR DAY. 

Comments on the Debate. M. M. Trumbull. . .■ 3 116 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

Conciliation of Science wgth Religion. [With Editorial 

Note ] John Maddock 3118 

POETRY. 

I Am. Voltairine de Cleyre 3118 



N'T" . .iRRY 

C I C /■ r o 



The Open Court. 

A ■SSTEEKLY JOURNAL 

Devoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion -with. Science. 



No. 231. (Vol. VI.— 4.) 



CHICAGO, JANUARY 28, 1892. 



I Two Dollars per Year. 
j Single Copies, 5 Cents. 



Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



ETHAN ALLEN'S ORACLES OF REASON. 

BY MONCURE D. CONWAY. 

Since the publication of Sir Isaac Newton's " Prin- 
cipia " the English reading world has been steadily 
becoming Unitarian. People of middle age can re- 
member the rapidity with which the next great scien- 
tific generalisation, that of Darwin, revolutionised the 
thought of the world. But Newton's conception of 
the unity of nature lay hid in Latin for forty- two years 
after it was printed (1687), remaining thus the posses- 
sion of the learned, chiefly of the clergy. During that 
time Newton himself developed his hypothesis, adding 
in further editions conclusions which gave the principle 
bearing on theology. In 1708 he added these pregnant 
words : "Perhaps the whole frame of nature may be 
nothing but various conte.xtures of some certain ether- 
ial spirits or vapours, condensed as it were by precipi- 
tation ; and after condensation wrought into various 
forms, at first by the immediate hand of the Creator, 
and ever after by the power of nature." In anonymous 
writings Newton helped to revive anti-trinitarian the- 
ology, which was pretty strong by the middle of the 
eighteenth century ; but his subtle attack on super- 
naturalism, of which the above sentence was the most 
forcible, was left to be developed by the deists. 

In America the pioneer of Deism was Ethan Allen. 
His book (pp. 477, 8 vo.) bears the following extensive 
title: "Reason the only Oracle of Man, or a Com - 
penduous System of Natural Religion. Alternately 
adorned with Confutations of a variety of Doctrines 
incompatible to it ; Deduced from the most exalted 
Ideas which we are able to form of the Divine and 
Human Characters, and from the Universe in General. 
By Ethan Allen, Esq. Bennington, State of Vermont. 
Printed by Haswell & Russell. M,DCC,LXXXIV." 

The negative part of the book is mainly incidental 
to its chief aim, which is to build up a system of nat- 
ural religion on the basis of a deit)' expressed in the 
external universe, as interpreted by the reason of man, 
in which the author includes the moral consciousness. 
The origin of the conception of a superintending power 
is traced to the sense of dependence on the laws of na- 
ture. From study of those laws reason discovers the 
perfections of that power, though its mode of exist- 



ence is incomprehensible. Order implies an orderer, 
harmony a regulator, motion a mover, and benefits 
goodness. Chaos would prove a Creator, but order 
and beneficent design are necessary to prove a Provi- 
dence. "As we learn from the works of nature an 
idea of the power and wisdom of God, so from our 
own rational nature we learn an idea of his moral per- 
fections." 

God being self-existent and eternal (this is assumed) 
is the efficient Cause, but cannot be called the First 
Cau^e. This would indicate a beginning, which eter- 
nity excludes. The Creation is equally eternal with 
God. "To suppose a king without subjects, parents 
without issue, or a God without a providence, is equally 
chimerical, and to suppose a providence previous to 
creation is as romantic a supposition as either of the 
former ; for on this position there could have been no 
existencies or creatures to govern or provide for," and 
consequently no display of those perfections essential 
to the being of a God. Finite souls must for the dis- 
play of divine goodness (essential to the conception of 
deity) have always existed, which is no more difficult 
to suppose than their eternal existence in the future. 
But creation is distinct from formation. "Creation 
affords the materials of formation or modification, and 
that power of nature called production gives birth to the 
vast variety of them ; but production could not be from 
nothing ; formation and modification are therefore the 
production of creation." 

By comparing the sentence of Ethan Allen just 
quoted with the second clause of Newton's sentence 
given above, it will be observed that the ideas are sub- 
stantially the same. The " various forms " supposed 
by Newton to have been primarily wrought by the 
Creator correspond to the eternal beings supposed b)' 
Allen to have eternally exemplified divine wisdom, re- 
production and modification being attributed by both 
to the power of nature. 

Allen deduces from his premise the diffusion of 
finite intelligences throughout infinitude. There could 
be no exercise of divine perfections " merely in re- 
pleting immensity with a stupid creation of elements, 
or sluggish, senseless, and incogitative matter." God 
could constitute a nature adapted to the sun, im- 



3I20 



THE OPEN COURT. 



breathing flame as we do air, even as some animals 
live in water where others would perish. In Allen's 
view of the aim and end of creation there is discern- 
ible a republican departure from the autocratic dogma 
that it is all for the glory of God. " That whole which 
we denominate by the term nature, which is the same 
as creation perfectly regulated, was eternally connected 
together by the creator to answer the same all glorious 
purpose, to wit : the display of the divine nature, the 
consequences of which are existence and happiness to 
being in general." "The good of being in general 
must have been the ultimate end of God in his crea- 
tion and government of his creatures." As these crea- 
tures are declared to be coeval with the deity, and 
their rational existence necessary to the existence of 
his qualities, we have here something like a divine 
commonwealth supplanting the divine kingdom. 
"Thy commonwealth come ! " was, it is said, used in 
the Lord's prayer by some of Cromwell's clergy. 

But it is necessary in this eternal Commonwealth 
that man shall be free. With an omniscient deity at 
its head this was not easy, and Allen toils through 
twenty-five pages to harmonise human free-agency 
with divine infinitude. He does indeed advance a 
step, which was a bold one in 1784; he gives up the 
absolutism of God as to power. "The infinity of the 
divine nature does not include all things, though it in- 
cludes all possible perfections ; if it included all things 
it would include all imperfections also, which is inad- 
missible .... it does not include the actions of free 
and accountable agents, for that they are more or less 
imperfect and sinful ; though his providence sustains 
their power of agency, for God cannot control the ac- 
tions of free beings." But here Allen draws the line ; 
he cannot give up the omniscience, though he vainly 
struggles with its consequences. He verbally shifts 
the issue from Foreknowledge : there is no before or 
after in the divine knowledge, — it is one eternal Now. 
God does indeed know all events and actions through- 
out eternity, but his knowledge does not necessitate 
the actions ; the actions necessitate his knowledge. 
This of course only shifts divine responsibility for the 
actions back on the all-inclusive act of creation. Allen 
had really left himself an escape from his dilemma, 
had he only seen it, in previously saying that creation 
never had a beginning, but was co- eternal with God. 
He might as well have rejected the word "creation" 
altogether; then, with the help of a little agnosticism, 
he might find his deity expressed in the good part of 
nature, and omniscient concerning the rest without 
being able to control its imperfections. But funda- 
mentally it was the divine personality that made his 
difficulty. That the author was not satisfied with his 
own argument may be inferred from his saying at last 
that the subject is so intricate that "it would need a 



volume to clearly investigate it, which at a future pe- 
riod I purpose to do." The volume was never written. 
Though he obtains man's freedom it is pretty much in 
the revolutionary way by which political freedom had 
been secured, — the extra-constitutional way : man's 
free agency is a "reality," it is established in our 
' ' consciousness, "in " our notions of right and wrong, 
or of moral good and evil." This is sufficient to use 
against Paul, especially as Paul was not in Benning- 
ton just then. Paul is rebuked for comparing God to 
a potter who has a right to make his vessels for honor 
or dishonor as he pleases. "The apostle's argument 
is not applicable to the government of rational be- 
ings; for it is of no consequence to a lamp of clay 
whether it be moulded into, etc."* 

Our author next proves the unreasonableness of 
the notion that finite sin is infinitely punished. He 
accepts the belief in future punishment, characteristi- 
cally, on the suffrage of mankind, but not its eternity, 
since there the majority are in conflict with the higher 
law — justice. He has four pages headed "Of Phys- 
ical Evils," but, as with all deistical writers, his eyes 
are closed to the real problem. It is merely stated 
that physical evils are inseparable from animal life. 
"As they began existence in a necessary dependence 
on each other, so they terminate together in death." 
Omnipotence itself, we are told, could not, without 
self-contradiction, make animal life indissoluble ; why 
not, is left unexplained ; nor is a word said of the 
agonies not necessary to dissolution. Had Paul been 
in Bennington he might have abandoned his potter- 
and-clay metaphor, and asked concerning many a suf- 
fering creature, why was it so tortured ? 

Close and extended argument is given to the sub- 
ject of immortality. The existence of a soul is argued 
from the difference between sensation and reflection. 
The survival of the soul is inferred from the inde- 
structibility of matter, the injustice involved in per- 
mitting the wrongs of life to go unredressed, the uni- 
versal expectation of mankind, conformity of the hope 
with the aim of Providence in creation to subserve 
thinking beings, divine benevolence. 

It is an indication of the distance orthodoxy has 
travelled since 1784 that Ethan Allen then devoted 
nine pages to prove that human Reason is not de- 
praved. Little could he dream that after all his ar- 
guments from external nature were fossilised, the or- 

*The last religious essay ever written by Paine was a criticism on Ro- 
mans is. 18 seg. He says: "The Predestinarians, o£ which the loquacious 
Paul was one, appear to acknowledge but one attribute in God, that oi power, 
which may not improperly be called the physical attritnite. The Deists, in 
addition to this, believe in his moral attributes, those of justice and goodness. 
. . . Paul says, ' Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, why hast 
thou made rae thus '? Yes if the thing felt itself hurt, and could speak, it 
would say it. . . . It is an offense to God's attributes of justice, goodness, 
and wisdom, to suppose he would treat the choicest work of creation like in- 
animate and insensible clay." 



THE OPEN COURT. 



thodox would be adducing human reason as the evi- 
dence of God's existence ! 

I will quote here a rather remarkable passage : 

" Virtue did not derive its nature merely from the omnipotent 
will of God, but also from the eternal truth and mo'ral fitness of 
things ; which was the eternal reason why they were eternally ap- 
proved by God, and immutably established by him. to be what 
they are; and so far as our duty is connected with those eternal 
measures of moral fitness, or we are able to act upon them, we 
give such actions or habits the name of virtue or morality. But 
when we in writing or conversation say that virtue is grounded on 
the divine will, we should at the same time include the complex 
idea of it, that the divine will which constituted virtue was eter- 
nally and infinitely reasonable." 

In this passage we see arbitrariness disappearing 
from the deity. At the same time he is not becoming 
a figure-head, like an English monarch, but a consti- 
tutional governor approved by his constituency of 
moral intelligences. Admitting, says Allen, the so- 
called "revelations," claimed by various religions, 
they could be but transcripts from the original revela- 
tion of nature. "The knowledge of nature is the rev- 
elation of God." Miracles are inadmissible because 
they would be alterations in the constitution of nature 
and imply its previous imperfection. "That which 
we understand is natural, and that which we under- 
stand not we cannot understand to be miraculous." 
Our author reproves prayer. If God were moved by 
prayer to alter his providence, he does not govern 
by infinite reason, but "is governed himself by the 
prayer of men." Jehovah declares he will smite Israel 
with pestilence and disinherit them. Moses adver- 
tises him of the injury it will do his (Jehovah's) char- 
acter among the nations. Jehovah said, "I have par- 
doned according to thy word." "God had the power 
but Moses the dictation of it." 

I need not, however, proceed with the negative 
part of Ethan Allen's book. His disquisition on the 
vague and contradictory character of so-called proph- 
ecies, on the philosophical absurdity of a divine Trin- 
ity, on the story of Eve and the serpent, on the no- 
tions of imputed sin and imputed righteousness, on 
the existence of Satan, on the impossibilities attend- 
ing the theory of infallible manuscripts which would 
need infallible preservation and translation, are suffi- 
ciently familiar. I have aimed rather to condense his 
constructive scheme of natural religion. It will be 
seen that this, as compared with the English deism of 
his time, has some distinctive features. It is more 
humanised in that it subjects the divine nature to in- 
terpretation by the moral nature of man, with which 
it is made to conform. It bears traces, also, of the 
influence of the revolution which had abolished the 
idea of arbitrary rule and prerogative. God is no 
longer a monarch but a president administering and 
executing the Constitution and laws of the universe 



not for his own glory but for the public welfare of the 
universe. Louis Blanc says that in the debate in the 
French Constitution (revolutionary) 1793, as to the 
recognition of God in the Constitution, the opposition 
to it was a revolt of conscience : " They have made 
him sanction so many crimes, this King of kings .'" 
They had just executed one king, and should they 
adore the invisible Will which enthroned him ? They 
had not heard our Green Mountain "oracle" announc- 
ing, albeit vaguely, a Constitutional God. 



OUR CLERGYWOMEN. 

BY F. M. HOLLAND. 

There has been a great change in public opinion 
since 1840, when four-fifths of the men who had been 
working with Garrison left him, mainly because he 
insisted on allowing women to write and speak for the 
slave. No female delegate to a temperance conven- 
tion would now be prevented, merely on account of 
her sex, from speaking on the religious aspects of tee- 
totalism. But this is the way that Rev. Antoinette 
Brown was silenced in 1853, when the male teetotallers 
were so violent against her that Garrison, who knew 
all about mobs, said " I never saw aaything more dis- 
graceful." Miss Brown was then the only woman who 
held a pastoral charge ; and the indignation at her 
presumption was so general that she said, " The church 
has cast me off." There were 164 other clergy women 
enrolled with her in the census of 1880 ; which showed 
that the number had increased 146 per cent, since 
1870, while that of clergymen increased but 47 per 
cent. There were 43,807 men to 67 women in 1S70, 
and 64,533 to 165 in 1880; so that the proportion of 
women rose from 15 in 10,000 to 25. The number is 
undoubtedly much greater now than ever before ; and 
it is also to be remembered that there are 350 female 
preachers among the Quakers, while the Hallelujah 
Lasses and Captains in the Salvation Army must not 
be overlooked. The recent opening to women of the 
Hartford Theological Seminary by the Congregation- 
alists is an event of much importance, especially as 
most of the clergywomen have been ordained in com- 
paratively small sects, like the Unitarian, Universal- 
ist, Christian, Free Will Baptist, German Methodist, 
and Wesleyan Methodist. The Congregationalists have 
several women in the pulpit, and the Methodist Epis- 
copal church has Rev. Annie H. Shaw ; but the Uni- 
versalists have ordained about 50 clergywomen, and 
have now 37 enrolled on a list containing the names 
of about 700 preachers, a proportion of over five per 
cent. The Unitarian Year-Book for 1892 gives the 
names of 17 women among about 500 active or retired 
ministers. Most of the 17 have been ordained since 
1880, and more than half of the parishes under their 
charge are in the North West. No statistics, how- 



3122 



THE OPEN COURT. 



ever, are so significant as are names like those of Lu- 
cretia Mott, Mary A. Livermore, AnnaGarlin Spencer, 
and Julia Ward Howe. 

And there are many other facts which must be 
weighed carefully to enable us to see what a place cler- 
gywomen are likely to hold in the church of the future. 
Two hundred and fifty j'ears ago, public opinion did 
not permit women to act on the stage in England ; 
and they had to wait until prejudice subsided, before 
they displayed their unrivaled powers of fascinating 
great audiences. No one knew what woman's capacity 
for oratory was, until Anna Dickinson spoke. The 
demand of the theatre for actresses, and of the platform 
for lady readers and lecturers, is now so fully and ac- 
ceptably supplied, that we can be sure that the same 
will be the case with the pulpit, as soon as its doors 
are thrown wide open. As yet they are only ajar. 
Make it as easy to get a place in the pulpit as on the 
stage, and clergywomen will soon be as numerous and 
popular as actresses. As for writing sermons, women 
cannot be expected to do it even as ably as men do, 
until they are not only as carefullj' trained for the 
work, but as highly honored and rewarded for success. 
Even now, however, the writings of Harriet Beecher 
Stowe, Charlotte M. Yonge, Frances Power Cobbe, 
Elizabeth Barrett Browning, and many other popular 
authors show that if we wish women to furnish the 
best of sermons, as well as the best of religious essays, 
poems, and novels, we have only to say the word. 

It would be absurd to suppose that the sex which 
is peculiarly fond of hearing sermons, and believing in 
them, is peculiarly unfit for writing them. If woman's 
intellect differs at all by nature from man's, it is in the 
direction which makes her more fit to work for the 
church. To tell what she has actually done would 
take many volumes. The Countess of Huntingdon 
was so indefatigable in founding and overseeing chap- 
els as to be called the Pope Joan of Methodism ; and 
that mighty movement was started in this country by 
Barbara Heck, who persuaded the first preacher here 
to begin the work which he had neglected for six years 
after coming to America. Other denominations might 
furnish similar instances ; and much of their prosperity 
is due to the energy and ability with which women 
manage Sunday schools and sociables, as well as fairs, 
• suppers, dramatic exhibitions, concerts, and other 
pleasing devices for raising funds. Women enjoy an 
almost complete monopoly of all those kinds of church- 
work which get no pay; and their exclusion from the 
kind which is paid highly, at least in comparison, can- 
not be ascribed to any desire to benefit the sex. Per- 
sonal experience satisfies me that there is no occupa- 
tion which imposes so little physical or mental strain 
upon those really fit for carrying it on, and gives so 
many leisure hours, holidays, and long vacations. 



How many women who are earning a living have such 
opportunities for taking a fortnight's rest as the system 
of pulpit-exchanges and labors of love offers to minis- 
ters ? These latter are certainly a very long-lived 
class, and find time to do an unusual amount of literary 
work on non-professional subjects ; while the general 
conviction that it is a duty to contribute liberally for 
supporting clergymen enables most of them, I think, to 
receive larger salaries than would be paid them else- 
where. It is also to be remembered, that the unpre- 
cedented activity of modern philanthropy is partly 
due to gifted individuals, like Florence Nightingale, 
Mary Carpenter, Dorothy Dix, and Clara Barton, and 
partly to magnificent organisations like the Women's 
Christian Temperance Union, with its three hundred 
and fifty thousand working members, the Sanitary 
Commission, which raised twenty- five million dollars 
for our soldiers, the King's Daughters, the Women's 
Christian Association, and the Ladies Health Protec- 
tive Association of New York. Formerly woman was 
forbidden to engage actively in what is now seen to be 
her peculiar work. When we duly consider this fact, 
together with the capacity of women for churchwork, 
and their need of lucrative and honorable employment, 
we can feel certain that the increasing opportunities 
for entering the ministry will be eagerly embraced. 

It has always been the special privilege of women 
to take care of the poor and sick, or in other words to 
perform the most important of pastoral duties, and it 
is easy to see which sex ought to be employed to com- 
fort widows and orphans, as well as to help and ad- 
vise young girls. The management of Sunday schools, 
church fairs, etc., is acknowledged to be women's 
work; and therefore requires a clergywoman rather 
than a clergyman. The only other important branch 
of pastoral duty is making ceremonial or social calls ; 
and here again the woman would be in the right place. 
The minister's wife is usually a more efficient pastor 
than her husband ; but she always suffers from a lack 
of authority, and often she has not the necessary 
training or inclination. It would be better for the 
parishioners to choose their own pastor than to let her 
be chosen for them by their minister. Most parishes 
now support a family in the parsonage ; and if both 
the heads of the family were to be thoroughly trained 
for pulpit as well as pastoral work, and were to divide 
these duties between them, there would be an obvious 
gain to the community. A denomination which should 
allow only women to preach and do pastoral work 
would be much less useful than if it were to employ 
both sexes; and for the same reason a denomination 
which employed both freely would be more useful 
than if it were to employ only men. We can no bet- 
ter afford to let men write all the sermons than all the 
novels, as was once the case. We should have poorer 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3123 



teachers, on the average, if only men were permitted 
to take schools ; and we actually have poorer preach- 
ers and pastors, on the average, than we should have 
if women were competing freely for vacant pulpits. 

The popular feeling against clergywomen is merely 
a remnant of what was once a mighty prejudice against 
having anything but needlework, housework, factory- 
work, or schoolwork done by the unemancipated sex. 
So many hundred employments are now open to wo- 
men, and with such manifest benefit, that they will 
not long find public opinion stand in the way of their 
making full use of their peculiar capacity for teaching 
religion and practicing philanthropy. There has been 
change enough already to give us very liberal inter- 
pretations of some unfortunate texts. We should 
have no Sunday schools, nor prayer-meetings, nor 
temperance lectures, if it were really and literally "a 
shame for women to speak in the church." We are 
not going to dismiss all the college-professors, school- 
superintendents, factory-inspectors, librarians, and 
other officials, who would be turned out at once by a 
strict observance of those once almighty words "I 
suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority 
over the man." Ecclesiastical usage is likely to form 
a much more serious obstacle than the letter of Scrip- 
ture ; but those denominations which will give women 
an equal place are sure to grow at the expense of 
those that will not. The Roman Catholic Church 
will undoubtedly continue faithful to precedent ; but 
there is no reason why Protestants should forever fol- 
low her example. Most of our clergywomen are in 
those denominations which hold the liberal views that 
are gaining everywhere. The same causes which are 
driving bigotry out of all the pulpits are letting wo- 
men in. 

The time has not yet come, however, when any 
girl can hope to succeed in the ministry without an 
unusual amount of health, self-reliance, oratorical 
power, originality, and literary skill. Deficiency in 
this last respect is said to be the only failing of the 
Unitarian clergywomen in the West. Their elocution is 
particularly good ; but they do not write sermons with 
sufficient ease to make their positions permanent, ex- 
cept where there is either a husband or a colleague 
for the same pulpit. All liberal preachers in that re- 
gion suffer from lack of neighbors with whom to ex- 
change ; but these ladies are also unfortunate in not 
having had more training in the divinity schools. It 
is sad to find Meadville, after publicly announcing 
that pecuniary aid is ready for male students, say 
"Women are admitted upon the same terms as men, 
but the Institution has as yet no beneficiary funds 
available for their assistance." Even this is better, 
however, than to have the offer of free education tempt 
women who are not likely to succeed, into entering a 



profession, where the sex cannot afford to be thus dis- 
credited. It would be well to have, in each sect where 
women preach, a society for helping them do so, not 
only more generally but more successfully. The mem- 
bers of such an organisation would correspond freely 
with young ladies desiring to enter the ministry, and 
in many cases give the kindest possible advice by say- 
ing "Don't!" Other students would be encouraged 
and assisted, not only to go through a full course at a 
Divinity School, but also to have outside advantages 
like gymnastic exercise, elocutionary training, labor 
among the poor, and familiarity with our highest forms 
of social and family life. I knew a man who resigned 
a small country parish in order to listen to popular 
preachers in a great city, and work at vocal culture 
and gymnastics. A single year of this polishing gained 
him one of the highest places in the sect. Give our 
most brilliant, eloquent, and energetic girls the best 
possible training ; and no other arguments will be 
needed to prove the natural fitness of women for a 
profession whose members are generally supposed to 
form an intermediate sex. 



BY S. V. CLEVENGER, M. D. 

" She sees a hand we cannot £ 



That beckons her away, 
She hears a voice we cannot hear 
That caUs on her to stay." 

No better poetical expression of the maniacal dis- 
traction has ever been written than in those lines. 
Mania is a form of insanity characterised by mental, 
emotional, and nervous exaltation. The maniac need 
not rave to constitute him one. He may whistle, sing, 
strut, laugh, chatter pleasantly, exhibit prodigious po 
liteness and even overpowering kindness, or he may 
be so furious as to occupy the attention of many at- 
tendants and make his cell and corridor look as though 
a hurricane had swept them. One may be constantly 
raging, another be always happy, or the moods of the 
same individual may swiftly change from joy to anger. 
The acuteness of the senses and memory are often 
very remarkable. Taste, touch, sight, smell, hearing, 
never before were so exalted. Shades of color can be 
discriminated to which previously there was practically 
blindness. 

Restraints exist no more. The inhibitions or checks ' 
upon behavior are removed, and it is often wondered 
where the vile language that previously refined ladies , 
often use when insane could have ever been learned .» 
by them. Frequently a remarkable ability to make 
jingling rhyme is developed and this may be indulged 
in for hours or days at a time, or the associations are 
quickened by ideas, and the most fantastic jumble of 
sentences are spoken or written. It is common for 
visitors to asylums to doubt that certain maniacs are 



3124 



THE OPEN COURT. 



insane because their memory is far better than that of 
the average person. I knew a maniacal boy who re- 
cited almost everything he had learned in school and 
great rigmaroles of poetry, political speeches, and 
sermons, but upon recovering his reason he became 
again dull and even below the average of intelligence 
of his class, yet during his asylum residence he was 
thought by the uninformed to be original, talented, 
and quickwitted. The apparent incoherence of simple 
mania is due to ideas and words crowding so fast that 
a sentence here and there may be incomplete. 

The exhileration of acute mania resembles that of 
beginning intoxication and indicates the chemical na- 
ture of the changes in the blood and brain upon which 
both disorders depend. In fact it would appear that 
mania is an auto-intoxication. The inhalation of laugh- 
ing gas (nitrous oxide) or of pure oxygen, and the ac- 
tion of medicines that increase the quantity and change 
the quality of blood circulating in the brain can be ad- 
vantageously regarded in a study of mental derange- 
ments generally. 

The three subjective mental disorders from which 
the maniac suffers, may be thus briefly, though inade- 
quately, defined : Delusions, faulty ideas ; illusions, 
distorted perceptions ; hallucinations, baseless percep- 
tions, all of which are of an expansive nature, the very 
reverse of the depressed corresponding conditions of 
melancholia. Many of the grand delusions of the 
maniac resemble those of paretic dementia but they 
are more fantastic and unreasonable, and less fixed. 
He claims to be five hundred miles high, to be able 
to lift mountains, bands of military music are heard 
playing, vast processions pass before him, confused 
noises, as dogs barking, machinery rattling, shrieks, 
laughter, and in short almost everything the patient 
has heard before beset his ears, astonishing varieties 
of odors and grotesque sights of inconceivable kinds 
impel him to alternate delight and horror. 

The more intense the case the sooner recovery oc- 
curs, while mild cases may last for years. The pro- 
portion is about equal as to males and females, the age 
at which it is apt to occur is before thirty-five years, 
women, especially blondes, are more likely to recover 
than men, the prospects of recover)' in all being about 
seventy-five per cent., the remainder passing to a 
chronic state and finally becoming what is known as 
terminal dements, or making a partial recovery in 
which though the active phases of the disease have 
disappeared the mind is forever disabled, to a greater 
or less extent. 

The duration of mania may be from a few weeks 
to a year or more, the average being five months. As 
a broad rule, the difference between the cerebral con- 
ditions in mania and melancholia consists in too great 



a blood supply to the head in the former, and too little 
in the latter, but exceptions to this are so frequent as 
to indicate that the circulatory factor is not the only 
one. 

CURRENT TOPICS. 

I AM still in hopes that the Jingo fever will subside, and that 
the "war at any price" party will be disappointed. The true 
grandeur of nations does not lie in spiteful declarations of war. 
At the same time, I am compelled to acknowledge that there has 
been for the past week a strong flavor of sulphur and saltpetre in 
the dispatches from Washington ; and the symptoms of the Pres- 
ident indicate much inflammation in that portion of the brain 
wheie Gall and Spurzheim placed the organs of combativeness 
and destructiveness. On the authority of a cabinet minister I 
learn that " President Harrison has his fighting blood up. Secre- 
tary Tracy has his fighting blood up, and they are supported by 
all the members of the cabinet with a single exception." And the 
exceptional cabinet minister who has not got his fighting blood up, 
appears by a sort of paradox to be the "aggressive statesman," 
Mr. Blaine himself. He may temper the rage of the rest ; and I 
heartily hope he will. Men with their fighting blood up some- 
times fight well, but they are not safe statesmen, because when 
in that state of mental inflammation they do not reason well. 

* 

* * 

In the case at bar.as the judges say, the suggestion of Bom- 
bastes Furioso forces itself into the controversy grinning like a 
circus clown, because those valorous gentlemen who "have their 
fighting blood up" do not intend themselves to do any of the 
fighting. They will cheerfully quit claim all the glory of battle 
to other men, who perhaps have not got their fighting blood up at 
all. This feature of it reminds me of the old French song, Jean- 
nette and Jeannot. Jeannette is weeping for Jeannot, her lover, 
who has been marched off to the army as a conscript, and in the 
song she thus declares what she would do under certain impossible 
circumstances : 
" It I were Queen of France, or what's better, Pope of Rome, 

I would liave no fighting men abroad, nor weeping maids at home. 
All the world should be at peace, and if kings must show their might, 

I'd have those who make the quarrels be the only ones to fight." 

In that case Jeannette, there would be very little war ; and 
it is very likely that under those conditions President Harrison 
and his cabinet would not get their fighting blood up much above 
zero in the thermometer of international dispute. I wish Chili 
were larger, not quite so large as the United States, but about 
seven-tenths as large, so that we might get the glory of whipping 
her without running the risk of getting whipped ourselves. I re- 
member when a boy, at the polls, on election day, listening with 
delight and approval to a quarrel between a little wasp of a tailor 
and Jem Burn, a noted Hercules, and prizefighter. The little 
tailor was very caustic and tantalising in his remarks, and even 
talked of thrashing Mr. Burn. It was comical to see the giant 
looking down upon his diminutive enemy, and wishing him six or 
seven sizes taller, and about fifty pounds heavier, so that he him- 
self might "get his fighting blood up," which under the unequal 
conditions then prevailing he found it quite impossible to do. In 
this dispute with Chili the giant .\merican people are very nearly 
where Jem Burn found himself in his quarrel with the aggravating 
little tailor. 

* * 

The extravagant irreverence which is called American humor, 
and which I very much enjoy, assumes its most amusing form 
when embodied in an official prayer-maker, a person specially 
elected, not by the Holy Ghost, but by his fellow men, to act as a 
sort of corporation counsel for them in their dealings with God. 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3125 



It seems to me that spiritual indulgence touches the borders of 
religious dissipation when gratified by the luxury of a special 
chaplain, duly appointed, as in congress, for instance, to do the 
praying for three or four hundred statesmen, most of them past 
praying for. It may be graceless levity on my part, but I never 
can think of an army chaplain, or a navy chaplain, or a congress 
chaplain, without comparing him to one of those praying ma- 
chines, which I am told are used in India with great success, and 
to the saving of immense labor. No matter how vain and useless 
a certain privilege may be, if "the court awards it and the law 
doth give it," we immediately feel the need of it, and must have 
it. I once knew a Colonel of cavalry, in fact I was most inti- 
mately acquainted with him, who, being a freethinker and an 
atheist, had a cynical contempt for army chaplains, declaring them 
to be useless, unconstitutional, and void. The office of chaplain 
in his own regiment, having suddenly become vacant, he became 
extremely an.xious to fill it, and when his officers wondered why 
an atheist with such contempt for chaplains, should be so eager 
to have one, he said, "Gentlemen ! the law allows me a chaplain, 
and I'm a going to have him !" And he did have him ; and for 
special emphasis he appointed a presbyterian. 
* 

It must be because "the law doth give it" that Congress in- 
dulges in the luxury of a chaplain. The position of chaplain to 
Congress is a very desirable one, because the wages is good, and 
the length of the working day has been reduced to five minutes. 
The praying too is easy and light, for a chaplain in congress is 
expected to address the throne of grace in a few choice words^ 
and in a quiet conversational tone. Surely nothing could be more 
genteel and even diplomatic than the prayer in reference to Chili 
which was delivered yesterday in the house of representatives, and 
which is printed in the papers of to-day. It is courtly, as becomes 
the prayer of a national chaplain, and it prudently avoids com- 
mitting the chaplain himself to the policy of either peace or war. 
It is the prayer of a chaplain laureate, " Inspire, uphold, and direct 
thy honored servant the President of the United States, his con- 
stitutional advisers, and members of the two houses of congress in 
this solemn crisis of our history," The chaplain has adopted into 
his prayers the fashionable style of a congressman when he ad- 
dresses another as ' ' the honorable member, " but is it correct, as 
a matter of religious taste, to speak of the President as " thy hon- 
ored servant " in a prayer to the Almighty ? Of course there can 
be no objection to informing the Creator that under the American 
system of government, the members of the cabinet are the ' ' con- 
slitutional advisers " of the President. There was much more in 
the prayer that might be dfsapproved, but its most grievous fault 
was that in such a "solemn crisis" it failed to pray for " peace on 
earth, good will to men." After all it was a consistent part of that 
inconsistency which provides for national chaplains and prohibits a 
national church. 

* * 

Self-sacrifice in the public service is the highest form of po- 
litical duty, and when fully developed, it glows with patriotic fire 
While that form of benevolence is more active in the United States 
than elsewhere, it is not altogether absent from the philanthropic 
spirit of England, France, and Germany. A republican paper 
which gives me daily "pointers" on American politics presents 
me with this heroic specimen of civic self-devotion, "Mr. Blaine 
is not in any sense a candidate for President, but should he be 
nominated at Minneapolis he is patriotic enough to accept the 
office. He cares nothing for the Presidency, but he will take it as 
a matter of public duty." I regard that as a very high type of 
chivalry, the sacrifice of self upon the altar of the country. The 
work may be heavy and the wages light, but when duty requires 
a man to be President of the United States, why, President he 
must be. France at this moment presents a parallel example of 



self-devotion in the person of the Count of Paris. Some alarm 
had been created among the royalists by a report that Paris had 
renounced his claim to the throne of France, but the Count of 
Houssonville, a royalist partisan, denies the story, and shows that 
it is impossible to be true. "There can be no question," says 
Houssonville, "of renunciation or of abdication. A right may be 
abdicated but not a duty. The ties of duty bind the Count of 
Paris to France, and will never permit him to abandon the cause 
which is less his own than that of the nation." That sentiment 
is fine, and worthy of the Count of Paris who considers it his 
patriotic duty to be King of France, and believes that his personal 
objection to the office oupht not to stand in the way of a nation's 
happiness. "I drink whiskey punch," remarked a patriot, "not 
because I like the mixture, but because the revenues of my country 
come from a tax on spirits, and therefore it is my duty to drink 
punch in order that the government may be sustained." 

* * 

In the feverish excitement of dollar hunting we fail to notice 
the American reaction against liberty. We tender a great deal of 
lip service to abstract freedom, while planting tory dynamite under 
the actual freedom which is the birthright of Americans. While 
good old King George toryism is almost obsolete in England, it 
flourishes in the United States, and is "growing up with the 
country " in a very healthy and vigorous way. King George the 
Third himself did not scorn more heartily than does this modern 
toryism the doctrine of human rights proclaimed in the Declara- 
tion of Independence. A spectacular illustration of this was given 
a few nights ago at the Hamilton club in Chicago. It was Saint 
Hamilton's day according to the calendar, and a great feast was 
given in his honor. The after dinner speeches, redolent of terra- 
pin, denied the rights of the people, and then dowered them with 
duties. One of the chief orators, fluent as a mocking bird 
said, "In the history of the Mayflower one heard a great deal of 
duty, but nothing of rights." This was a mistake ; the pilgrims of 
the Mayflower had a great deal to say about their own rights, al- 
though a little careless about the rights of other people ; but let 
that pass, while we notice this Hamiltonian sneer, " In the closing 
days of the nineteenth century there was a loud clamor for rights. 
Anarchy was born from the cry of rights, and not of duty." This 
was the genuine toryism of Pitt and Castlereagh. It is very true 
that there is in some quarters a loud clamor for rights ; and it is 
equally true that at the Hamilton club there is a loud clamor 
against them. Continuing, the orator said, " Men's rights may be 
in the search for happiness, but the days of a republic were num- 
bered when rights were insisted on." This medieval doctrine de- 
lighted the Hamiltonians, and they cheered in unanimous chorus. 
The cheering was renewed when the speaker, having emptied the 
American of his rights, filled him up with duties ; which, again, 
was very much like the toryism of old England, in the days when the 
king, and the bishop, and the earl had all the rights, and the 
people all the duties. When the feast was ended, the Hamil- 
tonians departed, saying to one another, "The electric light is 
too dazzling for us, let us do away with it, and get the tallow 
candles again." M.M.Trumbull. 



PROFESSOR HAECKEL'S ANTHROPOGENY.* 

We are now in receipt of the new, i. e. the fourth edition of 
Ernst Haeckel's Anthropogeny. We have published already in a 
previous number of Tlie Open Court the preface which Professor 
Haeckel had the kindness to send us together with all the ad- 
vance sheets of the work before its publication. The merits of 
the previous editions of the book are too well known to be enu- 

♦ Anthropogenie oder Entwickelungsgeschichte des Menschen. Keimes- 
und Stammes-geschichte. Von Ernst Haeckel. M!t 20 Tateln, 440 Holzschnit- 
ten und 25 genetischen Tabellen. Vierte, umgearbeitete und vermehrte 
Auflage. Leipzig: Engelmann. 



3126 



THE OPEN COURT. 



merated again. The author has in the main remained faithful to 
the philosophical standpoint from which he has treated the sub- 
ject and which he characterised in a letter to the editor of The 
Open Court published in No. 212; yet he has added several en- 
tirely new chapters and he has worked in the new material brought 
to light by recent investigations. Professor Haeckel is right when 
he says in the first lecture ; "The natural history of man will be 
of special importance to philosophy, and since the most general 
results of the entire human cognition are gathered up in philoso- 
phy, all the sciences of humanity will be more or less influenced 
by the history of the development of man." 

We expect to present a review of the book with regard to 
Professor Haeckel's philosophical standpoint in a forthcoming 
number of 7he Monisl. Professor Haeckel's monism and that of 
The Open Court have been sometimes identified and sometimes 
differences have been discovered which might be found to be of 
great consequence. Whatever these differences may be, we are 
one with Professor Haeckel in his positive work and we gladly 
recognise that human knowledge owes to his indefatigable diligence 
and also to his methodical carefulness invaluable additions. 
Haeckel is not only an original enquirer of the first degree, he is also 
a popular writer, that is, he understands how to present the sub- 
stance of a science in most simple language. This latter quality, 
so important for science and for humanity but often treated with 
a certain scorn by the pedants of scholardom, has enabled 
Haeckel, whenever the occasion demanded the invention of new 
terms, to find the right words, which were very soon embodied 
into the dictionaries of science and have contributed not a little to 
a lucid comprehension of most intricate subjects. 



NOTES. 

Messrs. Leach, Shewell & Sanborn are publishing a series of 
English Classics with the purpose of furnishing well edited, sub- 
stantially bound editions of such books as are required by the 
Eastern Association of Colleges to be read by candidates for ad- 
mission. The prices of the several books of the series have been 
made low, so as to bring the books within reach of all the students 
of this class of literature, Twelve books of this ' ' Students' Series ' 
are now before us, and others are announced to follow. Net prices 
are allowed for books purchased in quantities for class use. Here 
are their titles and prices, the net price quoted in parenthesis ; Ar- 
nold' s Sohrab and Riisluin. By Louise M. Hodgkins, M. A., Pro- 
fessor of English Literature, Wellesley College, 0.30 (o 25). IVeh- 
ster's First Bunker Hill Oration. By Louise M. Hodgkins, M. A,, 
Professor of English Literature at Wellesly College, 0.30 (0.25). 
A Ballad-Book. By Katharine Lee Bates, B. A., Associate Pro- 
fessor of Literature, Wellesley College, 0.54 (0.45). Coleridge's 
Ancient Mariner. By Katharine Lee Bates, B. A., Associate Pro- 
fessor of Literature, Wellesley College, 0.30 (0.25). A Buskin Book. 
By Vida D. Scudder, B. A., Literature Department, Wellesley 
College, 0.54 (0.45). Sir Roger De Coverley Papers. By Alfred S. 
Roe, A. M., Principal of Worcester, Mass., High School, 0.42 
(0.35). Macaulay's Essay on Lord Clive. By Vida D. Scudder, B. A., 
Literature Department, Wellesley College, 0.42 (0.35). George 
Eliot's Silas Marner. By Mary Harriott Norris, Instructor in 
English Literature, New York City, 0.42 (0.35). Scenes from Cler- 
ical Life. By Mary Harriott Norris, Instructor in English Liter- 
ature, New York City. Macaulay's Second Essay on the Earl of 
Chatham. By W. W. Curtis, A. M., Principal of the Pawtucket, 
R. I., High School, 0.42 (0.35). Johnson's Basselas. By Fred N. 
Scott, University of Mich., 0.42 (0.35). Scott's Marmion. By 
Mary Harriott Norris, New York City, 0.42 (0.35). 



arrangement with Prof. Charles Eliot Norton, his literary ex ecu 
tor, in the March number of Scrilmer's Magazine. The poem, 
which it is said will rank with the Commemoration Ode, is entitled 
"On a Bust of General Grant." Charles Scribner's Sons have 
also published a bound index of volumes I-X of their magazine, 
which will be valuable for reference. 



A selection of editorial articles on ethical subjects which ap- 
peared in The Open Court during the last two years are now pub- 
lished in book form under the title " Homilies of Science." The 
homilies are arranged according to their contents under the fol- 
lowing headings: "Religion and Religious Growth "; "Progress 
and Religious Life"; "God and World"; " The Soul and the Laws 
of Soul-Life"; " Death and Immortality "; " Freethought, Doubt, 
and Faith"; " Ethics and Practical Life"; " Society and Politics." 
The book (317 pp. without preface) is carefully indexed and being 
well bound with gilt top, presents a neat appearance. Price, Si. 50. 

MR. C. S. PEIRCE has resumed his lessons by correspondence in the 
Art of Reasoning, taught in progressive exercises. A special course in logic 
has been prepared for correspondents interested in philosophy. Terms, S30 
for twenty-four lessons. Address: Mr. C. S. Peirce, "Avisbe," Milford, Pa. 

THE OPEN COURT. 

PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY BY 

THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING CO. 

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TERMS THROUGHOUT THE POSTAL UNION: 
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The last poem written by James Russell Lowell, the only one 
of importance left by him in manuscript and at the same time one 
of the strongest in the whole list of his works, will be published, by 



All communications should be addressed to . 

(Nixon Building, 175 La Salle Street,) 

P. O. DRAWER F. CHICAGO, ILL. 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. 

CONTENTS OF NO. 231. 

ETHAN ALLEN'S ORACLES OF REASON. Moncure • 

D. Conway 3119 

OUR CLERGYWOMEN. F. M. Holland 3121 

MANIA. S. V. Clevenger 3123 

CURRENT TOPICS. The War Fevtr. Jeannette and 
Jeannot. National Chaplains. Official Prayers. Pa- 
triotic Self-sacrifice. Rights and Duties. M, M. Trum- 

BtJLL 3124 

PROFESSOR HAECKEL'S ANTHROPOGENY. Edi- 
tor 3125 

NOTES 3126 



The Open Court 



A WEEKLV JOUEISfAL 



Devoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion >vith Science. 



No. 232. (Vol. VI.— 5.) 



CHICAGO, FEBRUARY 4, 1892. 



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BENEDICT SPINOZA. 

BY W. L. SHELDON. 

There never was any beginning and there never 
will be any end, to the speculations of the human 
mind as to the nature and being of God. We may 
think we have settled it one way or another ; we finally 
make up our minds as to what we think or believe, 
what we accept or reject, what we affirm or deny. At 
times we are clear that we have come to a definite 
conviction. 

We may think for example that we don't really be- 
lieve in a God. We have looked over the arguments, 
reflected on what men have told us and made up our 
minds that there is no such being. Just when we may 
have fancied that it was all plain and we had done 
with the subject, lo and behold, some other idea, some 
other conception of that great Power, is brought before 
us. It is not that a new argument has been presented. 
Probably the arguments and evidences have been quite 
exhausted. What is not exhausted however, is the 
idea itself. And so it is that in spite of all our efforts, 
if we are thinking beings, given to serious purpose and 
reflection, we are again and again brought back to the 
same old problem, because it is always coming before 
us as a new problem. We are again and again con- 
fronted with new ideas, grander and more lofty con- 
ceptions of God. 

The reason why we never get away altogether from 
the subject, is plain enough on closer investigation. 
We cannot escape it because we cannot actually get 
away from the Universe. When we are asking who 
or what is God, we are asking what is the Universe. 
When we are asking what is the Universe, we are ask- 
ing who or what is God. Atheism has no existence 
in philosophy. We can no more deny the existence 
of a Supreme Being than we can deny that there is a 
bed or bottom to the ocean. We have not been there ; 
and as long as that is the case, modesty forbids the 
spirit of denial ; precisely as the same spirit of modesty 
requires, that we be cautious and conservative in pre- 
suming on too much knowledge about that Supreme 
Power that men call "God." 

We are told that about two and a half centuries 
ago there was born in the old town of Amsterdam a 



child whose name has come down to us as Benedict 
Spinoza. He came of the race that has given us Isaiah 
and St. Paul, Jesus and Jeremiah. He was of the line 
of people whose most serious thought from the time of 
Abraham and Moses has been given supremely to re- 
flecting about the nature of the Supreme Being. They 
might be said to have been the "God-intoxicated" 
race of early history. When this child grew to man- 
hood and desired humbly to wear the mantle of the 
prophets, to give up his whole life to the study of that 
theme, to search into it more deeply, to enlarge its 
conceptions, to make it grow with the expanding 
thought of the birth of a new world, — the race to which 
he belonged, nay further, the thinking reflecting Chris- 
tendom, cast him out ; they would have none of him. 
The age to which he belonged pronounced upon him 
its anathema. Men refused to recognise his mission ; 
they would almost have driven him from the face of 
the earth. 

But two and a half centuries have rolled by. The 
world which has forgotten most of his opponents, has 
picked up the mantle which men tore from his shoul- 
ders, and wrapped it once more about him. They 
place him again where he belonged, among the great 
prophets, not only of the Israel of the race from which 
he came, but of a universal Israel. We can say that 
he was in his life an outcast, but that he has come 
down to us as a conqueror. He has won a triumph 
rare and unique in the whole history of philosophy. 

It is not that he established forever the principles 
which he advocated ; it does not imply that he became 
the great and exclusive discoverer of the final truth. 
No man dare claim that privilege. He has triumphed 
in the sense that he has proved the right to be a 
teacher, an enlightener of his own age, and a stepping 
stone in the development of human thought by which 
we have climbed to our present era of higher knowl- 
edge. No man would perhaps at the present time call 
himself in the full sense of the term a disciple of Spi- 
noza. But there is not a shadow of a doubt that the 
most profound thought of our own time, the deepest 
thinkers of our century, have ever been influenced by, 
or shown marked indications of, what is known as 
" Spinozism." We can see it in the case of Goethe as 



;i28 



THE OPEN COURT. 



well as Darwin and Emerson. Almost everybody knows 
something about him. But there is such a fascination 
in the study, in just thinking about him, that we 
venture to tell the story over again. It gives new feel- 
ings whenever it is brought to our minds. 

Who was this man, the father and author of " Spi- 
nozism " ? He was a modest retiring Jew, a plain, 
simple unpretentious person, a grinder of lenses, a 
mechanic, a workingman. He was not this at the be- 
ginning. He was destined by his father to be a leader 
in the Church, to become another of the great line of 
Rabbis among the Hebrews. He could have had the 
comforts and conveniences of life ; he was in one of 
the great centres of culture and refinement ; he was 
given the best education. But he chose the life of the 
humble and lowly. He did not do this because that 
was the most preferable ; but rather because it left him 
a free man. We no longer know of him or hear of him 
in a wealthy home at Amsterdam ; he has not come 
down to us as a leader or guide in the lore of the 
Talmud. We know of him rather as a lens grinder, 
earning his living by the use of his hands, in a quiet 
corner of the city of the Hague. 

Where had he come from, or who were his fore- 
fathers ? A century or more previous they had come 
from Portugal. The edict of the king and the inquisi- 
tion of Spain had driven them from the south. The 
Jews were not wanted there ; they were told to leave. 
Word came to them " get you gone from this land." 
The fathers and mothers had to obey, life was not 
safe ; the children might have been torn from their 
arms ; there was no hope for them in that country. 
But up in the north another people had come into 
prominence. They had shaken off the yoke of the 
southern oppressor ; they had a land of freedom and 
opened their doors to the exiles. Holland was glad 
to receive those banished Hebrews and welcomed them 
even with open arms. And so they came and settled 
there and were known as the "Portuguese Jews." 
They were the fore-fathers, the ancestors of this lens 
grinder or mechanic, the God-intoxicated Spinoza. 

What was this man in his life and how was he es- 
teemed? He received little esteem. He was an outcast. 
Men looked down upon him ; they felt themselves wiser 
than he. They were sure that they deserved better of 
the Most High ; they would have wiped the dust from 
their feet after separating from this man. He was 
the "Atheist Spinoza." It makes us smile a little now, 
as we hear the word. It is hard to understand just 
what it means. Spinoza an Atheist ! Well then so 
was Moses, Luther, Plato, or St. Augustine. Men 
know better now. His teaching has been in existence 
two hundred and fifty years. He was not an Atheist; 
he did not deny the existence of a God. 



What kind of a man was he? That would be diffi- 
cult to answer. He left no biography of himself like 
Rousseau; he did not put himself forward as many a 
great man has done ; he did not have what is called 
ambition ;_ he did not care very much for the world. 
He was not an intense nature with overmastering 
feelings ; he could live even without much sympathy.' 
He did not have many friends, he had no family. He 
was childless, wifeless, fatherless and motherless ; and 
yet it is said that he was cheerful and even happy. 
He had nothing bitter to say about men. I don't know 
that he was given to exclaiming against fate or des- 
tiny ; I have not heard it intimated that he ever as- 
sumed that he had not had his share of the joy in the 
world. He would perhaps have been glad of more joy 
and affection, more sympathy and friendship ; but he 
could exist without it and yet not be miserable. 

Are we to think, because he was so quiet and un- 
obtrusive, that he did not have will-power and char- 
acter ? Was he just a "shop-worn" philosopher, a 
tiresome writer of books ? We recall to mind a little 
incident that broke the monotony of his life. It was 
a sample of the man rather than of the speculative 
thinker. When his father died, the two sisters un- 
dertook to deprive him of his share of the inheritance. 
What did he do? Was he meek and submissive; did 
he let them have their own way and continue in his 
course as a polisher of glass, and a philosopher? No, 
he contested his rights in the courts, established be- 
yond dispute the claim to his share of the property; — 
and then, then he handed it over to his sisters. Un- 
fortunately philosophers as a rule have not always 
been that kind of men. But that was the character of 
Spinoza. 

He did however have one passion, great and over- 
powering in its influence upon him. He was intense 
in just one way. He was mastered by the passion of 
love for thinking. Spinoza is one of the few great re- 
ligious teachers who have been incarnate intellects. 
There is perhaps nowhere in literature a more exalted 
expression of regard for pure thinking and its worth 
than we find in one of the chapters of his greatest 
work called "Ethics." 

"It is therefore of the highest utility in life that we perfect 
our understanding or reason as much as possible ; and in this alone 
consists the supreme felicity or blessedness of man ; for blessed- 
ness is nothing else than that tranquillity of soul which arises from 
the intuitive knowledge of God. Now, to perfect our understand- 
ing is nothing else but to apprehend God, and the attributes and 
acts of God which follow from the necessity of the Divine Nature, 
Wherefore the highest end and aim of the man whom reason 
guides, his supreme desire, that by which he studies to regulate all 
other desires, is the desire he feels to adequately conceive and 
know himself and all things else that can fall under his intelli- 
gence. There is however no rational life without intelligence, and 
things are only good in so far as they aid man to enjoy that Soul- 
Life (mentis vita) which is defined as understanding. Those 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3129 



things on the contrary, which prevent man from perfecting his un- 
derstanding and enjoying this rational life, and those only, do I 
call Af</." 

He was essentially and above everything else just 
mind. The one problem which absorbed that intellect, 
drew its attention and enthusiasm, was the nature and 
the being of God, — though he has been called the 
"Godless Spinoza." 

How do men as a rule form their ideas of the Deity, 
what gives them their God. Is it philosophy and 
speculation, is it the teaching of their childhood, is it 
from study and reflection ? No, for the most part it 
has been none of these. It is the human feeling, the 
craving of the heart, which supremely has given men 
their Deity. They built him out of their ideals and 
longings, and clothed him in the garment of the Uni- 
verse. We cannot all be thinkers. Men have not 
time for continued or prolonged reflection, they must 
live and work. But while they do this, the heart goes 
on craving something, and it believes and trusts in 
some kind of an unseen Power. This has been the 
fact from the earliest ages. Philosophy has not given 
the race cf men their God. 

It is not for me to criticise this method. Good as 
well as evil has come from it. Truth as well as error 
may spring from the feelings. But of this much I am 
certain, that the songs and hymns, the music and the 
architecture, have more to do with what men believe 
on this subject, than their own abstract thinking. The 
Bibles have done more in this respect than philosophy. 
It was love or fear which first brought men to their 
knees ; and it is so still. 

But there in that old town in Holland, two hundred 
and fifty years ago, was a solitary man who was a rare 
exception to this method. He did not get his belief 
through feeling or the emotions. He is one of those 
unique, isolated examples of men who have found 
their God strictly and exclusively through their minds. 
Spinoza was dominated first by the passion for true 
thinking, rather than by the yearning to find the Deity. 
He has as much, and perhaps more than any other 
man, used the method of logic to discover a God. 

I dwell on this exception because it is of great con- 
sequence. We must understand the majority of writers 
and even thinkers on this subject, from what they are 
trying to say, rather than from their actual utterances. 
There is always a confusion in their thought from the 
elements of emotion. But when it comes to this other 
man, we are to judge him exactly by what he has said. 
He undertook to prove his position with the accuracy 
of a mathematical demonstration. He laid down his 
definitions and his axioms, formulated his propositions, 
undertaking to establish every one of them by pro- 
positions previously established, or by axioms already 
adopted. We have the unique instance of an attempt 



to prove the existence of a Deity by the method of 
Geometry. 

If I undertake to explain what he said, it can only 
be in a crude, fragmentary sort of a way. All that can 
be done is simply to lay down some of his thoughts. I 
shall not venture to offer criticism. He was so big a 
mind, he stands out so by himself, that it would be 
better to leave him to be judged, and not for me to 
pronounce judgment. Much of what we shall give, 
may be known already, even if people have not read 
one line of his writings. His thoughts are in the atmos- 
phere of our day. 

The exiled, outcast Jew of the Hague did not have 
to aid him the writings of Kant, Helmholz, Darwin, 
or Huxley. Science was scarcely in existence. They 
did know a little something about anatomy, practically 
nothing about chemistry, still less of biology. Philos- 
ophy had onl}' just been reborn and rebaptised in the 
great minds of Bacon and Descartes. Religious thought 
had occupied itself for the most part with the great 
struggle as to the authority of the Church, the historic 
accuracy of the Scriptures. It had said much as to 
what the Church and the Bible taught of the Deity. 
But little however as yet had appeared in human 
thinking of the disposition to ask just who or what is this 
Being called God. Descartes the father of modern phi- 
losophy had given the one starting point from which the 
modern world has not receded. He did not know what 
he was doing when he laid down his proposition ; but 
it was the standpoint essential for present modes of 
thinking. He had ventured to urge men "to accept 
only that which you can prove." Spinoza adopted the 
standpoint and brought on the convulsion. He dared 
to lay his hands, not merely as Luther did, on the ac- 
cepted traditions as to what was real history, but still 
further on the accepted tradition as to what was the 
real and final truth. 

What did they do to him when he ventured to do 
his own thinking, to lay his hand on the traditions ? 
They offered him money. The rabbis went to him and 
said they would give him a thousand gilders a year, if 
he would attend the religious service occasionally, and 
just keep quiet. But Spinoza did not care for money. 
They tried something worse ; although it is not known 
who is responsible for the effort. A man rushed out 
upon him in the darkness and thrust at him with a 
dagger. If money would not buy him into silence, 
death would quiet him. It was then that he left his 
native city of Amsterdam and finally settled in the 
Hague. 

We do not assume that we can make perfectly clear 
what were these thoughts of Spinoza. As the human 
mind becomes large and searches deep, its thinking 
grows complex. We know more, we have more pro- 
found ideas, but they are less sharply drawn. Human 



;i3o 



THE OPEN COURT. 



views of the Supreme Being in early times were very 
simple, but they were well defined. Men felt that 
they clearly understood what they meant by God. It 
is not simply the difference in opinions as put forward 
by this deep thinker, which makes the attitude of mind 
more difficult to comprehend ; it is that the whole sub- 
ject is vastly larger in all its aspects at the present 
time. The early view as taken by men was more easy 
to grasp, because it was more in the form of a picture. 
It could be seized in part by the mind, and completed 
by the imagination. But the intellectual grasp of the 
idea must be bare, it can give no picture. The im- 
agination may not step in here and help out the con- 
ception. The atmosphere for that reason is cold and 
frigid on the mountain-top of pure intellect. 

Spinoza would have said, I suppose ; You say that 
your idea of the Deity is a power outside of and regu- 
lating Nature. A personal Supreme Being is easy to 
grasp by the imagination. But that which is the sim- 
plest to grasp by that means, is the very hardest and 
most difficult to grasp by the mind or intellect. The 
God and Nature you offer is picturable, but not think- 
able. Mind can grasp only one substance. There 
can be no "God ««(/ Nature. " If there is such a Being, 
it must be a God in Nature, a Nature which is in God. 
One substance cannot spring from another substance. 
Either they have both been from the beginning, or 
else they have always been united. God and the Uni- 
verse are One. 

You talk of this infinite space as being something 
separated from that Being. In that case. He must be 
outside of it, and can have nothing to do with it. But 
no ; He is in space and space is one of His Attributes. 

You say that God may change the order of Nature, 
alter its laws and movements. Why then, there must 
be two Gods in one God, two agencies in him and 
pulling in different directions, so as to induce him to 
change his plan. No, God cannot interfere, not be- 
cause he is finite and limited, but because he is In- 
finite, complete and unchangeable. He acts by the 
necessity of his own nature and that is his Freedom. 
There is no miracle-working Deity because there is 
something better. There must be something higher 
than caprice of thought. The Deity must have known 
from the beginning what was to take place throughout 
eternity. The laws of nature cannot alter, because 
they are a part of the laws of the nature of the Deity; 
the two are identical. Only that which is finite is 
changeable. There exists rather an unchangeable In- 
finite Mind and that Mind is God. 

You say that God is a person. Have you thought 
what that means ? Do you know what it implies to 
be a person, to have a separate individual self-con- 
sciousness. Personality is that which distinguishes 
one being from another, isolates him, divides him off 



from other individuals. Can you attribute that to the 
Deity ? Are we to think of Him as divided off from 
something else, separated by limitations ? If that be 
the case he must be divided off from another Deity 
and there would be two Gods. Personality is a qual- 
ity of human beings, it is a limitation which confines 
the self within boundaries. God is too perfect, too 
high, too supreme a Being, for us to think of him as 
limited by existing as a personality. He is not infinite 
self-consciousness; but Infinite, Impersonal Mind. 

You say that Nature acts by the will of God. But 
that would imply caprice. It is the mind that acts 
and not the will, the understanding and not the heart. 
Nature acts not by the will or wish of a Deity, but by 
the law which comes from Him because it is a part of 
God. There is but one universal law, that of Cause 
and Effect. The result must always follow from the 
cause, the cause must always give the result. There 
are not many acts, but just one act; there is only cause 
and that is God. He acts as much in the movements 
of my finger tips as he did when he set the planets 
and the suns swinging in their orbits. These finger 
tips are as much a part of Him as they are oi me. He 
acts in myself because there is and can be only one 
source of action. He is the author of all action as He 
is of all being. There is or can be but one cause, and 
that cause is God. 

You may say that the Deity is tender and loving, 
that he feels joy and sorrow, that he is troubled about 
us, that he loves mankind. But what after all are 
these feelings of sorrow and joy ? Whence do they 
spring, how long do they last ? They are the change- 
able fleeting modes that come and go, they arise simply 
from our limitations. Sorrow is due to imperfection ; 
it is a hindrance to the action of the mind or the soul. 
How can there be such a feeling in a Being that is 
perfect and without hindrance ? We should make him 
human like ourselves, finite, influenced by passions 
and affections, if we attributed that quality to him. 
No, He is mind, and not feeling, cause and not emo- 
tion. God does not feel joy or sorrow. We are to 
love Him and not to expect that He shall love us. We 
should make Him inferior, if we thought of Him as 
having such a feeling. 

This was what he thought about the Deity. For 
him in his convictions there was just one substance, 
one cause, one law, one power, one universe, one 
mind, — and that All was one God. 

It is bare, cold and abstract, hard to grasp, most 
difficult to comprehend. And yet the science of Darwin 
and Helmholz is saturated with it ; it is voiced in the 
poetry of Shelley or Goethe ; it is reflected in the phi- 
losophy even of Emerson or Hegel. 

What was he doing, how did he live, where was he, 
while doing all this thinking ? For a time he was in a 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3131 



back room up two flights of stairs working by himself 
at his trade, earning his Hving and doing his thinking. 
When he found however that that was too expensive he 
moved to the house of a painter, took a room and got 
his own meals. There he would work, sometimes not 
going out of the room for days. Life for him was not 
e.xpensive. Philosophy may cost brain energy, but 
can subsist by frugal living. From a translation of his 
work I take a little extract that is given from an old 
biography of Spinoza. 

" He would live a whole day upon a milk soup done with but- 
ter, which amounted to three pence, and upon a pot of beer of 
three half-pence. Another day he would eat nothing but gruel 
done with raisins, and that dish did cost him four pence half 
penny. There are but two half pints of wine at most for one 
month to be found amongst these reckonings, and though he was 
often invited lo eat with his friends, he chose rather to live upon 
what he had at home, though it were never so little, than to sit 
down at a good table at the expense of another man. He was very 
careful that his expenses should not exceed his income, and he 
would say sometimes to the people of the house that he was like a 
serpent with its tail in its mouth, to denote that he had nothing 
left at the year's end ; and that he designed to lay up no more 
money than would be necessary to bury him decently, and that as 
he bad got nothing from his parents, so his heirs and relations 
should not expect to get much by his death." 

It was not necessary that he should have been so 
sparing with his means, living with such absolute sim- 
plicity. -There were some friends who loved him and 
who would have shared with him what they had. One 
time they brought to him as a gift the sum of two 
thousand florins. What a treasure that would have 
been, setting him free to do nothing but just live a life 
of thought or reflection. Spinoza would not take it. 
He said that he wanted nothing, that if he were to ac- 
cept that sum of money it might divert him from his 
study and occupation. 

[to be concluded.] 



THE PULPIT AND ITS DUTY. 

BY G .... K ... . 

Perhaps a large majority of the American people 
attend the sermons and lectures of the ministers of the 
various religious denominations either as members of 
the church or casual visitors. There can be no ques- 
tion that the clergy, both catholic and protestant, by 
their preaching do exercise a vast influence not only 
upon their congregations, but also upon the general 
public, for it has become customary for some years 
past for the great city papers to publish the sermons, 
lectures, prayers, and even interviews, if not literally 
yet substantially, of the greater lights of the ministry in 
their Monday issues, thus giving to their lucubrations 
an extensive circulation. 

If the clergy, however, would confine itself to preach- 
ing the doctrines of their creeds, endeavoring to ex- 
plain and prove them, they would do but little service 
to their flocks. For this reason they have to deduce 



from their dogmas rules to guide the people in their 
every day conduct of life; in other words they have to 
evolve from their doctrines, as they appear from re- 
solves of cecumenical councils, synods, and confes- 
sions of faith, a moral code. In this application of 
dogma to the ordering of practical life by moral prin- 
ciples, the ministers, and particularly the more elo- 
quent and popular amongst them take often a very 
wide range, entering often into the most minute rela- 
tion of business, domestic, and social life. There are 
prayers and preaching against the pride and extrava- 
gance of the rich, against the envious lawlessness of 
the poor, against the saloons, theatres, balls, dancing, 
tobacco, gambling, sabbath-breaking, and many other 
evils real or imaginary. It may be all very well to dwell 
on these topics, but they touch the people only as in- 
dividuals. As regards however the conduct they are 
to pursue as a part only of a whole, as citizens as re- 
gards the duties they owe to the state, very little is to 
be found in all the clerical sermons, lectures, and dis- 
courses. 

It is certainly not desirable that the clerical frater- 
nity should descend into the dusty arena of politics, 
should discuss party questions from the pulpit, making 
it a tribune or a platform. Nothing would be more 
degrading to the profession and injurious to the com- 
munity. 

But still there are questions in one sense polit- 
ical which involve at the same time moral questions. 
Such was the slavery question. Within our country 
the existence or non- existence of slavery, guarded as the 
institution was by constitutional and legislative provi- 
sions, was a matter of most eminent political impor- 
tance, but no one would deny, that it was not a ques- 
tion to be dealt with from its moral side, by those who 
have assumed the cure of souls and who have taken 
the spiritual welfare of their parishioners under their 
special care. 

Now it may not be said that the state is not above 
or rather below the morality of the individual, that the 
rules of justice and equity, binding upon the citizens, 
ought not to be applied to the state, the aggregate of 
the citizens, that we must support the policy of our 
country "right or wrong." 

Yet it is too obvious that in many instances the 
pulpit has been silent upon political questions involv- 
ing grave moral principles. For the last month the 
clamor against the great agnostic. Col. Ingersoll (per- 
sonally a most generous, amiable, kind hearted, cul- 
tured, and eloquent gentleman) has been resuscitated, 
for it had almost died out, by clergymen of various 
denominations. A great clerical light in the east has 
called him a small mosquito, hardly worthy of the 
least notice, forgetting that Mr. Gladstone, some of 
the English prelates, besides a dozen or more of our 



3132 



THE OPEN COURT. 



American orthodox ministers had entered the lists 
against him long ago. This late battle had been car- 
ried on in many public journals, filling their columns 
with sermons, open letters, interviews, while all the 
time there was a great question pending, which ought 
to have called upon the clergy to use their best exer- 
tions in order to prevent a flagrant wrong. Nothing 
less was threatening than a war with a small sister re- 
public which might have cost the country thousands 
of precious lives and many millions of dollars, a war 
inglorious at best, if successful, a war to be brought 
about unquestionably for personal aggrandisement 
only, without the least adequate cause. The brawl of 
drunken sailors and of an ignorant mob of the lowest 
order, maddened by the idea, not altogether unfounded, 
that our Representative had been unduly partial to 
the dictator whose usurpation had caused the revolu- 
tion and a destructive civil war. The Chilean gov- 
ernment had expressed its regret at the occurrence 
right at the start, had assured us that the matter would 
be investigated and tried according to their laws, and 
had not sanctioned the conduct of their police officers, 
if any of them were guilty of having failed to perform 
their duty. And yet while through the machinations 
of some of our public men this war, to be engaged in 
for the most unreasonable reasons, the ministers of 
the gospel of peace and good will to all men on earth 
were busy in trials for heresy, holding inquests over 
dead creeds, quarreling over the significance of the 
word "Sheol," revising catechisms and prayer books 
of three hundred years ago, they had nothing to say 
about the immorality of such a war, did not exhort 
our pious president to show some indulgence, if such 
were needed to a small nation, just emerging from a 
bloody revolution and still fearing a counter revolu- 
tion, in the interest of the vanquished party, if the 
new government would not show a bold front to the 
great northern republic. Here was surely an occasion 
where the pulpit ought to have exerted its salutary 
influence. It ought to have silenced the clamor of 
those would be great little men, who offered themselves 
as organisers of volunteer regiments to wipe out little 
Chili, to have warned the people against those patriots 
who want war in order to fill their pockets by fat con- 
tracts, as they have done in our late unpleasantness. 
To have endeavored to stop this insane war cry and 
to have denounced its instigators and supporters would 
not have been defiling, but glorifying the pulpit. 



CURRENT TOPICS. 

It has been judicially decided that it is libellous to speak of a 
lawyer as a "shyster"; and yet it has never been legally deter- 
mined exactly what a "shyster" is In the slang of popular con- 
tempt the word has usually been applied to a tricky, unfair, and 
unscupulous lawyer; a fellow of stratagem and deceit who gam- 
bles with lies and perjuries for a fee ; a creature void of con- 



science, who for money glorifies the guilty side ; and in the Ian 
guage of scripture, "taketh reward against the innocent"; an 
unscupulous hireling "casting firebrands, arrows, and death," at 
anything or anybody to gain a case, without the excuse of madness 
for doing it. A lawyer-like effort is now being made in Chicago to 
give the word "shyster" a limited and special meaning, and to 
apply it only to those irregular pleaders who practice in the courts 
of Justices of the Peace, wilJiout having been adiintlcd to the bar. 
The illegal methods adopted by the justices in some of those courts 
having been exposed by a lawyer in a lecture, professional and 
public discussion was aroused, and the whole wickedness con- 
veniently fastened upon those self-appointed advocates who ha\ e 
never been admitted to the bar ; or in the classic language of one 
of the justices, ' ' the men of the ' shyster ' class, the men who de- 
fend prisoners in my court without having a license to practise 
law." This was turning the whole subject to the left oblique, for 
the point in issue was the shystering of the courts and not the 
character of the unlicensed bar. 

Whether or not a barrister is a " shyster " depends entirely 
upon his own character, and not at all upon his license. There is 
an aged superstition still believed in, that admission to the bar is 
a sort of sacrament, like baptism, conferring grace and wisdom by 
force of a diploma, an error that has done much wrong, besides 
making fools of men. Some of the most accomplished shysters 
that I have ever known have been lawyers of high standing at the 
bar, and such lawyers abound in history. Lord Coke was a law- 
yer of some standing in the profession, but in his practice at the 
bar he was a "shyster," especially in the office of Attorney Gen- 
eral, where in the prosecution of persons charged with crime, he 
was unscrupulous, and unfair, ready, and sometimes eager, to 
take reward against the innocent. Lord Bacon, I believe, had his 
diploma, and was considered a lawyer in his day, but as counsel 
for the crown in the trial of Lord Essex, he proved himself a 
"shyster," putting false meanings upon facts, perverting the tes- 
timony, reviling the prisoner, and twisting the truth out of sym- 
metry to secure a conviction. To the credit of Coke be it said, he 
was no shyster on the bench, but a just and fearless judge, while 
Bacon was a shyster even in the great office of Lord High Chan- 
cellor. And in this day, and in our country we have some licensed 
shysters eminent at the bar, and there are some of them on the 
bench, which is a much more serious matter. Diplomas confer 
neither knowledge nor wisdom, although they do create castes, 
which, by the way. was the original design of a license to practice 
law. To require a man to obtain a license to earn a living at any- 
thing is a usurpation by government of a power to divide the peo- 
ple into classes, and to put fines and penalties upon industry. I 
cannot think of any justification for it except in the case of doc- 
tors and drug-sellers ; and I am not sure that it is justifiable even 
there. 

* * 

Among the rights of which the colored man is unfairly de- 
prived in this country is the right of having his head knocked off 
in a prize fight. I have just read a challenge from a famous 
"champion" of Caucasian blood, in which he promises to knock 
out any ' ' white " man in the world, provided the ' ' purse " be made 
large enough to constitute a provocation ; but not for any amount 
of money will he be prevailed upon to confer such a distinction 
upon a " nigger." This challenge is really a prudent one although 
it appears to be a trifle bigoted and invidious. There is actually 
a colored man from the antipodes or somewhere, who is willing to 
bet money that he can put the haughty Caucasian to sleep in a 
limited number of rounds, and as he might accidentally do it the 
wisdom of the white man in despising him becomes evident. There 
may be money it it, but where is the honor ? Where is the glory 
of conquering a nigger when contrasted with the mortification of 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3133 



being conquered by him ? Sentiment is very often the most prac- 
tical good sense, and it seems to be so here. Death by the foot of 
a horse is more honorable than death from the kick of a sheep, 
and I think the colored man in this country has helped us greatly 
to preserve our dignity. When I refuse to pay a colored man what 
I owe him for the moral reason that it is improper for a white man 
to owe a "nigger" anything, I save my money and vindicate my 
nobility at the same time. During the war, when we first began 
to think of enrolling the negroes into regiments, the scheme was 
opposed on sentimental grounds by many of our own officers One 
of them, disputing with me on the subject, put an end to the argu- 
ment by saying, "Well, it ain't right to make soldiers of them. 
How would yon like to be shot by a nigger ? " 

One of the most chivalrous of the " war at any price " party 
is a member of congress from Illinois by the name of Stewart. He 
is reported as talking thus : "I don't want a war just to lick Chili. 
Chili is not big enough, but if we could get into a war with Chili, 
England might be drawn into it, and that is what I want." Mr. 
Stewart wants a war with Chili just to whet his appetite so that he 
may make a hearty meal of England. He would relish a war with 
Chili like his drink of bitters before breakfast, as a pungent stimu- 
lant. He has no quarrel with England, but as a Christian states- 
man and humanitarian, he thinks that " a country ought to have 
a war in every generation, because it wakes things up." It is very 
true that a war with England would "wake things up," and it 
might even wake Mr. Stewart up to see that he is the Don Quixote 
of Congress, but that is not likely. He would be too much inter- 
ested in the destruction of life and property ; in the shelling of 
towns and the sinking of ships ; in all the savage and sulphurous 
paraphernalia of war. And besides, he would be too busy in the 
front of battle to think of commonplace things. The high spirit 
of Mr. Stewart in selecting a formidable adversary is worthy of 
praise ; and in this he reminds me of Jack Dolan an Irish friend 
of mine, who was almost as foolish when drunk as Mr. Stewart is 
when sober. Whenever he was "in drink" Jack always wanted 
to fight, and with eccentric chivalry, in which he is imitated by 
Mr. Stewart, he selected the biggest adversary he could find. One 
evening a stranger of splendid physical proportions happened to 
be sitting in front of the hotel, and his immense muscularity so 
excited the admiration of Dolan that he immediately proposed a 
fight. The stranger declined the challenge, kindly telling Jack to 
go away, biit this only provoked him to still more offensive de- 
fiance, and at last he took his victim by the collar to make him 
fight. This was too much, and the stranger gave Jack a couple of 
blows that sent him whirling to the ground, so that he rolled over 
six times before stopping, and would not have stopped then had 
he not been rolling up hill. When he came to, and picked himself 
up. Jack advanced upon his enemy and extending his hand ex- 
claimed in a tone of triumph, " I thought you could do it." 

A faint and feeble attack upon our political aristocracy has 
been made in congress by Mr. Miller, a member from Wisconsin. 
He proposes to reform the United States Senate by amending the 
constitution so that senators must be elected by the people, their 
term of office reduced from six years to four, and so that each 
state, in addition to one senator on its own account, shall be al- 
lowed another for each million of its people. By this amendment 
Mr. Miller hopes to change the American House of Lords into a 
popular and representative body. The scheme will fail, because 
the American people are more thoroughly devoted than any other 
people in the world to this prirtciple of government in their na- 
tional affairs, namely, that the minority shall rule. This doctrine 
has been firmly set in the constitution by that clause which gives 
the states equality in the senate, irrespective of their wealth, ge- 
ography, or population. It was intended from the first, that the 



minority should rule by the veto of the Senate on the House of 
Representatives. This is the foundation stone of the government, 
for historians tell us that without it the constitution could not 
have been built at all. Under this plan we have eleven states with 
twenty-two votes in the senate, although their inhabitants added 
together are less by three hundred thousand than the population 
of New York alone, and yet New York has only two votes in the 
senate. Twenty-four states with forty-eight votes have less than 
thirteen million people, while the other twenty states with only 
forty votes have more than fifty millions. I always laugh at the 
anomaly when I hear a fellow citizen boasting of " constitutional 
democracy," because I know that he means aristocracy, just as I 
knew that he meant slavery when he boasted of "constitutional 
freedom" thirty-five years ago. Of course the Americans will not 
submit for ever to minority and aristocratic rule, but they will 
bear it for a long time yet ; and when they abolish it, they will do 
so not by amending the constitution, but by the constitutional 
process of stopping the supplies, the method by which the com- 
mons of England, brought the King and the House of Lords under 
popular control. M. M. Trumbull. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE EIGHT HOUR DAY QUESTION. 

To the Editoy of The Open Court : — 

May I say a word as to one of General Trumbull's com- 
ments on my "Eight Hour" address in No. 230 of The Open 
Court ? He says, " as an economic argument it [my address] was 
deficient in evidence, and it was effeciively challenged by Mr. 
Eastman who said in referring to the claim that a reduction of 
hours would not reduce products, ' When that is proven the ques- 
tion is settled.' " A reader might suppose that I had simply made 
the claim without citing evidence to support it. But I did adduce 
a considerable array of facts and I think it no exaggeration to say 
that they showed conclusively, or "proved," that reducing the 
hours does not in and of itself limit production. These "facts" 
were taken in good measure from an article byJohnRae on "The 
Balance-Sheet of Eight Hours " (Contemporary Revie-co, Oct. 1891), 
which I wish everyone who takes the subject seriously would read ; 
Mr. Rae writes in that discriminating and judicial vein which in- 
dicates the sincere student of the question. I willingly admit that 
the proof I gave is not absolute and is quite consistent with cases 
in which reducing the hours would injure production. But is it 
not rather unreasonable to ask for such absolute proof ? Is there 
not even a touch of absurdity in it, since if in each and every line 
of industry actual experiment demonstrated that "eight hours" 
was practicable, there would be nobody left to whom the proof 
could, or needed to, appeal ? Absolute proof an employer can 
have only after he has himself tried the system and found it will 
work. In other words, the very proof he wants is only possible as 
the result of an experiment, that is, of acting without absolute 
proof. Is not the practical question something like this — whether 
evidence does not already exist sufficient to justify one in venturing 
or experimenting ? Experience proves that a reduction of hours 
need not be harmful ; whether such reduction loill be harmful in a 
special case can only be known by trial. Here is where the part 
of good-will to the cause comes in ; if one has it, I should think 
one would be naturally prompted to make the trial. But " proof." 
such as Mr. Eastman apparently asked for at the Sunset Club, is 
out of the question in the present stage of developments. If one 
waits for it, one may never act. 

As I write this, my eye falls on a newspaper account of an ex- 
periment with the eight hour system which was to be tried this 
year in London among the book-binders, and which I suppose is 
now under way. It seems that a strike was threatened and the 
London Chamber of Commerce mediated in the matter, with the 



3134 



THE OPEN COURT. 



resulting agreement between the employers and the men that the 
eight hour day should be tried for twelve months, at the end of 
which time it should be continued or abandoned according to the 
character of the results. An arrangement was made as to over- 
time (i e. all time over forty-eight hours a week); but the em- 
ployers pledged themselves, in accordance with the desires of the 
men, to make every effort to abolish systematic overtime. They 
also granted an advance of ten per cent, on prices for piece-work. 
Something of this character seems a reasonable way of getting 
at a solution of the problem. Why should not our Chicago em- 
ployers make an experiment with the eight-hour or the nine-hour 
day ? They have Mr. McVeagh's example to encourage them. 
I do not mean that all the fault lies with the employers. The 
workingmen are sometimes unreasonable and demand too much or 
at least demand it too soon. A large Chicago firm did recently try 
to gradually reduce hours, but the men would have eight hours at 
once or nothing ; and the result was nothing and a sincere disap- 
pointment to the firm. The spirit of reason needs to animate both 
sides of a controversy, if an all-around justice is to be done and 
real progress made. Wm. M. Salter. 

Chicago, Jan. 27, 1892. 

BOOK REVIEWS. 

Spinoza's Erkenntnisslehre in ihrer Beziehung zur modernen 

Naturwissenschaft und Philosophie. Allgemein verstand- 

lich dargestellt von Dr. Martin Berendl und Dr. med. Julius 

Friedldnd^y. Berlin ; Mayer & Miiller. 

Spinoza's system, so the authors of this book claim, has in 
spite of innumerable commentaries not as yet been properly un- 
derstood. The reason is that his philosophy which does not be- 
long to his time alone but to all times, is presented in an antiquated 
from and dependent in this respect entirely upon its time. Spi- 
noza's method is the formal system of scholasticism, but the con- 
tents of his philosophy is closely related to =11 the problems of 
modern times. His method is deductive, but the substance of his 
thought is analytic ; he repels by his artificial syllogisms but is 
after all par excellence the philosopher of experience. 

The authors have arranged the material systematically, treat- 
ing in five chapters of (i) Spinoza's idea of ' ' imaginatio " or insuffi- 
cient cognition, (2) rational cognition, (3) the transition from ra- 
tional to intuitional cognition, (4) the object of intuitive cognition, 
(5) a review of the three degrees of cognition. A sixth chapter is 
added containing critical notes and references. The last chapter 
is in size two fifths of the whole. It has purposely not been worked 
into the exposition of Spinoza's system in order that this main part 
of the book may be popular. And we approve of this division of the 
material for the learned bywork and historical apparatus are too 
apt to encumber the exposition of a system and render it indigest- 
ible to those who care little for the literary feuds of scholars. 

The make up of the book is very practical. The authors 
present Spinoza's ideas by explaining quotations which are made 
prominent through indentation and stringing them together by head- 
ings in bold-faced letters which show the continuity of the thoughts. 
Their attempt to modernise Spinoza's views is upon the whole not 
carried too far, although we have our doubts whether their inter- 
pretation of reason and intuition will be tenable. However the 
reader having the material before him can easily judge for him- 
self. 

The authors go perhaps too far when declaring that Spinoza 
forms the intellectual centre of all thought before and after him. 
The problems of all the leading thinkers, so they say, have already 
found satisfactory answers with great clearness and precision in 
Spinoza's philosophy — if he is but rightly understood. We are 
great admirers of Spinoza but we cannot join in this exaggerated 
praise. With the same right we might say that all the problems 
of philosophy find their proper solutions in the sentences of the 



Koran, if they are but rightly understood. Yet this exaggerated 
praise of a master is easily forgiven and does not detract from the 
value of the book, the aim of which is a popularisation of the 
world-conception of one of the greatest thinkers that ever lived. 

p. c. 

AsTRONOMiscHE Briefe. Die Planeten. By C. Dillmann, Tii- 

bingen. Lauppsche Buchhandlung, 1892. 

C. Dillmann is the principal of a mathematical high school 
in Stuttgart. A review of his book " Die Mathematik die Fackel- 
triigerin einer neuen Zeit " appeared in The Monist, I, 4, p. 617. 
He is a scholar who understands the practical importance of sci- 
ence and especially mathematical science which he attempts to 
make (and we think that he has found the right path) the basis of 
modern education. The present book serves a practical purpose ; 
it is popular, reviewing in short and pleasantly written sketches 
our astronomical knowledge of the solar system. He tells us in 
seventeen letters which cover about 230 pp., the most important 
results of scientific research concerning the planets and their in- 
habitability, the moon, the planetoids and the laws that make of 
the assemblage of these celestial bodies a solar system. The title 
seems to indicate that this little volume on the planets will be fol- 
lowed by other astronomical letters on the fixed stars which un- 
doubtedly will be as welcome an addition to the German popular 
science literature as is the present book before us. p. c. 



NOTES. 

The signature of G. K. under which the article "The Pulpit 
and Its Duty" appears in the present number, is well known to 
many citizens of this and other states of our country. To those 
who do not know it, suffice it to say, that it is the signature of a 
man who held the highest position in the administration of the 
state of Illinois, of a man who looks back upon a long and active 
life well spent in labor for practical and ideal aims and whose 
name is never mentioned without honor. 



MR. C. S. PEIRCE lias resumed liis lessons by corresponde 
Art of Reasoning, taught in progressive exercises. A special 
has been prepared for correspondents interested in philosophy. Terms, S30 
for twenty-four lessons. Address: Mr. C. S. Peirce, "Avisbe," Milford, Pa. 

THE OPEN COURT. 

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CONTENTS OF NO. 232. 

BENEDICT SPINOZA. W. L.Sheldon 3127 

THE PULPIT AND ITS DUTY. G. K 3131 

CURRENT TOPICS. What is a Shyster? Equal Rights. 

The Appetite for War. Reforming the Senate, M. M. 

Trumbull 3132 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

The Eight Hour Day Question. W. M. Salter 3133 

BOOK REVIEWS 3134 

NOTES 3134 



The Open Court 



.\ WEEKLV JOURNAL 



Devoted to the "Work of Conciliating Religion with Science. 



No. 


233. (VoL.vi.-6.) CHICAGO, FEBRUARY 11, 


1892. 


) Two Dollars per Year. 
1 Single Copies, 5 Cents. 




Copyright bv The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only on conditio 


n of giving full c 


redit to Author and Publisher. 



BENEDICT SPINOZA. 

BY W. L. .SHELDON. 
[cONCLODEP.] 

We have spoken of his views about God. We may 
perhaps also want to know what were his views of 
human life, its purposes and aims, — what were his 
thoughts of the Highest Good. We are to remember that 
he gave his own opinions, that in these teachings he was 
an outcast, despised among men. And yet it is remark- 
able to see how closely those opinions resembled some 
of the best thought of the founders of our established 
religions. It contrasts less with them than it does with 
the thoughts and average beliefs of the men of his own 
day. He also went backward in the higher sense, even 
while striding forward. The philosopher in his little 
room himself, the mechanic, the grinder of lenses, the 
student-recluse, was no morose unfeeling unsympa 
thetic character. He too had a philosophy of life. 

Spinoza would have said, I suppose : You may tell 
me that we are to be constantly thinking about death. 
But that is not the law of our being. We are born, 
come from and are a part of the one substance, the 
Supreme God. He made it in us as a law that we 
should strive for the preservation of our own being. 
Man desires to live and act, to continue in his state of 
being. "Therefore the free man thinks of nothing 
less than of death, and his meditation is not of d3'ing" 
but of life." 

You may say that we are then to obey all our de- 
sires and passions, to be the slave of our own long- 
ings. But no, it is just the contrary. We are to strive 
to be ourselves the cause of our own acts and work. 
The more we are guided by such a cause, the less we 
are influenced by the law from without ; the more we 
live according to reason, the more we preserve and de- 
velop this our being. What we have to do is to 
have right and adequate ideas as to the nature and 
influence of the passions, make them our servants 
rather than let them be our masters. "To act abso- 
lutel}' from virtue is for us nothing else than under the 
guidance of reason, to act, to live and to preserve our 
being." 

You ma}' tell me that this law of virtue would lead 
me to be indifferent to the welfare of my fellow-men, 



to care onlj' for my own existence. You might think 
that it would encourage me to cherish ill will or even 
hatred toward my neighbors. But I know on the con- 
trary that such feelings or passions are a check upon 
the preservation of my being. It is according to my 
very nature that I should love my fellow-man. "The 
man whom reason guides is freer when he lives in a 
community under the bond of common laws, than when 
he lives in solitude where he obeys himself alone." 
"Hate is to be vanquished by its opposite love." 
"Every man who is guided by reason desires that the 
good he wishes for himself should be enjoyed by others 
also." 

You might tell me that this law of virtue would 
make men selfish and lead them not to care for one 
another's welfare, to be constantly thinking only of the 
preservation of their own existence. But such an im- 
pression would come only from an inadequate idea of 
reason and virtue. I would answer: "Nothing is 
more useful to me than m.y fellow-men. Nothing I say 
is more to be desired by men nor more desirable as 
a means for the preservation of their being than that all 
should in all things so agree that the souls and bodies 
of all should constitute as it were one soul and one 
body ; and that together all should endeavor as far as 
possible to preserve their being, and that together 
all should earnestly seek whatsoever is for the common 
good." 

It is noticeable therefore that he draws the motives 
of virtue directl}' from what is in ourselves. He re- 
pudiates the suggestion that a man should care for or 
follow the law of virtue for the sake of an external re- 
ward. We follow it because it is the very law of our 
being. We are reminded of the saying of Thomas a 
Kempis: "Where shall one be found who is willing to 
serve God for nought ?" 

You may tell me that this leads me to think only 
of myself, to be indifferent to the great Power or 
source of all things. My reply would be just the con- 
trary. If it is my effort or ideal of virtue to become 
the master over my passions, and at least in part in- 
dependent of external circumstances, how can I better 
do it than by seeing how these passions come, what 
are their causes, tracing them all to their original 



,136 



THE OPEN COURT. 



source. "The supreme good of the soul is the knowl- 
edge of God, and the highest virtue of the soul is to 
know God." 

This last thought is really the culmination of the 
whole doctrine of Spinoza. He seems in part to re- 
vert to the old idea or teaching, although it is only a 
partial reversion. The love for the Deity is for him 
the supreme value or joy of existence. He could al- 
most answer in the language of the old teaching, that 
the object of life is, "to live and glorify God." But 
in the thought of this philosopher it means something 
different. Indeed I should almost say that it means 
something higher. He intimates, and perhaps truly, 
that there is a certain selfishness and perhaps weak- 
ness in craving from that Being a personal affection in 
return. He called it rather an "intellectual" love of 
the Deitj'. We would probably name it rather by the 
word trust. The supreme joy of life to him would be 
to so understand the order of nature, to be able to 
trace it so perfectly in all its actions and ramifications 
to the one great ultimate cause or source, — as to be 
camly undisturbed and indifferent, because we do ap- 
preciate that it all moves according to that one ulti- 
mate law ; and in trusting ///(//, we trust and love its 
source, the Infinite God. 

In closing this summary of the teachings of Spi- 
noza I give the last paragraph of his great work. It 
reads like the final utterance that he would have re- 
cited at the close of his life as a last farewell. 

"From this it clearly appears how much the wise excel in 
power, and how much better are they than the ignorant who act 
merely from appetite or desire. From the ignorant man, besides 
being agitated in many and various ways by external causes, and 
never possessing the true peace of soul, lives as if unconscious of 
himself, of God, and of all things, and only ceases to suffer when 
he ceases to be. The wise man, on the contrary, in so far con- 
sidered as he is truly wise, is scarcely ever troubled in his thoughts, 
but by a certain eternal necessity, is conscious of himself, of God, 
and of things, never ceases to be, and is always in possession of 
true peace of soul. If the way I have pointed out as leading to 
freedom appears very difficult, it may nevertheless be found. And 
indeed that must needs be difficult which is so seldom attained. 
For how should it happen, if the soul's freedom or salvation were 
close at hand and to be achieved without great labor, that it is so 
universally neglected ? But all things of highest excellence are as 
difficult of attainment as they are rare." 

This, as near as we can state it, was the teaching 
of Benedict Spinoza. It may be very imperfectly put 
forward ; we may have misunderstood it in part. 
Thinking minds are not altogether agreed upon the 
details of his views. We cannot well take them by di- 
rect citations from his writings. We have to interpret 
them or state them in another form, after going over 
and over what he said. 

It may be wondered what was done to him, for 
thinking and believing in this way about men, the 
world, and a God. A late writer has given the ana- 



thema pronounced upon. Most readers are familiar 
with it. But it is in such contrast to the teachings of 
Spinoza himself that we cannot refrain from giving a 
portion of it again. He would not accept money, he 
would not consent to be quiet, he was determined to 
think and be free. When the congregation knew this, 
they assembled and pronounced judgment. The priests 
read the curse : 

"We beseech the great God to confound such a man and 
hasten the day of his destruction. O God, the God of Spirits, 
depress him under all flesh, extirpate, destroy, exterminate, and 
annihilate him. The ire of the Lord, the most contagious storms 
and winds fall upon the head of impious men ; the extirminating 
angels will fall upon them. Cursed be he wherever he turn ; his 
soul shall go out from him in terror. His death be in dire sick- 
ness ; his spirit shall not pass out and away ; God send the sharp- 
est and most violent evils upon him. Let him perish by a burning 
fever, by. a consumption, being dried up by fire within and cov- 
ered with leprosy and imposthumes without. Let God pursue him 
until he be rooted out and destroyed ; until his own sword shall be 
pierced through his own breast ; and his bow shall be broken He 
will be like the straw which is scattered about by the wind. The 
angel of the Lord will pursue him in darkness, in slippery places, 
where the paths of the wicked are. His destruction will fall upon 
him at the time when he does not expect it ; he will find himself 
taken in the snare which he laid in private for others. Being 
driven from the face of the earth, he will be driven from light 
into darkness. Oppression and anguish will seize him on every 
side. His eyes shall see his condemnation. He will drink the cup 
of the indignation of the Almighty God, whose curses will cover 
him as his garments. The strength of his skin will be devoured. 
The earth will swallow him up. God will extirpate and shut him 
up forever out of bis house. Let God never forsake him in his 
sins Let the wrath and indignation of the Lord surround him 
and smoke forever on his head. Let all the curses contained in 
the Book of the Law fall upon him. Let God blot him from un 
der the heavens. Let God separate him to his own destruction 
from all the tribes of Israel, and give him for his lot all the curses 
contained in the Book of Law." 

Who was it that pronounced that curse upon Bene- 
dict Spinoza ? It may be said that it was his race or 
the religion of Judaism. No, I assert it was not that 
only, which uttered the anathema. It was "Ism" 
everywhere, — Christianity/jv//, Juda/jw, Spencerian- 
isiii, Kantian/jv//, Hegelianww, and every other ism 
which insists that all men shall think in a certain way 
or in a particular groove and does not encourage the 
mind to act for itself. The world is so much disposed 
to say : You shall be anathema if you do not think as 
I think. Men do this at the present day just as in 
former times. As soon as the human mmd has at last 
caught up, after a century or more, with the earlier 
leaders, immediately it begins to repudiate the new 
and later leaders. It never seems to learn the lesson 
from experience. It will recognise the former Spi- 
nozas, but it wants no new Spinozas. And what was 
the reply of this heroic lens-grinder and searcher after 
God ? Did he waver or shrink, did he curse back' or 
deny? No; with imperturbable serenity of spirit he 
went out for himself alone, saying : I accept the ana- 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3137 



thema ; but I will think as the best and highest in my- 
self commands ; according as my own mind in its pur- 
ity and serenity shall dictate and guide me, so shall I 
search for the higher truth that tells of men, of the 
world and of God. 

As we know he did not live to old age and become 
a ripe philosopher, like Emanuel Kant. The mechanic, 
the lens-grinder, the modest retiring philosopher, for 
twenty years had been suffering pain, slowly breaking 
down from weakening lungs. At last at the age of 
forty-five the account was coming to an end. They 
made him a broth for his dinner one day at noon. The 
famil)' went out. When they returned later, they 
found him resting quietly on his bed in his last slum- 
ber. Peacefully he had gone to his rest like a child 
in the arms of his father. He was on the bosom of 
that Being whose nature he had given his life in order 
to study ; — the Infinite and Eternal Substance, that 
he called " God." 

THE NATURE AND INDUCTION OF THE HYPNOTIC 
STATES BY AN HYPNOTIC SUBJECT.* 

BY ARTHUR HOWTON. 

It is generally believed that the repeated and suc- 
cessive induction of hypnosis is harmful eventually to 
the subject of the experiments, and even physicians 
of an otherwise high order, psychologists, and others 
in whom we might justly expect more knowledge on 
so important a therapeutical adjunct, too often give 
credence to falsifying reports, garbled misstatements 
or wilfully misleading representations, which, did they 
know it, do incalculable injury to what has been in- 
controvertibly established as one of the greatest boons 
which a beneficent providence could possibly bestow 
on a suffering mankind, whose chief evils are their 
petty ones, or more particularly whose chief evils are 
those most particularly susceptible to the psycho- 
therapeutic treatment, the utility of which treatment 
has been practically and clinically demonstrated upon 
thousands of grateful sufferers by, among hundreds 
of other practitioners, Doctors Bernheim, Liebault, 
Beaiinis, Liegois, etc., at the school of Nancy (France) 

* The author of this article was an hypnotic subject for more than 13 years. 
He is an electrical mechanic by profession, at present engaged with the Clii- 
cago Edison Electric Light Co., and through his education and intelligence 
compares favorably with most of the trained subjects. Mr. Howton is confi- 
dent that he can resist, and lie would not be influenced by an operator in whom 
he had not unlimited confidence, but he concedes that most trained subjects 
will not be able to resist. Their belief that they cannot resist will take from 
them the power of resistance. 

Mr. Howton was born in London, England ; he was a subject of Donate. 
Hansen, Milo de Meyer, and was presented to the Prince and Princess of 
Wales. He lias written a book on the subject which has not yet gone to press. 
He was also the subject of a somewhat remarkable series of experiments such 
as the effects of drugs on the hypnotised subject ; The parallel between Hyp. 
nosis and Narcosis; The influence of antipyrine upon the cutaneous sensibil- 
ity in somnambulism (from which is made an interesting sesthesiometric table 
of comparative sensibilities of different parts of the body in the normal and 
hypnotic conditions). The results being intended for publication at the sec- 
ond International Congress of Hypnotism, Paris, 1892. 

He has also expressed his willingness to answer any questions on this sub- 
ject, providing communications are made as briefly as possible. — Editor. 



since 1866, and by the justly celebrated Neurologist 
Dr. Charcot of La Salpetriere (Paris) since 1878, and 
by schools established for its special study in all parts 
of Europe, including even conservative England. 

I must confess that I am not as enthusiastic over 
its direct curative powers as some of the distinguished 
devotees of the school of Charcot are, especially the 
renowned M. J. Luj's who believes in the possibility 
of cure for Tabes Dorsalis, and even of advanced pro- 
gressive muscular atrophy by psycho suggestive treat- 
ment, or by his pet favorite " Methode du transfert." 

As 1 am convinced from actual observation that 
this is the best possible application of suggestion to 
the treatment of nervous affections (chiefly hysteria) a 
few words of description may not be out of place : In 
this case the sick person is not the one operated upon, 
(which is convenient considering the difficulty of in- 
fluencing sufficiently each patient) but a special sensi- 
tive is used. 

The patient and sensitive are seated in chairs fac- 
ing one another close enough to hold each other's 
hands ; the sensitive is thrown into the somnambulistic 
or third stage of hypnosis (Charcot) or according to 
Liebault the ninth, and a magnet (although I do not 
see any other virtue in a magnet than in the effect on 
the patient's imagination) is drawn downwards from 
the body of the hypnotised sensitive, over that of the 
patient. 

The first effect observed is, that the sensitive shows 
the symptoms of the patient's sickness in an exagger- 
ated form, then the operator impresses the patient 
with the idea that his malady has been transferred to 
the subject ; if the patient is of an hysterical temper- 
ament he will think that as "seeing is believing " he 
has really lost his disease. This accounts for the seem- 
ingly miraculous cures we hear of, for we all know 
that to convince hysterical patients that they are well 
is to make them well, unless there is actual organic 
derangement. 

I myself have been used in a large number of cases 
in both the Old and the New Worlds and have seen 
performed some cures that would cause St. Paul and 
Simon Magus to take back seats. 

One thing is certain, and that, from practical ex- 
perience, that as an alleviator of suffering from that 
very distressing yet not serious class of ailments whose 
termination is algia — cephalalgia, nostalgia, neuralgia, 
myalgia, etc., — it stands unrivaled. 

But it is as an educational and moral agent that I 
expect most good from it. Dr. Myers of London, 
England, says : "I have seen the confirmed drunkard 
throw the gin bottle out of the window in extreme dis- 
gust, and I think that this is a genuine advance in 
therapeutics which England should be glad to learn 
even at second hand." 



3138 



THE OPEN COURT. 



Many persons arguing from the premiss of popular 
prejudice may say, "Yes but these advantages are 
more than counterbalanced by its evil effects on the 
unfortunate subject"; vain delusion, unpardonable 
mistake, I have been a subject for the last i3>< years, 
and far from experiencing any inconvenience from 
being hypnotised as many as a dozen times a day, I 
may say that I have actually felt physically, morally, 
but chiefly intellectually better for it. Not only this 
but I have had unexceptional opportunities for study- 
ing the cases of other habitual or as Charcot calls them 
"trained" hypnotic subjects, — and can honestly say 
that they showed a higher status of intelligence than 
others of similar education, and were certainly bene- 
fited by it. 

Again, as for its use for surgical operations its value 
has long since been determined, and Dr. Esdaile, 
Presidency Surgeon of Bengal at Calcutta performed 
in the six years ending 1851 chiefly upon natives, no 
fewer than 256 surgical operations without pain, anaes- 
thesia being produced hypnotically, some of them as 
serious as lithotomy and amputation above the knee. 
Other surgeons of more or less note, including the 
famous Dr. Elliotson, editor of the Zoist, and house 
physician of the Mesmeric Infirmary London, also de- 
monstrated its practical utility, but the discovery of 
chloroform soon turned the tide of attention from hyp- 
notism to something easier understood. 

The inscription "Mene Mene Tekel Upharsin" 
applies to hypnotism as a surgical anaesthetic when 
compared nowadays with ether, but it is still useful 
in minor surgery where ether is contra-indicated. 

There are several ways of inducing the various 
hypnotic states, each one called by some distinctive 
name, they are, the Mesmeric method, the Fixation 
or Hypnolic method, the Fascination method of Donato 
whose subject I was for some time), the Nancy or Pure 
Suggestion method, and the mixed Hypnotic. 

The chief fact in hypnotism is the changed condi- 
'tion of the mind (or condition of the brain, when viewed 
from the physiological, that is, the objective side) of 
an individual. The first of these, viz., the Mesmeric 
method owes its peculiarity to the belief of its expo- 
nents in the existence of a universal fluid called 
Animal Magnetism, now fully proven to be a chi- 
mera — an offspring of the imperfect science and fervid 
imaginations of those philosophers of the middle ages, 
who also believed in the existence of the elixir of life, 
the philosopher's stone, the talisman, the lodestone, 
and other wonders long since consigned to oblivion, 
by the searching glare of modern research. 

The operator in this method goes through a lot of 
ceremony, making passes with his hands over the sub- 
ject in a certain set manner, not formulated by Mes- 
nier, but by the honest but elaborate M. Deleuze a 



celebrated naturalist and librarian of the Jardin des 
Plantes, Paris. The operator all the time under the 
impression that a subtile fluid was disengaj^ed and 
flowed from the tips of his fingers to the subject when 
they made a downward pass, and when they made an 
upward pass of the hands the action was reversed and 
, the fluid was supposed to flow back again to the oper- 
ator. 

The success of this method depends very mate- 
rially upon the effects of imagination, expectancy, 
monotony and rhythm, not to mention the ever present 
and important factor of intentional or unintentional 
suggestion. 

The next method, the Fixation method has been 
in use for ages, and was revived in the eleventh cen- 
tury by the Hesychasts or Omphalopsychics, who 
were monks of Mount Athos, who habitually threw 
themselves into ecstatic catalepsy by gazing at their 
navels until cerebral exhaustion produced marked 
changes which finally resulted in deep hypnosis. This 
navel-gazing obtained for them the sobriquet of Um- 
bilicamini. Dr. Braid, a Surgeon of Manchester in 
1841, after incredulously witnessing the experiments 
of La Fontaine, began at last to see some grains of 
truth in the matter, and after experimenting on his 
coachman and his friend Walker, and putting them 
to sleep, and producing all the effects ascribed by La 
Fontaine to animal magnetism by merely gazing at a 
lancet case, and decanter stopper respectively, he 
propounded the theory of cerebral exhaustion due to 
the strain on the optic nerve but we now know that 
this theory is insufficient, requiring to make it com- 
plete the hypothesis of suggestion. 

In 1843 he published his now classical work " Neu- 
rypnology, or the Rationale of Nervous Sleep." Dr. 
Braid made one grand mistake, — he believed in phre- 
nology, and even tried to graft the young shoot of 
"Braidism" on to the stock of phrenology, thus pro- 
ducing the incongruity " Phreno-Hj'pnotism." As 
we all know phrenology is an exploded idea, and 
"bumps" have given way before the scrutinising eye 
of cerebral localisation and it would be difficult to 
find even the smallest part of the brain which has not 
been diligently explored and its functions, sensory or 
motor accurately mapped out, and not one agrees with 
phrenology. 

All there is necessary to produce hypnosis by this 
method is to gaze intently upon a small bright object 
at a close focus for from twenty-five to thirty minutes. 
When the eyelids begin to droop it is time to give a 
suggestion to produce any desired result. 

The Donato method is certainly the best method 
we possess and is well described by Professor Bern- 
heim. 

In this method the operator requests the subject 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3 '39 



to place his hands on his and bear down with all the 
weight of his body, then he says " look into one of my 
eyes," and as he says this he turns rapidly upon his 
subject with a fixed stony glare as though he would 
pierce him through ; in the momentary start caused by 
this manoeuvre the subject is lost before he has time 
to consult his Ego. 

Hypnotisation by Fascination takes onl)' three or 
four seconds and it takes an impetuous, ardent oper- 
ator to become an expert. 

If the subject is susceptible, Fascination is instan- 
taneous, he is transfixed, and slavishly follows the 
dictates of the operator's will as expressed in his eyes. 
At this juncture any other hypnotic phenomenon can 
be produced by suggestion. The Nancy school is the 
exponent of pure suggestion, and differs very mate- 
rially from the Charcot school both in its theory and 
practice. Professor Bernheim, whose patients are 
chiefly of the sturdy peasant class, is in high contrast 
to Professor Charcot who operates "in toto" on hys- 
terical patients, and then again, chiefly females. 

It is quite customary to see a sturdy peasant bent 
down with, some malady more painf;il than serious, 
enter and seat himself in an armchair, and await pa- 
tiently the commencement of the somewhat weird 
operation. 

Professor Bernheim approaches the patient and 
merely to distract his attention and render him ex- 
pectant, tells him to look fixedly at some point such 
as a part of the pattern in the carpet, his lancet case, 
or even the tip of his finger, generally placed at short 
focusing distance, so as to cause undue convergence 
and thereby tire the ciliary muscles and the optic 
nerve. Bernheim does not place much stress on the 
theory of cerebral exhaustion, nor upon that of peri- 
pheral excitement (Heidenhain), but attributes the 
effect produced entirely to suggestion during a predis- 
posed condition induced by expectancy. 

After a few moments he begins telling the subject 
that he is going into a calm, peaceful, natural sleep, 
which the patient really does after a few minutes. 

This sleep although it possesses much in common 
with the ordinary hypnotic sleep, is yet widely differ- 
ent in its leading characteristics ; for instance Pro- 
fessor Bernheim never induces Catalepsy, and very 
rarely Somnambulism, but the sleep which is induced 
by his method is generally very superficial. A noise 
will awaken a sleeper as in the natural sleep and the 
patient is not always insensible to pain, and moreover 
the patient very often remembers upon awaking what 
has occurred during the sleep. Nevertheless, I have 
seen all the phenomena of neuro-muscular hyper- 
excitability elicited in this state. From the foregoing, 
do not imagine that this in any way impairs its utility. 



for the fact is that whereas only twenty-five per cent, 
are hypnotisable by other methods, as many as ninety 
per cent, are found susceptible to this, to a sufficient 
degree for practical suggestive-therapeutics. The 
last method we shall notice is the Mixed Hypnotic; — 
this method consists of a combination of the good 
points of all other rnethods. For instance we may use 
a machine (Alouette) with a small revolving bright 
point, such as a glass diamond, to tire the eyes, and 
suggestion and passes to produce respectively peri- 
pheral excitement (Heidenhain) and the lulling effects 
of rhythm ; or even introduce the fascination method 
of Donate. 

This combination is much in vogue as a hospital 
method in this country and is a good all round method. 
The only noticeable feature which may be regarded as 
an evil effect of repeated hypnotisation is a certain reflex 
irritability, first investigated by Baron Rudolph Hei- 
denhain, which some authorities think may result in 
chorea (St. Vitus's Dance), but which in the first place 
is an extremely rare condition, and in the second place 
it can be removed by suggestion. 

It is a much lamented fact that in this country, 
hypnotism still lies chiefly in the hands of the public 
exhibitor, very often a man totally unfit to play with 
another man's body or ego, and although I say it, it is 
my opinion that the sooner that legislation gives the 
monopoly to the regular educated physicians, the 
sooner will it make the rapid strides in public estima- 
tion, that it has made in countries where (like France, 
Italy, etc.) public exhibitions have been forbidden by 
law. 

Two things in concluding I should like to suggest, 
one is that America should have a school of hypnotism 
conducted on similar lines to the great European 
schools, for a great deal of money leaves this country 
to ipy own knowledge to be spent by physicians in the 
study in Europe of this art, which could well be spent 
in America, did it contain the necessary facilities. The 
next suggestion is that at the Grand International Con 
gress (President Dumontpallier) Paris 1892, cognizance 
should be taken of Mesmer, and a fitting memorial 
passed, for although history says that avarice was the 
mainspring of all his actions, yet those that knew him 
say that he had an inherent love for suffering human- 
ity, which statement is borne out by the fact that he 
always had a free Baquct for the use of the poor, he 
also "magnetised" a tree in the Rue Bondy finding 
the former insufficient for the crowds seeking relief. 

To all who would pursue this interesting study I 
say, experiment carefully for yourselves, noting re- 
sults, and remember with Victor Hugo that, 

•■ The real is nairow- 
■ The possible .... immense." 



3I40 



THE OPEN COURT. 



CURRENT TOPICS. 

The Nebraska comedy of " The Two Governors," to which I 
referred in TJic Open Courl last May, having had a run of about 
nine months will now be taken off the boards, by order of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States. The babies who had been il- 
legally changed have been transposed again, the right baby to the 
right place this time, and the wrong baby to the wrong place, 
where he properly belonged Mr. Boyd having been elected gov- 
ernor of Nebraska, swore in, and went to governing in the usual 
way. His right of governing was denied on the ground that he 
was not a citizen of the United States, and therefore not eligible 
to the office of governor. This view of it was taken by the Supreme 
Court of Nebraska, and Mr. Boyd was "ousted." He ceased gov- 
erning, and the preceding governor, Mr. Thayer, who had not 
been voted for by anybody at the last election, began governing 
again, under that provision of the constitution which allows the 
retiring governor to hold over "until his successor is duly elected 
and qualified." I told Mr. Thayer at the time, through the columns 
of The Open Courl that he had better abdicate, because it was very 
uncomfortable to sit in another man's chair of State and to wear 
another man's shoes. I was thinking of this remark which Hume 
applies to King Henry the Fourth, " Henry soon found that the 
throne of a usurper is but a bed of thorns." Mr. Thayer would 
not accept the hint I gave him, and now he finds that he has been 
for nine months a usurper, holding an office by wrong and not by 
right, an office which he must ignominiously leave, because the 
Supreme Court of the United States has reversed the Supreme 
Court of Nebraska, and has decided that Mr. Boyd was a citizen 
of the United States when elected Governor. On being informed 
of this reversal Mr. Thayer said, "I bow to the decision of the 
Supreme Court of the United States." This was a very handsome 
and gracious thing to do. "Was your father resigned to die, my 
boy ?" said a' sympathising friend. " Oh yes ! " replied the orphan, 
" he had to be," 

-X- * 

A great deal of derision has been cast upon the late Mr. Caspar 
Hart of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, because of his eccentric will, which 
has just been filed in the Probate Court. Mr. Hart left about 
$50,000 to himself, as nearly as any man can do such an impossible 
thing. He bequeathed it for the erection of a monument to his 
own memory, with a statue of himself on the top of it in the form 
and semblance of a soldier on dress parade. The lot on which 
the monument is to stand is given to the city of Cedar Rapids, on 
condition that the said city shall forever keep the lot and the mon- 
ument in good order and repair ; but if the city will not accept the 
gift, the Lutheran Church is to have it on the same terms. Neither 
the city nor the church will accept the trust, for they are not 
willing to pamper such /<'.</ iiwilem pride. Also, the citizens gen- 
erally treat the vanity with scorn, for Mr. Hart proposes to pay 
for his own monument out of his own money, which is altogether 
irregular, because the custom is to pay for such things with other 
people's money, either by private subscription or by a public tax. 
There was a good deal of modesty in the bequest after all, for Mr. 
Hart does not want to appear in effigy charging up to the cannon's 
mouth, but in the calm and quiet attitude of a soldier on dress 
parade. In that interesting position the soldier is always out of 
mischief. Many dress parade soldiers of high rank have monu- 
ments paid for out of the public ta.ves, and why should not a dress 
parade private have one, especially when he is willing to pay for 
it after death with money earned in life, 

The papers of Chicago proclaim the joyful news that the Hon, 
Thomas W. Palmer, President of the World's Columbian E.\posi- 
tion, has been made a " high mason." He has been lifted up to the 
j3rd degree ; and this puts him on the very topmost floor in the 
Eifel tower of masonry. This is an important matter, for we now 



have a competent mason at the head of the world's fair, to super- 
intend the work of building the multiiudinous temples, towers, 
palaces, pavilions, halls, galleries, domes, pantheons, and bungalos 
which must ornament the exposition grounds in 1893. In the or- 
dinary course of masonic evolution Mr. Palmer must have waited 
several months longer for his diploma, but out of consideration for 
the people of Chicago, a royal dispensation was granted in this 
case by the Sanhedrim, and he got his degree at "a special council 
of sovereign grand inspectors general 33rd degree. Ancient and 
Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry." Those illustrious and 
imposing titles oppress the soul with reverential awe, and the won- 
der is that such exalted rank is possible to be attained by mortal 
man in three or four hours, which according to the papers was all 
the time occupied in the ceremonial drill necessary to qualify Mr. 
Palmer. Not without a feeling of jealousy we learn that ."the 
grand east of the jurisdiction is in Boston " ; but it is at least a 
comfort that the "grand west " of it is in Chicago. Sadly we con- 
fess that there is one eminence to which even Chicago cannot as- 
pire ; it never can be the "grand east" of any national thing. 
Fain would I know this cabalistic 33rd degree, and why its wisdom 
is hid. There must be something sacred in this esoteric masonry 
or it would not be so jealously guarded. I am as inquisitive as 
Bluebeard's wife was when she unlocked the forbidden door ; and 
I have always thought that in that fatal investigation she was look- 
ing for the 33rd degree. She knew that Bluebeard had it, and she 
thought he kept it locked up in that mysterious room. Thackeray 
tells us in one of his books that he also was consumed by a desire 
to explore its mazes. When he failed, he thought it sour grapes 
and said, " I suspect it's a humbug after all." 

* ' * 

As soon as peace broke out with Chili, a new excitement came 
to flutter the delicate nerves of Washington society. Diplomatic 
relations are again strained Tjy the international complications 
growing out of Mrs. Leiter's ball. Snobdom is fitting out arma- 
ments. Vanity Fair is in a state of anarchy, and Congress has be- 
come so interested in the trouble as to be quite unfit for business. 
The telegraphic dispatches from the capital inform the triple- 
plated sect of shoddy that, "The echoes of the Leiter ball are the 
topic in all Washington drawing rooms to the exclusion of almost 
every other subject. There were innovations of etiquette which 
opened the eyes of diplomates and officials of wide reputation, 
and these innovations are the one theme at six o'clock teas, cabinet 
receptions, and social gatherings generall''." This is a startling 
and sudden change. Only a week ago the cabinet receptions were 
tainted by the odor of "villainous saltpetre," and now their "one 
theme " is the perfumed and embroidered eti(]uette of a fashionable 
ball. The other day, Mr. Jeames Yellowplush, the court chron- 
icler for a morning paper, having need for some historical illustra- 
tion, spoke of "Adam and Eve, and other distinguished persons"; 
and he is the very same footman who sons Mrs. Leiter's guests 
into different grades of quality as if they were samples of tea. 
Says Mr. Yellowplush, "One class was made up of those people 
who are of conspicuous rank officially or socially, such as the 
Marquis Imperial!, the courtly charge d'affaires of Italy ; M. Pa- 
ternote, the French Minister, and daughters of several cabinet 
officers who are somewhat exclusive in their social surroundings. 
The other class was made up of those people who are known in 
social circles of the national capital, but who have not graduated 
into the most exclusive circles." Reading that, I weep for the 
social poverty of my country, destitute of a titled nobility, and 
unable to produce from its democratic and republican institutions 
a grandee even of the second class, or a pasha with two tails ; not 
so much as a Marquis Imperiali. 
* 

In selecting her guests for "the butterfly's ball and the grass- 
hopper's feast," Mrs. Leiter imitated Patrick Mulqueeny who had 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3141 



only two kinds of flowers in his garden, roses and cabbages ; and the 
cabbages in a triumphant majority. That he may be mathematically 
exact, the critical Mr. Yellowplush remarks, "Altogether there were 
eight gentlemen and eight ladies in this exclusive set." This again 
is very much like Mulqueeny's flower garden, which contained 
sixteen roses to about five hundred cabbages ; a proportion accu- 
rately preserved at Mrs. Leiter's ball. Mr. Mulqueeny would not 
allow his roses and his cabbages to associate with one another, and 
he carefully established a line of demarkation between them ; as 
Mrs. Leiter did between the cabbages and the roses at the butter- 
fly's ball, for, says Mr. Yellowplush, "The line between these 
two classes at the ball was very clearly defined, as each class had 
the apartments of one side of the spacious residence at its entire 
disposal, and it was made evident at the outset that there was to 
be no mingling from side to side." Of course this arrangement 
made some confusion, which Mr. Yellowplush deplores, for he 
says, "Naturally this was the cause of innumerable incidents 
which are now the main theme of gossip." Certainly ; and sad as 
it is, it could not be otherwise ; but the trouble might all have 
been avoided by inviting none but roses, or none but cabbages to 
the ball. Here is the most heartrending of the "incidents"; M. 
Paternote, — not Paternoster, — M. Paternote, the French Minister, 
"broke through the line of demarkation," I quote the words of 
Yellowplush, "and was escorting to supper a young lady who was 
not on the favored side, when he was unexpectedly stopped on the 
stairway bj' one of the hosts," — which one is not stated, nor are 
we told how many hosts there were, — "who explained that M. Pa- 
ternote had made a mistake. It had been arranged that he should 
take Mme. — a descendant of one of the imperial houses of 
France." Here again Mr. Yellowplush is very tantalising, for he 
does not give us the lady's name, nor tell us which of the imperial 
houses she belonged to. No matter ; M. Paternote clung to the 
girl he had selected ; and in the courtly language of Yellowplush, 
"he gallantly declined to drop her on the stairway." I am sorry 
to say that he ungallantly did so when released by the young lady 
herself; and oft' he went with "the descendant of one of the im- 
perial houses." If Mr. Yellowplush tells the truth in all this, as 
he probably does not. the whole company was composed of snobs ; 
and the French minister who dropped the young lady on the 
staircase after asking her to go to supper with him, was the 
worst snob of them all. Sin"e the point of etiquette that arose 
at the wake of Teddy Roe, where half the company got their heads 
broke before it could be settled, nothing has appeared so disturb- 
ing to society as the extraordinary etiquette observed at Mrs. 
Leiter's ball. M. M. Trumbull. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

The Right ok the St.^^te To Be. An Attempt to Determine the 
Ultimate Human Prerogative on which Government Rests. 
By /; .1/. Taylor, Ph. D., (U. of M.) Ann Arbor, Michigan. 
1891. 

The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social 
Science, published at Philadelphia under the editorship of Pro- 
fessor James were founded by a society whose aim it is to study and 
propagate sound economical views, and their work is done in the 
right direction. They cling to no panacea, they are not one-theory 
men, who expect by one single stroke to bring down a millennium 
on earth ; they investigate the conditions and try to reform by the 
slower but surer means of education. If there is any additional 
thing to be wished for in this great undertaking of educ.iting the 
citizens to comprehend the nature of social and political problems, 
it appears to us, it would be to have the questions presente^^ •, a 
popular way. The popularisation of science is no easy t id 

it takes great scientists to do it, but among all the scie* . h 
in a republic need popularisation most, the science '^ ineirs, ^ 



political economy stands first. We wish that our contemporary 
at Philadelphia would undertake that mission. 

The pamphlets before us, although not designed for a popu- 
larisation of legal questions, are a work in that direction. They 
are reprints from articles which appeared in the Annals and treat 
their subject scientifically and in a lucid form. 

It appears as if the "law of nature-theory " had no room in the 
modern conception of social philosophy, which attempts to be ' 'pos- 
itive " and being exclusively engaged with the actual institutions and 
codified laws neglects what Sophocles called the unwritten laws, 
invoked so often against the wrongs of existing laws under the 
name of "the law of nature." It must be conceded that social 
philosophers have proposed many wrong ideas about the law of 
nature but there can be no objection to Professor Taylor's defini- 
nition, who asserts that "there is a standard of right, independent 
of, and supreme over, the will of man." We have repeatedly 
maintained that morality, law, and all our ideals are not mere 
subjective fancies which we excogitate at our pleasure in accord- 
ance with some principle of which we do not know how we got into 
its possession ; morality, law, and ideals have a basis in reality and 
unless they are shaped in actual accord with reality, unless they 
are based on facts, unless they agree with the law of nature, they 
are mere dreams. Back of the right which is codified in statutes 
there are the natural laws of social growth. 

The author apparently sympathises with intuitionalism. His 
argument that the Utilitarians are intuitional'sts because "the prin- 
ciple of utility is incapable of proof, " is interesting and in a cer- 
tain sense correct. But if utilitarianism is wrong, we need not 
adopt intuitionalism. What is the meaning of the phrase we can- 
not prove to a man that he ought to choose " the highest kind " of 
happiness ? We can investigate facts and can find out what the 
highest kind of happiness is, and supposing we have found it out, 
lliis will be capable of proof. We can present to a man all the 
consequences of certain acts, we can at the same time exhort him 
by example and by words to act in that way which for certain rea- 
sons we call good. According to his character he will follow or 
disobey the instruction received and he will have to bear all the 
consequences. Besides himself others will have to bear the con- 
sequences, and the effects of his course of action will go down to 
the coming generations. Utilitarianism stands upon a principle, 
and Intuitionalism declares that this principle is of a mystical na 
ture, it is an unanalysable fact, but positive ethics aims at a pre- 
sentation of moral injunctions as suggested by a full comprehen- 
sion of facts. 

The second pamphlet discusses the questions; By what right 
does the state exist ? By what right does any human organisation 
coercively control the will of individuals? What is the ultimate 
basal prerogative on which governments are built ? These ques- 
tions are answered by a theory stated in four theses, the first of 
which maintains ; 

" To every person as such belongs the prerogative of rule, i. e. 
the prerogative of coercively interfering with the liberty of other 
persons in order to maintain the first person's version of the jural 
ideal." 

The exercise of this authority, it is said in the following the- 
ses, belongs to the fittest ; the prerogative of associated man is 
higher than that of a man acting in isolation and the prerogative 
of men acting in communities is the highest of all. 

We are inclined to agree with the main idea of these theses ; 
yet we believe that they admit of a more thorough presentation, 
in which we may at once recognise the common ground between 
might and right without identifying them, Right is often con 
trasted with power as if something could be right which has no in- 
trinsic power to be. Professor Taylor defines person as well as 
society, but his definition is not satisfactory. If he had investi- 
gated the relation of the individual to society, he would ha\e found 



3'42 



THE OPEN COURT. 



that there are no isolated persons. The most essential features of 
a person are the product of social life. Society is a number of 
persons in systematic relations, but vice versa, social relations 
make persons. The language, ideas and ideals of what is com- 
monly called an individual originate and consist in the social rela- 
tion. If the concept person had thus been considered as a cor- 
relative term of society. Professor Taylor's theory would have 
gained in breadth as well as in depth. 

Further Reliques of Constance Naden; being Essays and 
Tracts for our Time.s. Edited with an Analytical and 
Critical Introduction, and Notes, by C-cr^v M. A/cCrie. Lon- 
don : Bickers & Son. 1891. 

The publication of Miss Naden's most important philosoph- 
ical composition with other essays was so recently noticed in T/i,- 
MonisI, that it is not necessary to give a lengthy review of the 
present work. As evidence of the versatility of the authoress, this 
is of great interest. It deals not only with several aspects of Hylo- 
Idealism, but with more strictly scientific questions, such as Geol- 
ogy, and the evolution of the sense of beauty. Under the title of 
"Geology of the Birmingham District" we have an excellent 
general summary of what is known of the constitution of the 
earth's crust, illustrated by numerous sections of local geological 
formations. It is not surprising that this essay gained for Miss 
Naden the Panton Prize at Mason College. The origin of the 
sense of beauty is traced to well-being instead of the feeling of 
pleasure, on the principle that the greatest well-being is derived 
from the maximum of activity with the minimum of waste. The 
vigorous discharge of any function, when not carried to great ex- 
cess, reacts beneficially on the organism as a whole. Therefore, 
"those organisms which court varied stimulation are the most 
likely, other things being equal, to survive and to replenish the 
earth." It is as we ascend in the scale of existence that conscious- 
ness emerges, and well-being is then translated into its subjective 
correlate, pleasure. In birds we find the earliest trace of some- 
thing like human asstheticism. Unless, however, the exercise of 
the bodily functions were pleasurable, in the sense at least of not 
being painful, the principle of well-being would have little chance 
of operating. Hence, as Miss Naden points out, the normal ex- 
ercise of any function is pleasurable, and the greatest pleasure is 
derived from the maximum of activity with the minimum of 
fatigue. To ensure this however, the stimuli to activity must be 
varied, and the action itself must be smooth and continuous. On 
the latter condition depends the enjoyment of graduated light and 
shade, which is due to a gradual passing of action into rest and 
rest into action. 

In dealing with the question of religion, Miss Naden makes 
the remark that " the creative power of man is not limited to the 
sphere of intellect, but extends to that of religion ; and the cere- 
bral organ which evolved the 'superhuman' and 'supernatural' 
may yet produce a consistently human and natural system of mo- 
rality." We can sympathise with this observation, without refer- 
ence to the philosophic views on which it is based, as well as with 
the concluding statement of the essay that " our only hope of sal- 
vation lies in the conscientious endeavour to draw new life from 
nature, and to make science itself a well-spring of ideal trum. 

The most important phil -'lic contribu -n ontained ■ "ie 
present work is on Cosmic Ii . This is dt laret^ j be ' 

mary posi^.„ arch ^' -esult of scienc B 

tity " is meant L4..ity of ci id of va 

stances, that is, fnnstniu/ oj . osmi 

dicates " the fundamental truth ti : 

ordinary common sense." This an 

argue from the identity of the cc il 

cosmos with the ego, as Miss Naden 
fessor Green's transcendental psychoh 



able. Tne relation between subject and object on which the quts- 
tion turns is a difficult one, and we cannot now discuss it. We may 
safely say, however, that the last word has not yet been spoken 
on the subject. 

The appendices to the work comprise, besides several contri- 
butions by Dr. Lewins, a reprint of Dr. Dale's biographical sketch 
of Miss Naden, which appeared in Tlie Conlditipoiary Review in 
April last, with a reply by Mr. McCrie, who assures us that the 
one-sidedness of the material world is an illusion, near and far 
being quite indifferent. This, with the statement, cited in his in- 
troduction as one of the most pregnant dicta in all the literature of 
abstract thought, that " if the subject and object be indissolubly 
one, the simplest unit from which we can start must be the ego in 
its entirety, that is the universe as felt and known," give a fair 
idea both of the teachings of Hylo-Idealism and of the difficulty 
many minds must have in accepting them. That the system is 
deserving of serious study cannot be denied and for this purpose 
Miss Naden's works are indispensable. 0. 

MR. C. S. PEIRCE has resumed his lessons by correspondence in the 
Art of Reasoning, taught in progressive exercises. A special course in logic 
has been prepared for correspondents interested in philosophy. Terms, 530 
for twenty-four lessons. Address : Mr. C. S. Peirce, "Avisbe," Milford, Pa. 

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CONTENTS OF NO. 233. 

BENEDICT SPINOZA. (Concluded.) W. L. Sheldon. . . 3135 
THE NATURE AND INDUCTION OF THE HYP- 
NOTK STATES BY AN HYPNOTIC SUBJECT. 

\RT11 >VT0N 3137 

'S The Nebraska Governor. Post- 

n. .\ High Mason. Etiquette at 

M. Trumeuli 3140 

In selects 3M' 

pper's feast. 



The Open Court. 



^*^ THE 
NEWBERRY 
UBRARY 
_ CHfCASO 



A WEEKLV JOURNAL 



)evoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion with Science. 



No. 234. (Vol. VI.— 7. 



CHICAGO, FEBRUARY 18, 1892. 



Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only c 



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THE DONNYBROOK PLAN OF REFORM. 

BY F. M. HOLLAND, 

DoNNYBROOK fair has long been famous for free 
fights among champions whose plan of campaign is 
simply this: "When you see a head, hit it." A sur- 
vival of this picturesque old practice may be detected 
among those very prominent and active reformers, 
whose motto seems to be " When you happen to think 
of any institution, go for it." Our Donnybrook re- 
formers are too impartial and zealous to be stopped by 
such trifling considerations as that some institutions 
have been preserved during countless generations on 
account of generally acknowledged necessity for so- 
cial existence, as is the case with marriage ; or again 
that other institutions, like our reformatories, embody 
the most advanced thought of the century so full)' as 
to provoke conservatism and corruption to make at- 
tacks which it is difficult to resist. No matter how 
useful an institution may be to the world, nor how 
urgently it may need' to have friends of progress sup- 
port it long enough to have a chance to show its real 
value, some would-be reformer is sure to denounce 
it as an obstacle to his own pet scheme ; and this he 
changes so often as to have what he thinks good rea- 
sons for sooner or later attacking everything and every- 
body. 

Take such an agitator for your guide to-day, and 
you will be pretty sure to be told by him to-morrow 
that you have gone completely astray, as will prob- 
ably be the fact. A man who had brought up his 
children after the plan laid down in Rousseau's"Emile, " 
and ventured to tell the author that he had done 
so, got nothing but rebuke. 

We read in the October Atlantic that Tolstoi's wife 
says he changes his opinions every two years, and 
that the charge is admitted by him, as well as by one 
of his enthusiastic admirers, to be substantially true. 

Wendell Phillips can scarcely be honored too much 
for the energy and steadfastness with which he went 
on, year after year, attacking slavery; but he was 
obliged to approve of its abolition by men whom he 
had denounced bitterly, and whose motives were such 
as he had done his best to make inoperative. Eman- 
cipation must be considered his work as well as theirs. 



however ; but after it was accomplished, we find him 
advocating one wild plan after another, in a way that 
reminds me of the story of the first steamer that the 
Chinese tried to navigate without any European on 
board. She made her way by a zig-zag course to her 
destined port ; but when she got there, none of the 
officers knew how to stop her, and so they had to let 
her go round and round the harbor, until her fires 
burned out. 

Of course, it is a great stimulus to intellectual ac- 
tivity to have an eloquent and zealous man or woman 
advocate first one view and then another of every 
difficult problem, and beseech us every time to work 
for that moment's special dictum, as if it were an in- 
fallible revelation. Our conservative and reactionary 
friends may, however, be relied upon for pointing out 
all the objections to every improvement; and there is 
really no need that they should have the assistance of 
any one who wishes to aid progress. It may be said 
that those who attack all institutions indiscriminately, 
do society a service similar to that rendered to the 
passengers on a train by the men who go about with 
hammers, tapping every wheel to test its soundness ; 
but we can be sure that every new wheel will be tested 
thoroughly by the opponents of reform ; and the man 
who does most to carry the train onward, is not he 
who taps the wheels, but he who makes them go round. 

When I see one reformer trying to enlarge and an- 
other to restrict the power of government, when again I 
hear appeals made in the name of progress, now for con- 
firming and now for abolishing private property, here 
against and there in favor of free trade, sanitary re- 
form, manual training, scientific charity, vaccination, 
woman suffrage, vivisection, prohibition, employment 
of prisoners, free coinage, and scores of other issues, 
I am reminded of what took place, the first night that 
lamps were lighted in the yard of Harvard College. A 
zealous sophomore came running into a room, where 
a number of his class-mates were assembled, to tell 
them what a great and glorious deed he had done to 
distress their natural enemies, the professors. He had 
just taken his life in his hands, blown out a lamp near 
by, and escaped without capture. Everybody praised 
such heroic public-spirit ; but before the congratula- 



3144 



THE OPEN COURT. 



tions were half finished, another lad came in, almost 
breathless, to boast that he had just dared to relight 
that very lamp, which he supposed some professor 
had put out. Men and women ought to be wiser than 
this. The cause of reform is not so strong, that the 
world can afford to have it played with thus. 

Nothing hinders so sadly the growth of that holy 
cause, as the difficulty of seeing what it really means. 
A young man or woman might naturally speak, when 
asked to take an interest in reform, as the Hindoo 
did, who was invited to become a Christian, and re- 
plied, " I have listened to thirteen missionaries, and 
each one condemns all the others as in dangerous 
error. It is certain that all are not right; and it is 
twelve to one that all are in the wrong." 

Perhaps I might feel tempted, if told that I ought 
to help circulate the works of some author, about whom 
I know only that he is a reformer, to remember the story 
of a wicked man who added to the good old epitaph, 

" when this you see, 
Prepare straightway to follow me," 

the naughty words, 

" Before to follow, I consent, 
I'd like to know which way you went." 

We should not, of course, forget that reformers, 
however erratic and inconsistent, are on the average 
much more disinterested than the advocates of con- 
servatism, who are generally in the pay of vested in- 
terests, kept up to benefit the few at the expense of 
the many. It is also well to remember that our race 
has never yet been able to develop all its capacities 
and powers, except perhaps in the case of a few ex- 
ceptional individuals. There is still need of earnest 
effort to enable all to climb where some have stood. 
This is an age of changes and improvements ; and that 
makes it all the more necessary that the whole social 
fabric be sufficiently expanded and renovated to bear 
the growing burden of new requirements. We have 
not too many but too few reformers ; and we cannot 
spare even those who are least endowed with wisdom. 
This last great gift comes so gradually that we can 
scarcely be too patient with him whose struggles to 
reach clear comprehension of humanity's most sacred 
interests have not yet brought him to the top of the 
mount of vision. Honor to those who are still toiling 
through the thick, dark woods at the mountain's base ; 
for they at least do something to keep open the path 
which must be traversed by all who make the great 
ascent. All friends of reform are worthy of sympath}? 
and praise ; but some deserve more than others ; and 
these latter cannot be overpraised without depriving 
the world's greatest benefactors of part of the honors 
justly due. 

The highest honor we can pay to any man is to 
imitate him ; and it ought to be plainly understood 
that the men most worthy of imitation are those who 



have devoted all their zeal and thought to urging the 
race onwards in the straight line of progress, who have 
never tried to delay the great march, nor even al- 
lowed their feet to stray out of the direct path into 
any byway which has turned out to be no thorough- 
fare. Thus Voltaire wrote and lived for toleration 
and philanthropy, keeping to the same plan from first 
to last as closely as was permitted in that age of 
oppression, making such temporary concessions as 
seemed necessary for ultimate victory, often changing 
his point of attack, but constantly directing his blows 
against the same great enemy of liberty and progress. 
Still more consistent and far-sighted was John Stuart 
Mill, who would not, I think, see aught to change in 
the main objects of his life, if he were to come back 
to earth to-day. Time has already completed much 
of the work which Mill and Voltaire had most at heart ; 
and there is good reason to believe that the future will 
build on the foundations which they helped to lay. 
This could not be said so truly of Rousseau, or Car- 
lyle, or Tolstoi'; but Mill and Voltaire had the great 
advantage of knowing how to make the light of expe- 
rience guide them straight forward. Study of history 
taught them what institutions had worked for or against 
human happiness, which among many attempts at 
change had turned out to be mistakes, and which had 
shown themselves to be real improvements. Knowl- 
edge of what was worst in the past helped them to see 
what was best in the present and most worthy of fos- 
tering care. Their ideal was not floating far away in 
the clouds, and changing with them, but standing 
near at hand on solid earth ; and it needed only to be 
enlarged, multiplied, and strengthened, in order to 
become a universal blessing. This is what Mill, Vol- 
taire, and their friends learned from the philosophy of 
Bacon and Locke, a system which has had too little 
influence in America, but is now gaining general ap- 
proval in the highly advanced form to which it has 
been developed by Herbert Spencer. The laws of 
human progress are now plain enough to show which 
reforms can succeed by obejnng them, and which must 
fail on account of disobedience. The application of 
this general principle to particular cases must be re- 
served for another article. My present purpose is 
merely to show that reformers are under the same ne- 
cessity as other laborers of conforming to natural laws. 
Any attempt at reform which is made in opposition to 
science will be no help, but only a hindrance to progress. 



RELATIVITY AND CONSCIOUSNESS. 

BY JOHN SANDISON. 

The theory of the relativity of knowledge is founded 
on the old idea of the subjectivity of the ego which 
Berkeley in his early years enunciated with all the con- 
fidence and hopefulness of youth, but which afterwards 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3145 



received its death-blow from the spirit of the Kantian 
philosophy which brought back reflexion from " sub- 
" jective uncertainty to the green pasture of objective 
"reality." 

When this theory denies that there is any possi- 
bility of knowing reality, the doctrine really refutes its 
own premises and the basis of its argument, for it 
founds its reasoning on a supposed reality, the exist- 
ence of which it admits cannot be proved or recognised 
by the only means of acquiring knowledge open to it, 
viz. thought-sj'mbols, for after all these thought- sym- 
bols are not credited with furnishing the individual 
with true and certain knowledge ; and accordingly if 
the reasoning of the relativist is to be carried out to its 
legitimate conclusion the individual is not even left to 
the subjective play of illusions for there could be no 
criterion of certainty by which these illusions could be 
recognised as such. No wonder that Heine remarked 
" that the distinction of objects into phenomena and 
" noumena, i. e. into things that for us exist and things 
' ' that for us do not exist is an Irish bull in philosophy. " 

It has been pointed out by a recent writer that the 
theory of the relativity of knowledge receives its plaus- 
ibility from being confused with another fact of ex- 
perience, viz. in acquiring knowledge there is always 
a conviction that man can never know things fully; 
every investigation of science, even when dealing with 
the most elementary things, is forced to stop short of 
the whole truth and that something beyond, that inner 
essence, is just regarded as the essence of the thing 
and thus the reality is supposed to lie outside knowl- 
edge. It is quite true that man can never arrive at 
absolute truth. The facts of existence are so numerous 
that thought can never come to a full and complete 
knowledge of them, but the principle of evolution is 
applicable here for man's knowledge is always a de- 
velopment and true so far as it goes and is ever pro- 
gressing to, but never attaining absolute knowledge. 

It is one of the principal results of German idealis- 
tic philosophy to show that thought is not merely a 
state of a subjective individual (not a knowing of 
thought-symbols and nothing more as Dr. Janes be- 
lieves, see The Open Court, No. 217), for man's whole 
consciousness of self implies the consciousness of that 
which is in distinction from it and which grows by 
means of it, and without it self-consciousness could 
never come to a knowledge of itself. When this re- 
lationship of consciousness or thought with the world 
in all its variety is reflected upon, man is lifted to a 
higher standpoint where he sees that his feelings are 
united with the objective and the universal by means 
of which a guarantee for its truth can be obtained and 
in which he can find a field for the boundless activity 
of his higher consciousness. If looked at in the light 
of evolution and the laws of development neither 



thought nor things can any longer be regarded as ab- 
solutely separate and distinct from each other, on the 
contrary each is necessary for the other, and either 
taken by itself is a meaningless abstraction. Man is 
not called upon to prove the existence of the world, 
but to comprehend it as it exists and to direct the ac- 
tivity of his will in accordance with the highest prin- 
ciples brought to light in self- consciousness. 



THE ETHICAL SOCIETIES AND THEIR VIEWS OF 
ETHICS. 

Hoping that we could lead the Ethical Societies to 
the recognition of the truth that ethics must rest upon 
a basis, and that this basis must be a clear knowledge 
of the world in which we live, our criticisms were for- 
merly made in a reserved and private way. We avoided 
public struggle but have found that this way leads to 
no results. Our attitude it appears was rather consid- 
ered partly as weakness, partly as an importune and 
unsolicited censure, and' we see that struggle is a nec- 
essary factor not only in the world in general but in 
the field of ethical aspirations also. 

While the Ethical Societies avoid struggling where 
they ought to struggle, they also struggle in a wrong 
way, they are lacking in the ethics of struggle ; and 
there is no better proof of the truth of this than the 
answers directly and indirectly given to our criticisms. 
Our criticisms were never personal, they never con- 
tained any offences, they were respectful toward the 
men who represent the views criticised and were writ- 
ten with the sincere desire to come to a mutual un- 
derstanding. Mr. Salter was the only one, and we say 
this in his honor, who replied directly and without 
circumlocution, but he did so privately, as it were, 
explaining that the Ethical Societies as such had 
neither a religious nor a philosophical opinion, they 
simply tried to do the good. 

We find most of the objections made us privately 
re-stated by Mr. Horace L. Traubel, editor of The Con- 
servator, of Philadelphia, who says with reference to 
the article "The Ethics of Struggle and the Ethical 
Societies ": 

"Mr. Carus thinks 'the ethics of struggle' cannot be suffi- 
ciently realised by the Ethical Societies because the lecturers seem 
to avoid any active participation in controversies over the con- 
stitution of their movement and the philosophical question it opens 
up. Mr. Carus has himself raised questions which he appears to 
think have not received the attention they deserved. I think that 
in the active questions of the day the lecturers quite actively par- 
ticipate. Mr. Salter's discus.'iion of labor — its rights and duties — 
is well known and always fundamental and generous. The only 
important issue which Mr. Carus has raised — whether the Soci- 
eties should have a moral creed or philosophy — has often been 
presented and discussed." 

This is a misunderstanding, first of what we have 
said in a former article, and secondly of the situation as 



3H6 



THE OPEN COURT. 



it is. We have never meant to deny the fact that the 
Ethical Societies in general and Mr. Salter especially 
are laboring hard in almost every field, social, political, 
religious. But labor is not as yet struggle. We con- 
cede even that they are in a certain sense struggling, 
for they ca-nnot help struggling in this world of strife. 
What we mean is, that they avoid struggling concern- 
ing the main issue which alone can give charade)- to 
their work. We fully recognise their good will as well 
as their busy activity in struggling against what they 
conceive to be false and wrong. But the point is that 
they do not give information as to what their con- 
ception of false and wrong is. What is the use of all 
the preaching to do good and avoid evil if a definite 
statement of what good and evil means is to be avoided. 
We might justly repeat to the Ethical Societies the 
word spoken to Martha : 

"Thou art careful and troubled about many things, but one 
thing is needful." 

The Ethical Societies do not understand that one 
thing is needful, and that without it all their work must 
be vain. Here lies Mr. Traubel's misunderstanding of 
the situation. 

On the battlefields of life as much as on the bat- 
tlefields of real war it is not only required that one 
must fight, but also that one must fight on the right 
spot. There is a certain place where the decision lies. 
This place has been surrendered by the leaders of the 
Ethical Societies and they make a principle of it not to 
take any definite position either pro or con where they 
should bear the brunt of the battle. 

There must be a reason why the fundamental prob- 
lem of ethics as a matter of principle is not discussed 
by the Societies for Ethical Culture, why they avoid all 
struggle about it. And there is a reason. They declare 
it to be transcendental and say that the ladder of sci- 
ence does not reach so far. This practically makes of 
the ethical teacher a priest whose sentence is to be 
taken as authority concerning that which has to be re- 
garded as moral or immoral. The public have simply to 
accept theirpreaching and there is no reasoning about it. 

We say that the place where the decision lies, has 
been surrendered by the Ethical Societies. This is true, 
but we have to add that they have only apparently sur- 
rendered it. They cannot surrender it without at the 
same time destroying the efficacy of their work. All 
they can do is avoid discussing it and let the decision 
lie with the lecturers of the Ethical Societies. Thus 
while they disavow the objective authority of facts 
verifiable by scientific discussion, they have adopted 
and had to adopt the subjective authority of their in- 
dividual opinions. 

The Societies for Ethical Culture call themselves 
ethical, but they do not intend to find out and clearly 
to state what is meant by ethical. They made it a 



rule to adhere in this respect to a "non-committal pol- 
icy." Their ethics is pure conventionalism and thus 
all their struggle and work necessarily is lacking in 
system and certainty of direction. Nor do they seem 
to care for system and certainty of direction, for Pro- ■ 
fessor Adler in his song of the Golden City compares 
them to builders of an ideal city who do not know what 
the plan of building may be. The work of the Ethical 
Societies must necessarily be a mere hustling about so 
long as they adhere to their non-committal policy of 
having no plan. 

* * 

The Ethical Societies have adopted a very beautiful 
name, but they must not think that their name gives 
them the authority to declare their way of thinking 
to be ethical. They are not the first and the only ethical 
movement in the world. We have said before and say 
it again that every religion is an ethical movement, 
and every religious idea if true and practically applied, 
is ethical. Vice versa ethical maxims are based upon 
some conception, be it religious, philosophical, or sci- 
entific. To act somehow, one must have an opinion 
as to how to act, one must have an idea why to act 
in this and not in another way ; and to exclude this 
opinion, which is the idea on which the course of ac- 
tion is to be based, is to take out the very core of action. 

Mr. Traubel says iii another editorial note of his : 

" Open Court remarks : 'Among the adherents of Ethical Cul- 
ture the word justice is often used, but I have found no definition 
of the term.' No doubt, Nor is that the only term the friends of 
Ethical Culture use ; nor is it the only term they and others, using, 
do not too sharply define. Definition may ruin as well as make 
sense and sobriety." 

A wrong definition will ruin and a correct defini- 
tion will make sense and sobriety. Therefore let us 
have correct definitions. But to make certain ideas 
fundamental principles of conduct and leave people in 
doubt about their exact meaning is in our conception 
of ethics^unethical. Shall everybody think by good and 
bad, justice and injustice what he pleases? Are the 
words ethics, goodness, justice, etc. catch-words like 
the phrases of party platforms, where an exact de- 
finition of the meaning, so the party leaders fear, 
might do more harm than good? The words of a 
preacher of ethics are his actions and they are com- 
parable to the bills in which a merchant pays his obli- 
gations. Let the value of the bills be unmistakable 
and let the words of the public preacher be clear and 
definite. 

If clearness of our plans and aspirations means 
creed, if lucidity and intelligibility of our words means 
philosophy, we certainly consider creed and philosophy 
as indispensable conditions of ethics. 

The words ethics, morality, goodness, welfare, jus- 
tice, etc., are most emphatic and valuable words, but 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3147 



the leaders of the Ethical Societies when using them 
have failed to give them a definite meaning. And 
without a definite meaning, they are empty phrases, 
mere counters which, however, to the unknowing ap- 
pear good money. Says Schiller in one of his Xenions : 

" Loug you can pay with your counters ; they'll be accepted by many. 
But in the end, my dear sirs, you'll have to pay in good cash." 

The Ethical Societies have a right to be as they are, 
for they will have to bear the consequences themselves. 
But they are a public movement. So is The Open 
Court. This being so, it is our duty to criticise them 
whenever we hold their teachings to be wrong. Since 
they proclaim themselves Ethical Societies, we have a 
right to stay them and to ask : What are you ? What 
do you mean by ethical ? To ignore such questions 
indignantly or to resent them is in our opinion not the 
proper thing. 

* * 

As an instance of indirect replies we quote the fol- 
lowing passage from Professor Adler's article in the 
first number of the Iiiternational Journal of Ethics, the 
organ of the Societies for Ethical Culture. Professor 
Adler discusses the objections made to the Ethical So- 
cieties; he first speaks of the churches as making "cir- 
cumvallations of sectarian opinion" and he continues : 

" The same objection lies against the adoption of a philosoph- 
ical formula, or set of formulas, as a basis _of moral union. In the 
first place, there is no philosophical system which commands uni- 
versal assent. Is any one hair-brained enough to suppose that he 
can propose one ? ... To adopt a philosophical formula as the 
basis of union would be to proclaim ourselves a philosophical 
sect ; and a philosophical sect is the most contemptible of all sects, 
because the sectarian bias is most repugnant to the spirit of gen- 
uine philosophy." International Journal of Ethit's, Vol. I, No. i, 
p. 18. 

That which commands universal assent is called 
" science." 

Science does not command universal assent among 
the ignorant, but science is of such a nature that in its 
progress it does gradually, but with certainty, com- 
mand universal assent. 

If in ethical action we had to wait for a universal as- 
sent, among all people, the foolish as well as the wise, 
we might just as well cease acting altogether. Such 
a universal assent in ethics if it were possible at all, 
would presuppose a universal assent on the funda- 
mental questions of religion as well as philosophy. 
The essential features of a religion are recognised in its 
ethics. Two religions are in practical agreement if and 
in so far as they agree ethically ; all other differences 
will be found to be mere differences of their method of 
formulation. Religious views may be expressed in a 
more or less allegorical language or in an altogether 
different system of mythology. We may tr}', and it is 
natural that we do try, to free ourselves from mythology, 
but that will not lead to pure ethics, so called, i. e. to 



ethics which will hover in the air without any religious 
or philosophical basis, but to an ethics based upon 
the consideration of a pure statement of facts. It is 
the ethics of a religion of science, and that is the aim 
and ideal of positivism, as we understand it. 

Now we do not at all demand the founding of a 
philosophical sect, whatever that may mean, but we 
do demand that in all ethical aspirations there should 
be a criterion of ethics and that this criterion should 
be enunciated in clear and unmistakable words. 
Whether we call such an enunciation a philosophical, 
a scientific, a religious, or an ethical formula, or what- 
ever we call it, is indifferent. Philosophy is nothing 
but a critical clarification of our thoughts. Is it defen- 
sible to make objections, in the way Professor Adler 
does, against the attempt to deepen our ethical and re- 
ligious conceptions ? The ethical problem cannot be 
solved by mystification by declaring that it lies beyond 
the pale of science, but it can still less be solved by 
scolding. To speak of "hair-brained enough" and 
"contemptible" (and it alters little whether these 
words were aimed at us or at any other person or per- 
sons) is to say the very least, in the highest degree 
unwise, and an ethical society in which such tendencies 
prevail will contribute little toward the moral progress 
of mankind. 



CURRENT TOPICS. 



The Hon. Mr. Pickler, member of congress from South Da- 
kota, will go down the raging stream of history as " The soldier's 
friend." He is a patriot statesman of the ancient Roman stamp ; 
and he believes that " the men who saved the country " ought to 
have it. Mr. Pickler thinks that " the nation owes the soldiers a 
debt which it can never pay " ; and as a small instalment on ac- 
count he proposes that by force of an act of congress they shall 
all be admitted into the World's Fair free of charge. This broad 
and liberal policy, at the expense of other people, may secure for 
Mr. Pickler the "soldier vote" next fall. Through inadvertence, 
he forgot to include free drinks and sandwiches in his bill. He 
has remedied this oversight in another bill which makes it the 
duty of the War Department to furnish rations to the members of 
the Grand Army of the Republic at its next annual encampment. 
This, of course, is better than nothing, but Mr. Pickler may lose 
a good many veteran votes because his bill does not provide for 
transportation as well as food. What do I care for free rations if 
I have to pay my fare to Washington and back ? And Mr. Pickler 
ought to have seen to it also that if the veteran is not able to attend 
the encampment and eat his rations there he shall receive a cash 
commutation for them at his home. There are politicians of great 
moral incapacity, in congress, and out of it, who think that the 
pride of the Grand Army has become a mendicant spirit to which 
they may safely appeal for votes. 

Perhaps there is no country in Europe where the mean cus- 
tom of " tipping " the lower classes is more general and more de- 
grading than it is in England ; and there is no country in the world 
where the meaner custom of "tipping" the higher classes is 
so prevalent and so demoralising as it is in the United States. 
Nearly every office holder, is ready to receive a "tip"; and 
"can thy spirit wonder" that its power of debasement reaches 



3148 



THE OPEN COURT. 



the old soldiers provided for in Mr. Pickler's bill. Not even the 
judges are proof against the seductions of a " tip " ; for I have 
seen the Chief Justice of a great State beg like a tramp for a " tip " 
from a railroad corporation. Senator Chandler of New Hamp- 
shire, is waging indignant war on the practice of "tipping" the 
judges of that State, but he will very likely be beaten in the fight. 
Because Francis Bacon, Lord High Chancellor, took "tips" two 
hundred and seventy years ago, he was punished heavily, and his 
ignominious fate points a moral for all time. Nevertheless, our 
judges imitate him without any fear of punishment whatever. 
Senator Chandler says : " There is much need of fearless comment 
on many of the past and completed acts of our judges. Some of 
them ride free on Boston and Maine Railroad passes. I think 
also some of them ride free on the Concord and Montreal Rail- 
way. The judges salaries were raised $500 each in 1881, with the 
distinct object of keeping them from riding free." Had they been 
raised $50,000 it would not have made any difference. The poison 
of " tips" is in our official blood, and millionaire dignitaries will 
beg for "tips" without any sense of shame. I had a very intimate 
friend who w&s a cabinet minister in the administration of Presi- 
dent Grant ; and when he went to Washington he got a "tip" 
from the Street Railway Company in the shape of a pass. He 
told me that one day, when riding up to the capitol, he handed his 
pass to the conductor, who, being a poor reader, began spelling 
out the name before all the passengers in the car. Mortified and 
ashamed, my friend snatched the pass from the conductor, paid 
his five cents, and never offered the pass again. Not until the 
stupid conductor began spelling out his name in public did the 
" Honorable Secretary " see how undignified and improper it was 
for a cabinet minister to take a "tip" from the Street Railway 
Company. 



A few days ago, a conscientious jury, befogged by counsel, 
and bewildered by the judge, threw dice for the verdict, where- 
upon the " twelve good men and true" were called into court and 
severely reprimanded. They ought to have been complimented, 
for they ended the dispute in a very sensible way ; that is, it would 
have been sensible if adopted at the beginning of the controversy. 
In fact, any plan of settling a dispute is better than going to law, 
— as the law is administered now. For example, throw your eye 
over this little paragraph which I find in this morning's paper : 
"In the Appellate Court yesterday opinions were rendered in 
thirty-six cases, sixteen of which were reversed. " When those thirty- 
six cases get up to the Supreme Court it is the mere flip of a copper 
how many more of them will stand. Considering their loss of time 
and money, their months of anxiety and care, and their waste of 
nerve capital, would it not have been wiser for all the litigants in 
those cases to have cast lots for it at the very beginning of their 
difference ? Out of thirty-six cases twenty are sustained and six- 
teen reversed, — and another court to hear from yet. Now, take 
any blacksmith in Chicago, and let him give judgment in those 
thirty-six cases after hearing the evidence and the arguments on 
every side, and it is morally certain that on appeal to the higher 
courts more than twenty of his decisions will be sustained. By 
the law of chance alone he will be right half the time, which gives 
him eighteen cases, and surely we may allow him two more for 
common sense. The state usurps the right to license men to prac- 
tise in the courts ; and it provides by impossible statute that all 
applicants for admission to the bar shall know the law. The re- 
sult of all its fussy interference is that no two lawyers know the 
law alike. And when they get promoted to the bench they know 
it less alike than ever. Whether a man is or is not a citizen of 
the United States appears to be a very easy conundrum, and yet 
the judges of the Supreme Court of the United States in the case 
of Governor Boyd could not agree on the answer. 



The death of Mr. Spurgeon is not without pathos, for with 
him dies a God ; the God of Calvin. While Spurgeon himself, for 
the good deeds done in the body, enters Paradise, his Cromwellian 
theologies, glide with solemn dignity into the Purgatory of dead 
creeds. The churches are aware of this, for, said the Rev. Mr. 
Delano in his memorial sermon, "The last and the noblest of the 
Puritan preachers is gone." This lamentation concedes that Puri- 
tanism itself is gone. The Rev. Dr. Lawrenfce declared that 
Spurgeon was "England's greatest preacher"; and some other 
Doctors of Divinity even canonised him. "I have not many 
saints in my calendar," said the Rev. Dr. Wolfenden, "but Saint 
Spurgeon is one of them." This kind of idolatry, though slightly 
pagan in its form and fashion is animated by the spirit of liberty. 
I rejoice to see a man brave enough to canonise his own saints and 
deify his own images, without asking the synod, the sanhedrim, or 
the areopagy to do it for him ; and in truth there was a good deal 
of the Saint Paul about Spurgeon. He was at least equally worthy 
of beatification, for he did much in his own way to beatify other 
people, and chiefly the lowly and the poor. I think he was the 
reincarnation of John Bunyan, and the theology which is passing 
away with him is this, as I find it in a eulogy on Spurgeon in the 
Springfield Republican, " He not only believed in everlasting pun- 
ishment, but he insisted on others believing it." Although Spur- 
geon was a sensational preacher he was not a clerical clown, which 
is more than can be said for many of his imitators among our 
American pulpiteers. He hated the devil, not because he had 
anything against him, but because he thought God hated him. His 
capacity for belief was colossal, and to him a truth not biblical 
was error. The telescope was a seditious heretic, and the almanac 
a liar. To him the discoveries of modern science were phosphor- 
escent illusions leading men astray. I heard him say so ; he be- 
lieved it; and, to his credit be it said, he bravely spoke his thought 
out like a man. 



At the risk of writing myself down a snob, I must confess that 
I am something of a man worshipper ; and the praises given to a 
great man drop like soothing flattery upon me. When I hear an 
eloquent senator cheered I take to myself a share of the tribute, 
for he has only done what I could do if I were in the senate ; 
and when the circus clown gets a round of applause for jumping 
over eight horses and an elephant, I appropriate my share of that, 
because I could as easily make the jump, — with practice. Our 
praise of mighty men is a form of self-esteem, for their feats are 
only proofs of what we ourselves may do. A few years ago I hap- 
pened to be in London, and while there I called at the " Licensed 
Victuallers Asylum " to pay my respects to Jem Ward, an old man 
of eighty years or so, once champion prizefighter of England. I 
did that, not because I had any special affection for Jem Ward, 
or the pugilistic profession, but because I have a meek and lowly 
reverence for any man who was the best man of his day at any- 
thing. In that same idolatrous mcod I went the following Sunday 
to hear Mr. Spurgeon preach ; for he was then the champion of 
England in his line ; and like Jem Ward, he had very muscular 
opinions, especially about the neck and shoulders. I was told to 
go early, and I did so, but already there were hundreds of people 
crowded about the various doors of the Tabernacle, and so great 
was the rush when the doors opened that I had to be satisfied with 
"standing room only." Although I was in a most unfavorable 
place, the preacher's voice was so clear, sonorous, and veil modu- 
lated, that I did not miss a word. North of what Mr. Beecher 
used to call the equator, that is, from the nostrils up, Mr. Spur- 
geon's head was small, though solid ; south of the equator, it was 
heavy and large. He preached from the text, " He is altogether 
lovely ;" and he handled it in a very familiar and patronising way ; 
with an air of self-confidence that was nearly self-conceit. 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3M9 



" He is altogether lovely," said Mr. Spurgeon, tossing the text 
aboat as a conjurer tosses a brass ball. " He is altogether lovely," 
he repeated over and over again. In fact, he repeated himself 
too much, as most extemporaneous orators do. With careless in- 
difference to criticism he dealt in quaint and curious phrases ; and 
with uncivil candor he exclaimed, "This is a fool of a world"; 
which indeed it really is, although it may not be polite to say so 
right out in meeting, as Mr. Spurgeon did. Further on, he com- 
pared himself to " a chick in the egg picking at the shell and try- 
ing to get out." Also, he gave his congregation this theology, 
which may be sound, although I doubt it, " If you love Christ, it 
is a simple pledge and token that he loves you." A moment be- 
fore he had said that some of them loved Christ for "what could 
begot out of him"; a sarcasm that echoed back and forth from 
soul to soul until the sermon ended. Some of his language pat- 
ronised the Lord, as when in flattering Christ and describing his 
beauties he said repeatedly, "This is rare praise"; and he asked 
the congregation this question, "Did you ever feel inclined to ex- 
cuse Christ ?" Some of his descriptions were cheap, like the puffs 
of an auctioneer, as for instance this, " The best of the best is to 
be found in Christ"; and this, " Christ is that ring which is dia- 
mond, emerald, ruby, and pearl." Once he threw contempt upon 
his text by saying, "This is only Old Testament praise after all"; 
for the "spouse" who gave it, "had never seen the real Christ." 
What I most admired was the sublime daring of the man when he 
said, "The recent facts of modern science are only worthy of 
contempt; they are utterly beneath argument." His discourse 
was not without poetical imagery although somewhat overstrained, 
and it contained sentences like this, "When our eyes shall Ijnd a 
heaven in beholding him "; and, " The merriest sight that ever I 
saw was ray sins falling into Christ's sepulchre and he lying there 
my substitute." Of his philanthropy every fragment will survive ; 
of bis theology, nothing. M. M. Trumbull. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE RESURRECTION PROBLEM. 

To the Editor of The Open Court : — 

" Macrocosm and Microcosm = Autocosm." 
Permit me to offer a short argument contravening Mr. Whip- 
ple's theory that the resurrection of Jesus from the dead was 
merely a resuscitation a la Humane Society of the apparently dead. 
This partial estimate I find, nowadays, to be very prevalent 
among ordinary sceptics. Yet looked at from a medical point of 
view, it seems quite untenable and really won't hold water at all. 
From the latter standpoint it is indeed physically certain that his 
supposed ascension from the dead was, like his subsequent ascen- 
scion into "Heaven" — a mere phenomenon, or phantom, con- 
jured up by the excited feelings of his credulous and superstitious 
followers, the fishermen of Galilee, and especially of Mary Mag- 
dalene, "out of whom he had driven seven devils," which is the 
animistic, or spiritualist, equivalent for lunacy. Indeed a popular 
theological volume by Dr. Hanna, son-in-law of Dr. Chalmers : 
" Forty Days After our Lord's Passion," distinctly postulates the 
assertion that her "sin" consisted in being insane and not a "so- 
cial evil." The probability is that she was both and hence doubly 
an untrustworthy witness for an event so unprecedented and one 
so universally conflicting with all human experience and judicial 
reason. Christ's posthumous apparition, on the sole evidence at 
our command, supposing it to be a contemporary record and not 
a later Church myth, is clearly a quite familiar case of Spookism 
or Ghostism — the "lawless and uncertain " Hamlet-like creation 
of the overstrained and unregulated emotions and imaginations 
of his bereaved cenacle, exactly as experienced by the ftarcosis- 
ridden poet and dreamer Coleridge who, when asked by a lady if 



he believed in Ghosts, answered : " No, Madam, I have seen too 
many of them.'' Relativism, Monism, Phenomenalism, and Evo- 
lutionism have thrown quite a new light on this, and all analogous 
mysteries, and Mahatmisms — a fact of which, as yet, Clericalism 
and modern crazed Occultism takes little or no account. How 
else could Dr. Hanna lay stress on the testimony of a female luna- 
tic, or Arch-Deacon Farrar, in his recent biography of St. Paul, 
the real Founder, and not Christ, of Gentile Christianity, argue 
for his being a victim of the falling sickness ? Modern alienist 
Medicine has clearly established the fact that epilepsy deranges 
and breaks down the mind faster, and more completely, than it 
does the body. And yet St, Paul is credited, both by the universal 
early tradition of the Church and by his latest biographer alike, 
as afflicted with this terrible Neurosis — the Morbus Sacer of the 
Ancients. It seems thus certain that Pauline Christianity— like 
Islam — had its origin in the brain of a would be Reformer, not 
thoroughly compos mentis, as indeed Swedenborg and Emerson in 
his " Representative Men " allow, being, by the latter, classed with 
Sir Isaac Newton and Pascal. No doubt St. Paul, on these noso- 
logical premises, did not die a martyr by instantaneous decapita- 
tion. His death must have been a far harder and more lingering 
living one, by what is vulgarly — often falsely — termed Softening of 
the brain, as in the case, only to mention three examples — one for 
for each division of the United Kingdom, — Thomas Moore, Walter 
Scott, and Michael Faraday. Heinrich Heine's wretched death in 
life arose from lesion, not of the brain, but only of the spinal mar- 
row, leaving his mental faculties practically intact. Thus, fable and 
vaunt as we may from our false dominant ideal, Christianity has 
no superhuman origin any more than other ancient or modern 
religions. To its founders, as to all others, is applicable Byron's 
verdict on Rousseau and other originators of sects and systems : 
" These are the madmen who have made men mad by their con- 
tagion." 5't-^-denial being the only denial that is quite inadmis- 
sible. And, as Godism is only a section of Spiritualism, we must 
extend the negating principle to divinity itself; Theism having not 
only no better evidence in its favor than any subordinate form 
of Superhumism, but being distinctly contraindicted and fore- 
closed by the substitution of Egoism for Absolutism, or true Cau- 
sality, for to that point we are forced by the subjectivation of 
the objective. When we resolve all things into Self we virtually 
dissolve the former and reach, on the surest data, Kant's negation 
of Ding an sich ; a postulate from wTiich that Prince of Metaphysi- 
cians recoiled in all his writings subsequent to the first edition of 
the "Critique of Pure Reason "! Nowadays we dare not be content 
with less and Practical Reason and Life conduct must follow suit. 
No courage, or mental grasp, seems necessary, in our age, to hold 
fast this obvious conviction. It is quite implicit in the axiom 
Alt Perception is only Apperception, i. e. Self-Perception ; our own 
sensorial states of Consciousness being, in the last resort, the goal 
of all research whatsoever, mental, ethical, or empirical. Higher 
than, or apart from. Self, or aggregate of Selves we can never 
rationally presume to range. That limit is the end of our tether. 
Beyond it is to us, not merely Chaos, but Nullity. 

R. Lewins, M. D., Surgeon, Lieut. Colonel (R.) 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Evolutionary Ethics. By Clarence H. Seyler. London : W. L. 
Prewer. 1891. 
This pamphlet is the result of earnest study and thought on 
the most important subject of all times. The following sentences 
culled from the conclusion will show the spirit in which it is writ- 
ten : "Actuated by a primordial impulse to seek happiness, man 
has sought, from time immemorial, to form a true theory of the 
Universe in order that he might derive from it rules of conduct 
which should secure his permanent happiness. To such systems 



3150 



THE OPEN COURT. 



the name of 'Religion' has been given. . . . To desire, to act, and 
to know how to act in order to satisfy desire, is the business of 
life. These mighty Religions, then, were nothing more than crude 
and imperfect philosophies. They were the necessary steps 
towards a better and truer one. They have shaped the history of 
humanity — in rhythms that have led the race, now upward; now 
through terrible bloodshed, cruelty, and persecution ; at times and 
for a period, downward into night and degradation — but always 
leaving the race ultimately a step in advance. . . . Religion has 
survived, whilst theologies have perished. . . . Philosophy is es- 
sentially the religion of progress, of enlightenment, of sympathy, 
of conscious mastery over nature, human and external — and, 
therefore, of freedom and organisation, toleration, efficiency, of 
systematised methods and knowledge, rising from facts to general 
truths and principles ! . . . We know of no finality in the realm of 
the knowable and have no weapons save those of persevering in- 
vestigation, culture, and mutual help. To perfect our methods, 
our skill, our character, our mastery of self and of the forces at 
our command — in a word, the attainment of wcU4mlnnced efficiency, 
physical, intellectual, sympathetic, and automatic — this, the true 
Ciilluie of existence, is our proximate aim for the attainment of 
our ultimate end." 



The Whirlwind Sown and Reaped. By Saladin. London : W. 
Stewart & Co. 
Saladin, the English freethinker and undaunted enemy of tra- 
ditional orthodoxy in every form, has published a new book which 
shows the same tendencies as his former publications, among which 
" God and his Book" and "Woman; Her Glory, Her Shame, and 
Her God " are the best known. "TheWhirlwind Sown and Reaped" 
is a novel which considered in itself aside from its tendency is 
original in composition, well told and interesting. Yet it is to be 
doubted whether Saladin was fair toward his adversaries, the 
clergy. It has been customary among the faithful to represent the 
freethinker as licentious and use the word libertine in the ex- 
clusive sense of a person lax in morals. In Saladin's story we 
see the reverse of the medal. The evil spirit of the story is a young 
clergyman whose licentiousness entangles him into such troubles 
that he sees but one way out, which is to make people believe that 
he has died. The coffin is filled with stones and buried while he 
absconds. Devil as he is, he commits new crimes and when de- 
tected ends at last miserably in a ditch. We are not pleased with 
those pious stories which paint the devil red, but we are not pleased 
either with the infidel stories which paint the devil black. How- 
ever when the pious complain about the latter, we shall have to 
point to the former and ask, Who was the first to set the bad ex- 
ample ? We consider infidel novels of this type as a natural reac- 
tion and any one who has excuses for the former will have to bear 
with the latter. Saladin is undoubtedly one of the best authors of 
his kind and his novel will command the same or more interest 
than Helen Gardner's story " Is this Your Son my Lord ? " 



Hygiene of The Nursery. Including the General Regimen and 
Feeding of Infants and Children ; Massage, and the Do- 
mestic Management of the Ordinary Emergencies of Early 
Life. By Louis Starr, M. D. Philadelphia ; P. Blakiston, 
Son, & Co. 1891. 
This neat little volume of 286 pages is full of good advice and 
instruction to mothers and nurses, and many of the difficulties ex- 
perienced in raising healthy children will be overcome by studying 
and carefully carrying out the directions here given. The chapter 
on Food and Dietary are especially valuable, and include the au- 
thor's method of sterilising milk for the nursery ; too much care 
cannot be taken in preparing the baby's food, and we heartily en- 
dorse the author's condemnation of the deadly feeding-bottle tube. 
In his preface to the first edition the author says :".... Little 



or no reference has been made to drugs or methods of medical 
treatment." This is commendable in a work intended for mothers 
and nurses, and we see many evidences of the author's caution in 
this direction. It is. therefore, all the more surprising that the 
danger of directing a nurse to place the delicate bulb of a clinical 
thermometer in a child's mouth, did not occur to him. We think 
decided preference should be given to the axilla. This is the third 
edition of the book. ypP- 

NOTES. 

Liberty, the exponent of Mr. Benjamin R. Tucker's concep- 
tion of anarchism, says concerning Mr. Horace L. Traubel's criti- 
cism ; 

"Referring to a remark of the editor ai- T/ie Op^n Court ,ito 
the effect that the ethical-culture workers ofteij use the term jus- 
tice but never take the trouble to define it, the Conservator says ; 
'Nor is it [justice] the only term which the friends of ethical cul- 
ture, using, do not too sharply define. Definitiori may ruin as well 
as make sense and sobriety.' This is a curious confession. Either 
the teachers use words without attaching to them any clear ideas 
themselves, or they are unwilling that their listeners shall attach 
clear ideas to their terms. In either case, nothing will ever come 
of their efforts. Science without clear definitions is impossible ; 
only theologians and metaphysicians dread the application of 
scientific methods to their systems. Would Mr. Traubel advise 
Tyndall to dispense with definitions, on the ground that physical 
science would be ruined by them ? If ethical culture is not scien- 
tific, what title has it to our respect ?" 



MR. C. S. PEIRCE has resumed tiis lessons by correspondence in the 
Art of Reasoning, taught in ptjogressive exercises. A special course in logic 
has been prepared for correspondents interested in philosophy. Terms, S30 
for twenty-four lessons. Address; Mr. C. S. Peirce, "Avisbe," Milford, Pa. 



THE OPEN COURT. 

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CONTENTS OF NO. 234. 

THE DONNYBROOK PLAN OF REFORM. F. M. 

Holland 3143 

RELATIVITY AND CONSCIOUSNESS. John Sandison. 3144 
THE ETHICAL SOCIETIES AND THEIR VIEWS OF 

ETHICS. Editor 3145 

CURRENT TOPICS. Free Tickets for the Grand Army. 

Tipping the Higher Classes. The Lsiw as a Lottery. The 

Theology of Spurgeon. M. M. Trumbull 3147 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

The Resurrection Problem. R. Lewins 3149 

BOOK REVIEWS 3149 

NOTES 3150 



%^^.WJ 

The Open Court 



A \'Si^EEKLY JOURNAL 



Devoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion with Science. 



No. 235. (Vol. VI.— 8. 



CHICAGO, FEBRUARY 25, 1892. 



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MONISM AND MATERIALISM. 



A REJOINDER. 



BY PAUL R. SHIPMAN. 



Dr. Carus has replied, through one of the two me- 
diums of publication at his command, to certain cri- 
ticisms of mine, which, I regret to say, have not ap- 
peared in either of these mediums ; if they had, I 
should be content to let his reply pass without a re- 
joinder. As it is, I ask permission to make one. 

I said that the monism of Dr. Carus "sets duality 
in the atom, and runs it throughout existence " ; and, 
in proof of this, cited his assertion that " feeling is not 
material," that "motion can never be transformed 
into feeling," that "the interconvertibility of motion 
and feeling is an error," that the "non-mechanical 
has nothing whatever to do with the mechanical," that 
feeling "can impart no impulse," that "the motions 
of all atoms are accompanied with elements of feeling," 
that these elements of feeling "produce in certain 
combinations actual feelings," and so forth, to the end 
of a long chapter. In reply, Dr. Carus asks, inno- 
cently : "Did I ever speak of the duality of atoms?" 
Not that I know of ; I certainly never said he did. I 
simply showed that his multiform assertion of the im- 
materiality of the elements of feeling, and of their in- 
timate and inseparable coexistence with all atoms, 
means this or nothing. 

Of this showing, however, Dr. Carus has taken no 
notice. He has not disputed my citations or endea- 
vored to confute my arguments. He has made no 
further attempt to explain how two things, which he 
says have nothing whatever to do with each other, and 
consequently nothing in common, can be one. What 
he might do, if he tried, I will not conjecture. Per- 
haps, more potent than Gratiano, he might rail or rally 
the seal from off the bond — the words from out the 
printed page ; but, till he does, he will pardon me for 
saying that, like Gratiano, he but offends his lungs to 
speak so loud. 

Dr. Carus also asks, with like ingenuousness, if he 
ever declared, as I accused him of declaring, that 
"consciousness is immaterial and will material." He 
does not disown the declaration, to which my accu- 



sation refers, that consciousness is immaterial, and 
that will is motion, but claims, it seems, that motion, 
as well as consciousness, is immaterial. Such being 
his view, how is it (will he tell us ?) that motion can 
act on matter, and that consciousness can not — that 
consciousness, as he asserts, "can impart no im- 
pulse," whilst motion, as he will admit, is a living 
spring of impulse ? Is the immaterial convertible with 
the material, and not with the immaterial ? Or are 
there degrees of immateriality, and does a chasm, 
fathomless and spanless, divide the scale — sundering 
one of these degrees from the rest, as all of them are 
sundered from materiality? But this by the way. The 
question of the materiality of motion I will discuss 
presently in connection with the nature of properties. 
It pleases Dr. Carus to imply, what he cannot seri- 
ously mean, that I hold materialism in the form im- 
agined by some of his philosophical countrymen in the 
first half of this century, and he addresses himself par- 
ticularly to confuting the dictum (as if it concerned 
me) that thought is a secretion of the brain, saying on 
this head, among other things, equally irrelevant, 
though not all equally decorous : 

" Gall is a substance, but thought is not a substance. Gall is 
a special kind of organised matter, but thought is no matter. If it 
were, we might bottle it, or preserve it in tin cans. What a fine 
prospect to buy canned thought at the grocers ! " 

It is enough to say of this infirm logic, and super- 
annuated pleasantry, not to speak of either irreverently, 
that thought, while not a secretion, figuratively or 
literally, is nevertheless the effect of the activity of or- 
ganised matter ; and, as every effect is consubstantial 
with its cause, the effect of material activity is itself 
material. "Nothing is immaterial, and everything is 
material," says the article to which Dr. Carus is re- 
plying, " that has anything to do with matter ; what- 
ever acts on matter, or is acted on by matter, is ma- 
terial — everything else, provided there is anything else, 
is immaterial." If this account of the material is true, 
mind unquestionably is material, and in this relation 
the sole remaining problem — no doubt a stupendous 
and superb one — is to trace the processes that emerge 
in consciousness. And the truth of this account re- 
sults, necessarily, from the nature of causation, joined 



3152 



THE OPEN COURT, 



with the principle that action and reaction are equal 
and opposite. 

Matter can neither act nor be acted on without re- 
action, which includes interaction, confessedly pos- 
sible between material agents only. But mental phe- 
nomena, it is now admitted, spring from the interaction 
of subject and object ; both of which are thereby ad- 
mitted to be material. From the character of knowl- 
edge, thus derived, it follows that what knows must 
be the same in nature as what is known ; "this was 
some time a paradox, but now the time gives it proof." 
The whole superstructure of modern psychology is 
founded implicitly on the materiality of mind. 

Furthermore, the materiality of mind is proved by 
the coextension of matter with reality, as guaranteed 
by the absolute impossibility of conceiving the nega- 
tion of this proposition; out of which flows the corol- 
lary that mind is a form of matter, since nothing but 
the mysterious something that we call matter exists — 
nothing but matter in one or another of its infinite 
modes. 

Moreover, the materiality of mind is proved in- 
ductively ; — first, by the fact that consciousness is in- 
variably and unconditionally consequent on the action 
of material forces ; and, secondly, by the fixed corre- 
spondence of the variations in consciousness with de- 
terminate variations in material forces : each of which, 
if there is validity in the axioms of science, proves 
that consciousness is the effect of material forces, and, 
consequently, material, too. 

I perhaps should not omit to say that the materi- 
ality of mind, in addition to all this, is implied in the 
very definition of matter which Dr. Cams accepts. In 
"Fundamental Problems," p. 93, he defines matter 
as " that which affects our senses," and, in " The Soul 
of Man," p. 383, as "anything which can effect one 
or more of our senses." Affecting our senses is a pro- 
cess the product of which is perception, or what psy- 
chologists generally misname sensation, a psychical 
product at all events, in whose production the affec- 
tion consists ; so that matter, in affecting our senses, 
acts on mind — produces feeling — gives rise to con- 
sciousness : and, as causation is transformation, the 
mental effect of this action must be equally material 
with the action itself, reacting on matter, and setting 
up therewith the interaction which belongs exclu- 
sively to material things. It is an obvious suggestion 
that perception or sensation is merely the sequent of 
material action, instead of the effect ; but, if matter 
does not produce sensation, so called, it does not af- 
fect our senses in the established acceptation of the 
phrase, for this affection consists purely in the produc- 
tion of sensation. An object unperceived is not con- 
sidered, popularly or philosophically, as affecting our 
senses. An impression that stops short of the senso- 



rium is not a sensory impression ; so long as the " pro- 
cess" does not emerge in consciousness, it falls short 
of sensation — is physical, not psychical ; and this is 
true of subconscious or subliminal activities and pas- 
sivities of every kind. Consciousness is the essence 
of sensation, as of mental phenomena at large. This 
observation opens a field into which at present I can- 
not properly enter. 

Having produced this argument to the man or the 
school, I ask briefly to make one other, more espe- 
cially ad hominem, prefacing it with the remark of 
Professor Hoffding, who therein but vouches for a 
self-evident truth, that "the conception function (in 
the physiological sense) implies, just as much as the 
conception matter or product, something presented as 
an object of intuition in the form of space." Dr. 
Carus, in one of his chapters in "The Soul of Man," 
talks about localising consciousness, and actually 
suggests that the hemispheric ganglions known as the 
Striped Body constitute the organ of consciousness ; 
whereby he concedes, unequivocally, I need not say, 
that consciousness is not only the function of a mate- 
rial organ, but the product of motion, wherein the 
functioning of a material organ consists': whence it 
follows, beyond question, not merely that motion can 
be transformed into consciousness, but that both are 
material. Quod erat NON demonstrandu?n. But this 
argument, and its fellow, I throw in for good measure ; 
my intention is not to baffle criticism, but to elicit 
truth. 

Such is my position — the citadel from which I as- 
sail the monism of Dr. Carus. This position Dr. Carus 
has not attacked. He has neither stormed it nor be- 
sieged it. He has not so much as summoned it to 
surrender. He has not come in sight of it ; although 
the shrill note of his fifes, and the rubadub of his 
drums, announce that he is vigorously marching and 
counter- marching somewhere in the rear. I respect- 
fully challenge him to show himself. Where does he 
stand ? Does he accept my account of the material ? 
Does he reject the inconceivability of the negation of 
a proposition* as the ultimate test of its truth ? Does 
he doubt that causation is transformation? Does he 
deny that an event on which another is invariably and 
unconditionally consequent is the cause of the other ? 
Does he admit or refuse to admit the canon of induc- 
tion respecting concomitant variations? 

Dr. Carus would seem to have a peculiar notion of 
the properties of matter — a kind of dissolving notion, 
which passes insensibly from one notion into another, 
as he changes his point of view. From the point he 
occupied when he made this reply, he appears to re- 



*I mean a simple and legitimate proposition — one tlia 
thought, and cannot be decomposed. 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3^53 



gard the properties of matter as a group of coordinate 
abstractions, of which matter itself is one among the 
rest. He says : 

" If we speak of matter we do not mean force. If we speak 
of force, we do not mean matter. If we speak of form, we mean 
nothing but relation. If we speak of consciousness, or of feeling, 
or of thought, we have no reference to either matter, or force, or 
even form. All these terms are different abstractions of one and 
the same indivisible reality. . . . The thing moved is material, but 
the motion itself is not material." 

If we speak of matter, we may with propriety mean 
its properties, whereby we know it, and of which, in 
the order of thought, force not only is the first, but 
comprehends the others. When we speak of matter, 
if we do not mean force, we can mean nothing else 
than matter in itself, which Dr. Carus says is a non- 
entity. If he speaks of matter, and does not mean 
force, therefore, he means nothing. 

Force, motion, and the rest, are properties of mat- 
ter ; but that the properties of a thing partake of its 
nature is a corollary from the definition of properties. 
Besides, matter is manifested in its properties, and if 
these are immaterial it must be immaterial itself; so 
that either matter does not exist, or its properties, 
with their effects (to the remotest and finest issues), 
are material. Dr. Carus, indeed, if I understand him, 
holds that the properties of a thing, as they are known 
to us, constitute the thing; wherefore, the absurdity of 
holding that the properties of matter are immaterial 
should be especially manifest to him. But in this 
view of properties I do not concur. 

Dr. Carus says "Every reality is material," which 
is saying that everything real, subjective or objec- 
tive, is material, for to say that anything is real, 
without being a realitv, is to say that it is real without 
the state of being real, which in turn is to say that it 
is real without being real. Unless Dr. Carus is pre- 
pared to accept this contradiction, he must give up 
the notion that there is any difference in extension be- 
tween real and reality — that real may be applied to that 
of which ./-^rtZ/Vji' cannot be predicated; the extension 
of real, if the tautology may be pardoned, is exactly 
measured by the objects to which it belongs, whereof 
all, by virtue solely of the quality it names, are realities. 
The proposition " Everything real is material, " and the 
proposition "Every reality is material," are identical 
beyond dispute — self-evidently the self-same. Escape 
from this conclusion is a logical impossibility. So far, 
so good. But here comes the difficulty. Dr. Carus, 
in the reply under notice, says with some "feeling," 
if not "force": "To declare that force, and feeling, 
and consciousness, and thought, are material does not 
prove the boldness of freethought, it betrays an imma- 
ture mind." This is intended to be rough on some- 
body, and it obviously is, but the somebody, I shudder 



to relate, turns out to be the author of it. The killing 
remark puts one in mind of McFingal's gun, which, 

" Aimed at duck or plover, 

Bore wide, and knocked the owner over." 

This is the difficulty. That it is an awkward one Dr. 
Carus will probably own, though he may imagine (his 
imagination seems abnormal in some directions) that 
he can manage somehow to right himself, without re- 
tracting the admission that has wronged him. Any- 
how, I resign the situation into his hands, with cheer- 
fulness, and the best of good wishes. 

Dr. Carus never wearies of repeating that matter 
is an abstraction; as if that were a common clincher. 
Matter is an abstraction, if, from his standpoint or one 
of his standpoints, we consider it as the raw stuff of 
material things, marking them off from immaterial 
things, though, even in this view, it symbolizes a real- 
ity ; but if, from another and juster standpoint of his, 
we grant that "every reality is material," then matter 
is coextensive with reality — is the All — and of course 
is not abstracted from anything, or possessed by any- 
thing. Matter is an abstraction in the view of super- 
naturalism only — in that of immaterialism it does not, 
speaking logically, exist at all ; in the view of material- 
ism, the idea that matter is an abstraction drawn from 
things, or' inhering in them, is the contradiction of 
contradictions: matter, in the materialistic view, is it- 
self the sum total of things — absolute, infinite, tran- 
scendent. 

For my part, I conceive the universe as arising 
from one element, whereof the mental symbol is what 
we call matter, and of which the thing we call force 
symbolises the primary attribute, whereby are evolved 
all the complexer elements, with their properties, and, 
through these, the universe as we know it, mind in- 
cluded : all of which, mind not excepted, is resolvable 
into the original element. The world is a tree of which 
mind is the blossom and fiuit. ■ 

This is monism, as I understand it. What Dr. 
Carus understands as monism, it appears to me, is al- 
most any ism under the sun, except monism. I reckon 
it a flat self-contradiction. It is a burlesque on monism, 
unless I mistake both, though a good specimen of 
dualism — better, if anything, than that of Zoroaster 
himself, for Light and Darkness may be conceived as 
shading into each other, and, moreover, in the Persian 
conception, they have immateriality in common ; but 
the monism of Dr. Carus lacks this shadow of unity. 
Yet I am open to reason. If he will demonstrate that 
two things having nothing in common are the same 
thing, I will cheerfully accept the demonstration ; 
wherever truth leads, I am ready to follow, be it into 
the jaws of the absurdest-looking paradox. But the 
demonstration has not yet come forth. Nor does it 
seem forthcoming. 



3154 



THE OPEN COURT, 



Prof. Hoffding, who agrees with Dr. Carus in as- 
serting the inconvertibility of mind and matter, essays 
to unify the two by referring both to some tcrtium quid, 
of which he supposes that they are parallel manifesta- 
tions. This unification of them, however, abandons 
their essential heterogeneity, for things that are homo- 
geneous with the same thing are homogeneous with 
each other; and this result must attend every possible 
mode of real unification. The parallels cannot be made 
identical at either end without becoming identical 
throughout, when they cease to be two, and are one 
and the same. Dn Carus himself reaches this result 
by a short turn. "The simplest conception of the 
case," he says, "is the monistic view, which considers 
the parallelism an identity,"* subjoining : " Fechner 
seems to have hit the mark, when he compared feeling 
and motion to the inside and the outside curves of a 
circle." This conception is certainly simple, in one 
sense (which it is unnecessary to unfold), but bewil- 
deringly intricate in another. If the two manifesta- 
tions are identical, they are not different, far less so 
different as to have nothing in common ; the only 
trouble, as well as I can perceive, is that their individ- 
ual identity leaves the world devoid of one or the other 
■ of them, and it is not easy to see how the world can 
get on without both. But this curious monistic puzzle 
I hand over to the reader. 

The whole question raised by it, as it seems to me, 
maybe put into a nutshell. Mind and matterf are fun- 
damentally the same or fundamentally different. If 
fundamentally the same, they are interconvertible ; 
and monism is established. If fundamentally different, 
they are not interconvertible ; but monism is exploded. 
Either way Dr. Carus is fundamentally wrong. If this 
reasoning is fallacious, in his opinion, I invite him to 
expose its fallacy — I seek the truth at all hazards ; but 
he will make no head in this direction, by talking 
around the point, instead of to it, or splitting hypo- 
thetical hairs in the face of "unwedgeable and gnarled" 
facts. 

Dr. Carus suggests (though the body of his reply 
hardly bears out the suggestion) that the difference 
between him and myself is "primarily a difference of 
reasoning rather than of opinion," adding, with en- 
gaging frankness, though scarcely with his usual lu- 
cidity, that I overlook "the fundamental rules of phil- 
osophical propaedeutics, and this oversight produces, 
as a secondary symptom, a difference of opinion." 
Concerning the first part of this suggestion, I will say 
nothing ; but, as for the latter and more learned part, 
if he is right in his diagnostics, and would have his 
prognostics indicate our agreement, I advise him, in 



the immortal figure of Captain Cuttle, to overhaul his 
propaedeutics, and, when found, make a note of. 
"Whereby, why not? " That important branch of his 
mental equipment will evidently be none the worse for 
a very thorough overhauling. Meantime, I rest con- 
tent in my "opinion," and am not disturbed about 
my "philosophical propaedeutics." Propaedeutics, 
philosophical or otherwise, may be judged by the fruit- 
age. The end crowns all. 



» The Soul of Man, p. 20. 
t The word matter I of cc 
3 of the forms of matter in 



in the popular sense — as signifying 
ve to be the true sense. 



MONISM OR MATERIALISM. 

We must protest from the beginning against Mr. 
Shipman's calling hxs, a.x\\c\& Motiism and Materialism 
"a Rejoinder." The article is no rejoinder. Mr. 
Shipman criticised The Open Court's view of monism 
from the materialistic standpoint in several articles 
published in Secular Thought. We replied to his criti- 
cism in the same journal in an article entitled " The 
Error of Materialism." This article was reprinted in 
The Open Court, we saw another reprint of the article 
introduced by a few editorial remarks in The Reform 
Advocate. If Mr. Shipman's article were a rejoinder, 
it ought to appear in Secular Thought. We see no 
obligation to publish it, especially as we received it 
many months after the controversy. Yet we do not 
wish that any cause be insufficiently represented in The 
Open Court, nor that the cause which we plead should 
unduly enjoy the editorial advantages. 

Mr. Shipman's present article, is a most vigorous 
attack couched in strong language, and displaying at 
the same time an almost enviable consciousness of 
triumphant superiority. That is the reason we have 
accepted it for publication, — for thus it becometh us 
to fulfil all righteousness. The present reply shall be 
brief in order to avoid the wearisomeness of repetition. 

* 
* * 

I have said it before and I say it again that the dis- 
agreement between Mr. Shipman and myself is "pri- 
marily a difference of reasoning rather than opinion ; he 
overlooks the fundamental rules of philosophical propae- 
deutics and this oversight produces as a secondary 
symptom a difference of opinion." He declares that 
mind is material, to which I answer: "If mind were 
material. We might not only weigh it and measure it 
as we weigh sugar and measure cloth, but we might 
also bottle it and preserve it in tin cans." 

In the present article Mr. Shipman comes and at- 
tempts to prove the materiality of the mind. He says : 

" [Mind] is the effect of the activity of organised matter ; and 
as every effect is consubstantial with its cause, the effect of ma- 
teria! activity is itself material," 

Could anything be a better proof than this, that 
there is a difference of reasoning between Mr. Ship- 
man and myself ? 

I object to the maxim that the effect must be con- 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3155 



substantial with its cause. For instance, the hunter 
shoots a deer and it dies. The shooting is the cause, 
the deer's death the effect. Some people who cannot 
distinguish between the act of shooting and the ball 
shot, say the ball is the cause, and then argue, the 
cause being material, the effect must be material too. 
But if the effect must be consubstantial with its cause, 
the deer's death ought to consist of lead. It ought to 
be exactly the same material. But there is no sense 
in calling any material thing a cause, and still less in 
saying that cause and effect are consubstantial. 

The activity of a material body is not material it- 
self. Activity is motion and motion is change of place. 
He who maintains that the motion of a piece of matter 
is material, that the act of changing the place of a piece 
of matter is itself a piece of matter, is in possession 
of such a peculiar kind of logic that I can no longer 
argue with him. His logic may appear to him from 
his standpoint as a hyperlogic which is not bound to 
respect the usual rules of logic, but it is and remains 
radically different from mine. 

Suppose we find out on the ground of physiological 
facts (as I have tried to do in "The Soul of Man,") 
that a certain part of the brain is the organ of con- 
sciousness. Does that prove the materiality of con- 
sciousness because it is granted that the brain is ma- 
terial? We might just as well say that the clock, viz., 
the instrument of measuring time, is material, and that, 
therefore, measuring time is material. It would further 
follow that time itself is material also. I should like 
to know whether any chemist has ever succeeded in 
analysing this queer piece of matter, called time! 

According to Mr. Shipman, everything that exists 
is matter. He believes in "the coextension of matter 
with reality"; and he objects also to a discrimination 
between adjectives and nouns, between " matter " and 
"material," "reality" and "real." The terms "real" 
and "reality" are by no means coextensive, nor are the 
terms "matter" and "material" coextensive. I should 
not hesitate to say that reality is material, i. e. every 
concrete existence possesses a quality which affects the 
senses and which is called material. Reality as a whole 
in so far as it is or can be perceived by the senses con- 
sists of matter. Even ghosts, if there are any, would 
have at least pro tem to be materialised in order to 
appear. But reality possesses other qualities too which 
are not material. So for instance a dog consists of mat- 
ter, he is material. But he possesses also a special 
form, which makes of him a poodle or a spitz. More- 
over he is sentient, he has feelings. And neither the 
forms nor the feelings of a dog are matter. 

Is it so difficult to understand that all our abstract 
words, such as matter, form, feeling, etc., have been 
abstracted from reality? Matter is not the whole of 
reality but a certain feature of it. What a confusion 



must arise, if we call everything and anything matter! 
But such is the materialism of Mr. Shipman. We 
might with the same reason call everything spirit and 
on that ground call ourselves spiritualists. 

Considering the fact that Mr. Shipman's reasoning 
follows a peculiar method of its own unintelligible ac- 
cording to the customary rules of logic, it is not at all 
strange that he is unable to understand the monistic 
conception which considers subjectivity and objectivity 
as not being the same but one. 

We say, and in this we are in agreement with many 
prominent thinkers and psychologists of modern times, 
viz. with Fechner, Clifford, Wundt, Lewes, Ribot, Hoff- 
ding, Lloyd Morgan, and others, that a feeling is not 
a motion and a motion is not a feeling ; they are dif- 
ferent and not interconvertible. Yet a certain feeling 
and a certain motion (viz. certain nervous actions of 
the brain) are one, being the subjective and objective 
aspects of one and the same reality. 

Mr. Shipman is unable to see that such a view is 
monistic ; he declares that I "set duality in the atom." 
I wish Mr. Shipman would leave the atom alone and 
speak of atoms only when we discuss chemical ques- 
tions. As to the duality, I do not see why a curve 
should be called dual because it is said to be concave 
on the one side and convex on the other side. No 
mathematician will consider concavity and convexity 
as identical, nor will he, by making this distinction, 
have " to set duality " in the curve itself. The curve it 
self remains one although it possess two sides that 
are quite different from one another. 

If after these explanations Mr. Shipman and my- 
self cannot come to an understanding, I feel satisfied 
that at least each of us has had a chance of setting 
forth his view clearly. Our readers are the umpires, 
who according to their taste may choose between mate- 
rialism and monism — or if they please, form some 
other Ism of their own. p. c. 



THE SUNSET CLUB ON THE WAY TO UPLIFT THE 
MASSES. 

BY M. M. TRUMBULL. 

It was ladies night at the Sunset Club on the 4th of February, 
and accordingly the attendance was very large, five hundred and 
seventy men and women being present at the banquet in the big 
dining hall of the Grand Pacific Hotel. Miss Frances Willard 
presided, and the topic was, " How would you uplift the masses ?" 
The most effective speeches were made by women, spiritually and 
mentally strong, absurdly forbidden by law to take any political 
part in the work of social uplifting, which never can be completed 
without their political aid. 

Mrs. J. M. Flower opened the debate, and in a very womanly 
way began to uplift the masses by giving them a good washing in 
the first place, then some food, and then some clothes. Her social 
trinity appeared to be soap, flour, and cloth, the triune elements 
of good and happy life. Dirt, rags, and hunger were the danger- 
ous microbes corrupting our social constitution and filling the 
body politic with disease. Expressed in Mrs. Flower's osvn Ian- 



3156 



THE OPEN COURT. 



guage, "Spirituality is incompatible with a craving stomach, and 
the best mind can be stunted by insufficient bodily nourishment." 
Therefore she "would begin the work of uplifting the masses by 
improving physical conditions, and especially the conditions of 
child life." She would uplift the masses by making law and jus- 
tice synonymous ; she would enforce the laws against trusts ; and 
against child labor. She would improve the habitations of the 
poor, equalise taxation, establish public baths, and multiply the 
schools. 

For charity in the form of almsgiving Mrs. Flower had only 
censure. She declared that almsgiving "acts detrimentally on 
both giver and receiver by quieting the conscience of the one, and 
by supplying the physical needs of the other at the expense of his 
independence and self-respect." Instead of alms, Mrs. Flower 
would give justice. This doctrine, for which I hold myself in 
some degree responsible, contains a grain of truth and a shipload 
of error. I am now convinced that it is unsound and at least mis- 
leading. Several years ago, in a moment of enthusiastic passion, 
I said in the "Wheelbarrow" papers that the toilers " ask not 
charity, but justice"; and ever since I said it the echo of it has 
been coming back to me in sentiments like those uttered by Mrs. 
Flower at the Sunset Club. Placing those two sublime virtues in 
antithesis was a mistake ; I ought to have demanded for them 
"charity ««;/ justice." 

I wish I could stop the spiritual degeneration which the senti- 
ment is making, because if it continues we shall see the time when 
the poor will get neither charity nor justice. If less charity made 
more justice, the position taken by Mrs. Flower would be invin- 
cible ; but the very opposite is true. A study of her own acquaint- 
ances will convince her that the men and women most conspicuous 
for charity are the most inclined to justice. While we are waiting 
for justice let us go on with the charity, vs^ith discriminate charity, 
I mean, for God loveth a cheerful giver. " It is in the scriptures. 
Trim "! 

While some of Mrs, Flower's projects of reform were gener- 
ous wishes and aspirations merely, and while she relied a little too 
securely on the coercive power of governments, the majority of 
her plans were within the scope of social effort and practical 
statesmanship. Indeed it would be well if our professional states- 
men understood our political needs as intelligently as Mrs. Flower 
does. Of course there is a suggestion of Utopia in those impos- 
sible courts "where politics will not rule, and where law and jus- 
tice will be synonymous and within the reach of all "; but there 
was practical politics in her demand that the burdens of govern- 
ment be more fairly distributed ; and there was good morals in the 
contempt she threw upon that system which "taxes the poor man 
earning his scanty living with his cheap horse and cart, as much 
on his slim equipment as his rich neighbor on his five thousand 
dollar turnout." Mrs Flower did well to ridicule that. To fine 
a man for earning his living with a horse and cart is a travesty and 
caricature of government. 

Dr. E. G. Hirsch was the next speaker, and with rare felicity 
of expression he showed how strong the temptation was to pre- 
scribe some favorite and infallible panacea, education, statutes, 
charity, temperance, or something else. "With one medicine,'' 
said Dr. Hirsch, "the disease cannot be reached. To lift up the 
masses it is necessary before all to unmass them." He then 
showed wherein lay the hope and chance of doing it. 

According to Dr. Hirsch, before we can uplift the masses we 
must restore to man his individuality. The massing of men was 
due to the invention of machinery and the introduction of steam, 
whereby " men who had to earn their living by the work of their 
bands were deprived of all individuality." House industries gave 
way to the factory system which "reduced men and women to 
the level of mere hands." Following out this train of thought, | 
Dr. Hirsch said, "the factory makes it essential that all wage 



workers shall live in the neighborhood of the great industrial es- 
tablishments." The result of this is the tenement abomination, 
where privacy and healthy development are alike impossible. The 
value of privacy and room to grow was illustrated by this fine 
comparison, "As the body requires a certain minimum of cubic 
feet of fresh air, so the soul, using this term to cover all the func- 
tions of man's moral nature, needs at least some space which can- 
not be invaded by any other person." 

It seemed like a poetical dream, but the hope of Dr. Hirsch 
lay in the development of electricity as a mechanical power, 
whereby home industries may be restored, and men again become 
whole persons instead of bits of a machine. There was so much glow 
of human feeling in his words, that ideal as his prophecy appeared 
to be, it was impossible not to wish that it might be fulfilled. He 
said, " The age of steam is passing away. Electricity is the force 
of the future. It is my conviction that it offers the possibility of 
reviving the old house industries, allowing room for individuality, 
and allowing the workers to live comfortably, not in the crowded 
hovels of the city, but in the laughing homes of healthy suburbs." 
Eloquent and animated as Dr. Hirsch was, the realisation of his 
hope is too far distant, even if possible at all. Something must 
be done to uplift the masses now. 

Mr. George A. Schilling followed Dr. Hirsch, and promptly 
made a claim that the question itself conceded that the masses 
were down, and that they might be lifted up by human agencies. 
If the masses are oppressed, he said, there must be something 
that oppresses them. He averred that merely social and private 
remedies such as charity, prohibition, and similar expedients were 
inadequate ; and he contended that the problem was one of justice 
in the realm of economics. He would uplift the masses by setting 
them free, and he contended that they were under a form of sla- 
very by duress of hunger, cold, the fear of the future, and the 
love for wife and children which compelled them to sell them- 
selves in the labor market for whatever they would bring. It was 
not the chattel slavery of old, but it was a form of moral slavery 
which ought to be abolished. 

Mr. Schilling's argument had the merit of specific statement, 
and his remedies were three, the abolition of land monopoly, of 
money monopoly, and the monopoly of patents. Legalised privilege 
concrete in those monopolies was responsible for what Mr. Schil- 
ling called " the exploitation of labor." He would abolish all land 
laws, and make occupancy and use the sole title to land, thus 
" restoring to the masses those natural opportunities and resources 
upon which their energies may be employed." There is a high 
purpose in all that, but I fear the scheme is impossible, at least in 
this geological epoch. It is doubtless true that land monopoly is 
a grievance that ought to be abated ; it may be also true that nat- 
ural resources, the inheritance of all the people, are locked up 
from the masses by the privileged few, whereby the productive 
power of nature is abridged, and agriculture oppressed with heavy 
burdens, but I fear the scheme of Mr. Schilling would abolish 
agriculture altogether. Men will not cultivate land unless they can 
read their title clear to a certain quantity of it described by metes 
and bounds. Title by use and occupancy alone is too precarious 
to justify a man in ploughing land or planting it ; in fencing it, or 
building a barn on it. Security of title is the foundation of agri- 
culture ; and agriculture is the support of every other industry. 
The other social remedies proposed by Mr. Schilling, the Mutual 
Bank, and the Abolition of the Patent Monopoly, I will refer to 
at some future time. 

Miss Addams of Hull House came next ; and the appearance of 
this young lady created a sensation that will not soon be forgotten 
by the Sunset Club. Hull House, now famous because of Miss 
Addams, is conspicuous over there in Darkest Chicago, a mansion 
owned by that lady, where for the past five years the masses have 
been actually uplifted through her unostentatious work, and largely 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3157 



at her own expense. Not many of those present had ever seen 
Miss Addams, bat evidently all had heard of her, for as soon as 
her name was announced, and she rose to speak, the audience rec- 
ognised at once that the greatest woman in Chicago stood before 
them, and the applause was a magnificent and spontaneous tribute 
of. respect. It could not be suppressed, but broke out again and 
again. It lasted for several minutes, to the embarrassing surprise 
of Miss Addams, which almost broke her down, but the cheering 
was a testimonial unmistakable that her good deeds had found 
her out. 

The address of Miss Addams was of wonderful strength and 
quality. It was democracy set to music, and the religion of social 
equality inspired every word. The description of Hull House as a 
social force was condensed and very clear ; Miss Addams said : 
" The Social Settlement of which Hull House claims to be a mod- 
est example is an attempt to know the 'masses' as one neighbor 
knows another neighbor. The residents of such Settlement live 
among the masses as nearly as possible without a sense of differ- 
ence. They claim to have added the social function to democ- 
racy," 

The purpose expressed in that sentiment appears to me to be 
the most morally scientific solution of the social problem that has 
yet appeared. It reminds me of the democracy of Robert Burns, 
wherein the principle of social equality forms its most essential 
part. The poor, having political rights without social equality, 
' ' meet in a saloon, " says Miss Addams, ' ' their only host a barten- 
der, and a local demagogue forms their political opinions." Nor, 
according to Miss Addams, is this equality necessary for the eleva- 
tion of the poor only, but also for that "fast growing number of 
so-called ' favored ' young people who have no recognised outlet 
for their active faculties." This somewhat startling doctrine Miss 
Addams made beautifully clear. 

Into educational matters also. Miss Addams would put social 
as well as political democracy, and this is the style of education 
obtained at Hull House. How many hundreds of years it has 
taken to find out what some of us would not have discovered for 
hundreds of years to come had it not been shown to us by Miss 
Addams, that, "people who have been allowed to remain unde- 
veloped, and whose faculties are inert and sterile, cannot take 
their learning heavily. It has to be diffused in a social atmos- 
phere. Information held in solution in a medium of fellowship 
and good will can be assimilated by the dullest." There is enough 
genial warmth in that sort of talk to thaw out a good deal of our 
natural stupidity, and make learning easier to get. 

I would gladly quote a little more from the speech of Miss 
Addams, but Lady Henry Somerset spoke well too, and with ad- 
mirable grace and elegance. Her speech was magnetic with hu- 
man sympathy, and very much in the strain made so attractive by 
Miss Addams. Lady Henry Somerset is President of the Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union of Great Britain, and in addition to 
the duties of that office, she performs a work very much like that 
performed at Hull House. Familiar with the palaces of Belgravia 
and the slums of Whitechapel there was much valuable instruction 
in what Lady Somerset said. Her comparison between the social 
phenomena of England, and those of the United States was valu- 
able. It was kindly said, but there was a solemn warning to Amer- 
icans in this parallel : "Your problems here, it seems to me, are 
simpler in some measure, because your evils cannot surely have 
taken such deep root in your social system ; but superficially 
speaking, I should say that you are meeting to-day exactly the 
same spectres with which we are grappling in the old world." 

Like Miss Addams, Lady Somerset proclaimed the elevating 
tendency of social democracy upon the masses and the classes too. 
She expressed the sentiment in a picturesque and vivid way, say- 
ing, "There is deep rooted in the minds of men and women a 
sense that what we have to give is not all that we think it is. We 



want to bring before them little by little the feeling that they must 
raise themselves. The moment we attempt to put our hand down 
or to lift it up, I believe all effort is useless. We need to hold out 
the level palm and say, ' Greeting to you ray brother and my sis- 
ter ' And only that which comes in this spirit, whether we deal 
with the great problems or whether it is in our social relations, 
will tell for good when we seek, as we call it, to uplift the masses." 
There were other speeches and good ones too, that I should 
like to review, but my comments are already too long. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE ETHICAL SOCIETIES AND THE CRITERION OF 
ETHICS. 

To the Editor of The Open Court : 

Your recent criticism* of the ethical culturists seems to me to 
be very praiseworthy, opportune, and pertinent. It is about time 
that this sailing of the sea without a compass or chart which is 
claimed to be the scientific method of ethical culture societies were 
pointed out as ««scientific and by no means consistent with the 
modern spirit of criticism and the rationalising efforts to get at and 
maintain the possible criterion for conduct or the basis for and the 
existence of the ethical formula. If we are to be guided by ethical 
culturists what surety have we that our work, teaching, conduct, 
is right ? If there is or can be no common unit of truth among 
men built on the conception of the reality and existence of truth 
itself — truth which as law predestinates not only the human will 
but determines the rationale and method of conduct, then what 
ground for positive ethics or authority for right and wrong con- 
duct have we ? Will our ethical co-workers say none at all ! If so, 
how do they know this ? Will they please oblige us by explaining 
their reasons for this agnosticism ? On the general assumption by 
them that there is a method in the universe — that the universe is 
this method, perhaps; why then could not it be formulated, if 
truth can at all be arrived at, even if the masses should not see it. 
Is truth to wait before man formulates it, if he can, until humanity 
is ready to see and accept it ? It strikes any fair mind that our 
ethical culturists, are not sure of their ethics or the authority for 
the same or they would not be so modest and timid about seeking 
with the rest of us for the only possible criterion for truth, and be 
so arbitrary and absurd in their belief that because they refuse to 
be scientific, the other thinkers who differ with them are like the 
foolish ostrich who knew it all. J. C. F. Grumbine. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Linguistic Essays. By Carl Abel. London: Triibner & Co. 

This volume of essays is intended as a contribution towards 
rendering philology a comparative conceptology of nations, with 
which object a systematic attempt is made " to realise the psycho- 
logical significance of the dictionary, and to connect dictionary 
and grammar by conceptual ties." The meaning of words is ex- 
plained in groups, each conveying a complete view of a particular 
notion, and the ordinary mode of discussing grammatical subjects 
by parts of speech, is supplemented by a classification of inflec- 
tions and their syntactical combinations according to what they 
express. The larger part of the work treats of language as the 
embodiment of a nation's general views of men and things, and 
the author has brought together some very acute observations on 
this topic. For example, in the essay on "Language as the Ex- 
pression of National Modes of Thought," he compares the ideas 
conveyed by the German word Frcund and the French word ntni, 
tracing the difference between them to the different ideas enter- 
tained by the peoples who speak those languages in relation to 
friendship. In France so slight is the pathos bound up with this 

»No. 234. 



3158 



THE OPEN OOURT. 



sentiment, that not only people habitually address each other by 
the term ami in the trivial intercourse of everyday life, but mere 
acquaintances call each other amis. On the other hand, "the 
German scarcely ever says to his friend, Meiii Freund. The word 
denotes too sacred a bond to be lightly used. Only in earnest or 
excited moments are Germans moved by this lofty name to con- 
fess, confirm, or appeal to their intimate relation to each other." 
Thus the difference in the meaning of the two terms is significant 
of the difference in the character of the peoples to whom they be- 
long. To this may be added that the German word has preserved 
a memory of the time when among many peoples, as it still is with 
some of the Sclavs, the bond of friendship was considered the most 
sacred of all ties. 

Dr. Abel's second essay is entitled ' ' The Conception of Love 
in Some Ancient and Modern Languages," and it contains much 
curious matter relating to this interesting subject. The languages 
compared are Hebrew, Latin, English, and Russian, and in sum- 
marising the results the author states that the strength of the He- 
brew is shown in the recognition of the love of God to man, the 
love of man to God, and the common love of men to one another; 
Latin is distinguished by accentuating obligatory love, inspired by 
attachment to family, tribe, and country ; in English there is " a 
noble and intelligent development of the concept in all its various 
aspects " ; while Russian has in addition a word peculiar to itself 
for the different varieties of active love. The religious temperament 
of the Russians is shown by the fact that their language alone of 
those compared has a word, blagost, which expresses ' ' the love of 
God to man. universal, all-embracing love." 

We must pass over the elaborate study of the eleven English 
words of command, and succeeding essays, until we come to that 
which treats on the Origin of Language, which is the subject of 
most general importance. The author's views as to the origin of 
language are the result of a study of ancient Egyptian, which pos- 
sesses certain remarkable features distinctive of really primitive 
speech. In the more ancient hieroglyphic period Egyptian was 
largely a language of homonyms, one sound or a combination of 
sounds being used to denote a variety of things. IVIoreover, there 
was the opposite practice of expressing one idea by any one of 
many sounds or combinations of sounds. Such a language when 
written would appear to be unintelligible, and it would be so largely, 
if it were not that, with the exception of certain well understood 
grammatical abstracts, every word in an inscription is accompanied 
by a supplementary picture. Dr. Abel draws the inference that 
gesture and facial expression must have occupied in the spoken 
tongue the place which elucidatory drawings had in the written 
language. He says " but half understood as such, primitive speech 
required to be supplemented by and interpreted by the intelligible 
motion of the body, the signal given by the head, hand, or leg, the 
impression conveyed by nod, shrug, wink, glance, or leer." The 
study made within the last few years of gesture language confirms 
the truth of these remarks. Probably hieroglyphics were origin- 
ally intended to be pictorial illustrations of gesture language itself, 
in which case they would be only indirectly representative of the 
written words. An advanced stage is marked by the appearance 
of words definite in meaning and distinct in sound, in place of the 
numerous homonyms and synonyms, a change which was attended 
by a corresponding development of the sense of hearing, and the 
power of definite speech. Similar linguistic phenomena are ob- 
servable in a close examination of the Aryan and Semitic families 
of languages. The use of numerous words for the same object, 
and the application of the same word to different ideas oppobes 
the hypothesis "that speech began as an outburst of uniform in- 
spiration, or that the distinct linguistic sense which to-day connects 
sound and meaning, had any original existence." What happened, 
says Dr. Abel, was "the gradual development within rationally 
confined boundaries of the faculty of appropriating distinct sounds 



for distinct concepts." Nevertheless this would seem only to throw 
the difficulty further back unless, as is very improbable, sounds 
were used almost haphazard to denote many different objects or 
ideas. Possibly ancient Egypt was populated by a conglomeration 
of tribes each of which contributed to the common language, 
which would require gesture to make it properly understood. 
Hieroglyphics would thus occupy the same position as the Chinese 
written characters, which are read by various peoples whos^e spoken 
languages are totally different from one another. 

But ancient Egyptian had other remarkable features, among 
them the inversion either of sound or of sense, or of both. The 
author's Coptic Researches contain ninety pages of such inversions 
and the explanation he gives of them appears reasonable. As to 
the case of inversion of meaning he shows that it must have been 
intentional, and that it was due to the primitive practice of think- 
ing by thesis and antithesis, in order to facilitate the comprehen- 
sion of either of the opposed conceptions. Arabic furnishes many 
examples of this polar change of meaning, which we would suggest 
is probably connected with the fact that thought itself is in many 
cases antithetic. The CMplanation of inversions of sound is dif- 
ferent. Egyptian roots are almost always capable of development 
by repetition of the initial consonant at the beginning or end of 
the word, or by the repetition of the terminal consonant at the 
end. When the initial consonant is repeated at the end, a slightly 
emphasised pronunciation will produce a complete inversion of the 
root, added to itself, and the idea expressed by the reduplicated 
whole will come to be likewise expressed by each of its constituent 
parts. Dr. Abel accounts for such inversions as "simply instances 
of the full play given to the speech-making faculty in the first 
glorious flush of its exuberant spring." He gives various exam- 
ples of them in the Indo-European tongues, and it is known that 
they are frequent in languages of a more primitive type. We can- 
not do more than mention the essay on "Coptic Intensification," 
which is one of the most valuable studies in a work every part of 
which is deserving of careful perusal. \l. 



MR. C. S. PEIRCE has resumed his lessons by correspondence in the 
Art of Reasoning, taught in progressive exercises. A special course in logic 
has been prepared for correspondents interested in philosophy, Terms, 830 
for twenty-four lessons. Address : Mr. C. S. Peirce, "Avisbe," Milford, Pa. 



THE OPEN COURT. 

THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING CO. 

EDWARD C. HEGELER, Pres. Dr. PAUL CARUS, Eor 



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CONTENTS OF NO. 235. 

MONISM AND MATERIALISM. (A Rejoinder). Paul 

R. Shipman 3151 

MONISM OR MATERIALISM. Editor 3154 

THE SUNSET CLUB ON THE WAY TO UPLIFT THE 

MASSES. M. M. Trumbull 3155 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

Ethical Societies and the Criterion of Ethics. J. C. F. 

Grumeine 3157 

BOOK REVIEWS 3157 



The Open Court. 

A WEEKLY JOURNAL 

Devoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion with Science. 



No. 236. (Vol. VI.— 9.) 



CHICAGO, MARCH 3, 1892. 



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Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publishe 



THE PAINE-CONDORCET DECLARATION OF RIGHTS. 

BY MONCURE D. CONWAY. 

A HUNDRED years ago Thomas Paine and the Mar- 
quis de Condorcet were engaged in writing a consti- 
tution for France. Each could read but not speak 
the other's language and the Marchioness acted as in- 
terpreter, and perhaps assisted with her ideas. It is 
probable that the Constitution so framed was the most 
thoroughly republican instrument ever framed. It has 
never appeared in English, but is printed in the works 
of Condorcet (Paris, 1805). It was offered to the 
French Convention in February 1793, but did not please 
the revolutionary "Mountain," which really desired 
no Constitution, but permanent revolutionism. Thus 
the document has attracted no study, but it well de- 
serves the attention of those interested in political phi- 
losophy. I send you a translation of the Declaration 
of Rights. It impresses me as far surpassing any 
other instrument of that kind known in European or 
American history. 

"The end of all union of men in society being 
maintenance of their natural rights, civil and political, 
these rights should be the basis of the social compact : 
their recognition and their declaration ought to pre- 
cede the Constitution which secures and guarantees 
themT^ 

"I. The natural rights, civil and political, of men 
are liberty, equality, security, property, social protec- 
tion, and resistance to oppression. 

" 2. Liberty consists in the power to do whatever 
is not contrary to the rights of others ; thus the nat- 
ural rights of each man has no limits other than those 
which secure to other members of society enjoyment 
of the same rights. 

"3. The preservation of liberty depends on the 
sovereignty of the law, which is the expression of the 
general will. Nothing unforbidden by law can be im- 
peached, and none may be constrained to do what it 
does not command. 

"4. Every man is free to make known his thought 
and his opinions. 

"5. Freedom of the press, and every other means 
of publishing one's thoughts, cannot be prohibited, 
suspended, or limited. 



"6. Every citizen shall be free in the exercise of 
his religion. 

" 7. Equality consists in the power of each to enjoy 
the same rights. 

" 8. The law should be equal for all whether in re- 
ward, punishment, or restraint. 

"9. All citizens are admissible to all public posi- 
tions, employments, and functions. Free peoples can 
recognise no grounds of preference except talents and 
virtues. 

" 10. Security consists in the protection accorded 
to society to each citizen for the preservation of his 
person, property, and rights. 

"II. None should be sued, accused, arrested, or 
detained, save in cases determined by the law, and in 
accordance with forms prescribed by it. Every other 
act against a citizen is arbitrary and null. 

" 12. Those who solicit, promote, sign, execute or 
cause to be executed such arbitrary acts are culpable, 
and should be punished. 

"13. Citizens against whom the execution of such 
acts is attempted have the right of resistance by force. 
Every citizen summoned or arrested by the authority 
of law, and in the forms prescribed by it, should in- 
stantly obey ; he renders himself guilty by resistance. 

" 14. Every man being presumed innocent until 
declared guilty, should his arrest be judged indispens- 
able, all rigor not necessary to secure his person should 
be severely repressed by law. 

" 15. None should be punished save in virtue of a 
law established and promulgated previous to the of- 
fence, and legally applied. A law that should punish 
offences committed before its existence would be an 
arbitrary Act. Retroactive effect given to any law is 
a crime. 

" 17. Law should award only penalties strictly and 
evidently necessary to the general security ; they should 
be proportioned to the offence and useful to society. 

" 18. The right of property consists in a man's 
being master in the disposal, at his will, of his goods, 
capital, income, and industry. 

"19. No kind of work, commerce, or culture can 
be interdicted by any one ; he may make, transport, 
and sell every species of production. 



3i6o 



THE OPEN COURT. 



"20. Every man may engage his services and his 
time ; but he cannot sell himself ; his person is not an 
alienable property. 

" 21. No one may be deprived of the least portion 
of his property without his consent, unless because of 
public necessity legally determined, exacted openly, 
and under condition of a just indemnity in advance. 

"22. No tax shall be established except for the 
general utility, and to relieve public needs. All citi- 
zens have the right to cooperate, personally or by their 
representatives, in the establishment of public tribute. 

"23. Instruction is the need of all, and society 
owes it equally to all its members. 

"24. Public succors are a sacred debt of society, 
and it is for the law to determine their extent and ap- 
plication. 

"25. The social guarantee of the rights of man 
rests on the national sovereignty. 

"26. This severeignty is one, indivisible, impre- 
scriptible, and inalienable. 

"27. It resides essentially in the whole people, 
and each citizen has an equal right to cooperate in its 
exercise. 

"28. No partial assemblage of citizens, and no in- 
dividual, may attribute to themselves sovereignty, to 
exercise authority and discharge any public function, 
without a formal delegation by the law. 

"29. Social security cannot exist where the limits 
of public administration are not clearly determined by 
law, and where the responsibility of all public function- 
aries is not assured. 

"30. All citizens are bound to cooperate in this 
guarantee, and to enforce the law when summoned in 
its name. 

"31. Men united in society should have legal 
means of resisting oppression. In every free govern- 
ment the mode of resisting different acts of oppression 
should be regulated by the constitution. 

"32. It is oppression when a law violates the nat- 
ural rights, civil and political, which it should ensure. 
It is oppression when the law is violated by public 
officials in its application to individual cases. It is 
oppression when arbitrary acts violate the rights of 
citizens against the terms of the law. 

"33. A people has always the right to revise, re- 
form, and change its constitution. One generation has 
no right to bind future generations, and all heredity in 
offices is absurd and tyrannical." 



BELIEF AND HAPPINESS. 

BY CELIA PARKER WOOLLEY. 

The relation of happiness to belief is a subject that 
has occupied men's minds from earliest times, and is 
as inevitable as it is important. My own thoughts 
have been drawn to it anew by a letter lately received 



from a friend, a young woman thoroughly alive to all 
that the busy stirring life of to-day has to offer an ac- 
tive aspiring mind like her own. 

Like many others whom the thought of the ideal 
continually sways, my friend has been strongly at- 
tracted in the direction of modern theosophy, chiefly 
interested, I suspect, in its general claim regarding 
the essentially spiritual nature of the universe, and 
less concerned with the special phenomena by which 
it seeks to make good that claim. In words whose 
ardent sincerity impresses a less susceptible and more 
time-worn consciousness with a slight feeling of envy, 
she describes the feeling of continuous abounding con- 
tent that has been hers since this spirit side of things 
has become a fixed mental possession with her. Life 
has gained in worthy impulse and meaning on all 
sides, and to a degree that imparts a positive physical 
buoyancy as well as spiritual uplift and calm. Old 
causes of discouragement and discontent have disap- 
peared ; all that pertains to the merely temporal and 
material side of things is now reduced to its relative 
insignificance. Not that the sense of duty has grown 
less, or the feeling of personal moral accountability 
waned ; on the contrary my friend has for years been 
actively engaged in the various reformatory and edu- 
cational movements belonging to a large city, besides 
being a busy and successful worker on her own behalf 
in the world of business. But while following one of the 
busiest and most exacting of professions she lives day 
after day in the thought of the eternal and the infinite. 

I hesitate to use these terms, spoiled, almost, by 
the fulsome and sentimental use made of them in re- 
ligion, where pious adoration has so long taken the 
place of rational belief and the worship such belief has 
power to inspire. They are the words, however, that 
define the main reality to all thoughtful minds, words 
also that postulate a certain kind of belief, of religious 
belief let us say. The conclusion then seems inevit- 
able that they are the words which point to the only 
true, safe road of human happiness. I cannot but 
think, if this is so, that the reason lies as much in their 
moral as in their religious import; at least that this 
former reason, if not yet fully recognised, will become 
more apparent as man grows in clearer understanding 
of himself. That noble belief of some kind constitutes 
the only basis of true happiness may be readily ad- 
mitted, but thought on these subjects is still too ob- 
scure and tentative always to be clearly traced to its 
beginnings, or accurately solved as to its outcome. 
Admitting the merit of belief in this connection, it 
is not so easy to determine either its origin or its final, 
most important effecton men's minds. It is impossible 
the last should not be of a varying degree and quality, 
all the elements of individual temperament, disposi- 
tion and training entering into the problem. 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3161 



There is little doubt in my own mind that under 
present tendencies of thought this belief on which hu- 
man happiness is so dependent is losing its distinc- 
tively religious character and becoming a kind as 
rightly described, ethical. We have not yet begun to 
surmise the true scope and significance of that term ; 
though I am not among those who look to see it 
wholly replace both the idea and the terminology of 
religion. No doubt, however, the thought conveyed 
by the increasing use of this word is one of widening 
beauty and meaning to us all. It has won honored 
place for itself in the field of theological discussion, 
where once it was ignored entirely, and has become 
the word of highest worth and meaning to a large body 
of our ablest thinkers. Daily the ethical element in 
religion is receiving more and more attention from its 
special instructors, to say nothing of the unconscious 
place and influence it is coming to hold over all minds. 

It is worth while inquiring, then, whether the hap- 
piness we all are seeking and seem to trace to some 
form of religious belief, has not a nearer cause. May 
not the rapidly-growing belief in our own kind, the 
growth of the sentiments of human justice and kind- 
ness of a true democracy, have much, perhaps most, 
to do with an increasing sense of happiness ? Whether 
they have or not, that is certainly a most exalting and 
enticing thought which bids us seek the motive of 
happiness in the love and increased well-being of our 
kind. The noble beauty of George - Eliot's hymn, 
"The Choir Invisible," must impress even those most 
strongly dissenting from its philosophy, and its power 
of inspiration is universally acknowledged. 

As religion has profited by this infusion of the 
ethical motive, deepening and enriching all its thought, 
so it will be found has our general philosophy of life. 
The questions of abstract philosophy will never lose 
in importance and interest, but every step here taken 
shows that it is the relations these questions bear to 
practical life, the pressing problems of conduct, which 
most endears and sanctifies them to the human un- 
derstanding. 

My friend is very far right therefore when she at- 
tributes the free and happy state of mind in which 
she now finds herself to a renewed conviction of the 
reality of the unseen side of things, a freshly-clarified 
spiritual vision ; but she does not yet realise what 
measure of purely human love and aspiration enter 
into these new beliefs ; how her own warm living per- 
sonality is a part of that spirituality with which she is 
striving to endow the universe and her own being, its 
most potent factor indeed, so far as the present stage 
of affairs goes. 

But if my friend has missed the nearer in the more 
remote conception, I make a still greater mistake in 
setting one factor of human consciousness over against 



another, dividing it against itself, when any true 
means of comprehension lies in an exactly opposite di- 
rection ; that described in the word "Unity," or as 
The Open Coiu-t Y\ke.s better to define it, "Monism." 
We cannot separate the ethical from the spiritual in 
our analysis of men's deeds and motives, however 
clearly they may seem to separate themselves in our 
own mental workings. 

The causes of happiness are as obscurely located 
and as hard to define as the cause of life itself, and 
perhaps it is well; since opportunity is its own chief 
reward. The happiness and triumphs of life lie far 
more in the pursuits it offers to heart, hand, and 
head, than in any results one single struggling career 
can attain. Belief does bring happiness then, but 
along with belief in the worth of the world outside 
ourselves, in some divine purpose ruling it to ends of 
infinite beauty and wisdom, must go belief in our- 
selves, as fit instruments for the attainment of those 
ends, belief in the ethical not less than the spiritual 
quality of the universe. 



AN ANALYSIS OF THE MORAL OUGHT. 



COMMENTS UPON PROF. H. SIDGWICK'S VIEW. 



The question has been raised by ethical students. 
How is it that man has the idea of "ought" at all?* 

The ideas "right," "moral goodness," "duty," 
the "ought," etc., are fundamental notions of ethics. 
As such they should be carefully defined ; yet they are 
frequently used by moralists without an analysis of 
their meaning. Professor Sidgwick says in his article 
"Some Fundamental Ethical Controversies," J//;/;^/, 
No. 56, p. 4S0 : 

" Different systems give different answers to the fundamental 
question, ' What is right,' but not, therefore, a different meaning 
to the question." 

Professor Sidgwick adds: 

"According tome, this fundamental notion is ultimate and 
unanalysable : in saying which I do not mean to affirm that it be- 
longs to the 'original constitution of the mind,' and is not the re- 
sult of a process of development ; that is a question of psychol- 
ogy — or rather psychogony with which I am not concerned : I 
merely mean that as I now find it in my thought, I cannot resolve 
it into, or explain it by, any more elementary notions. I regard it 
as co-ordinate with the notion expressed by the word ' is ' or ' ex- 
ists.' Possibly these and other fundamental notions may, in the 
progress of philosophy, prove capable of being arranged in some 
system of rational evolution ; but I hold that no such system has 
as yet been constructed snd that, therefore, the notions are now 
and for us ultimate." 

* I owe the suggestion of writing this article to Mr. Salter. He takes the 
view that the " ought" is an obligation of absolute authority residing beyond 
facts and beyond the realm of science. Thus my attention was called to the 
importance of an analysis of the ought-idea itself. Whether or not the ought- 
idea is conceived as absolute, ultimate, and unanalysable is not a merely 
theoretical problem, it is of practical importance ; for if we suppose that the 
ought is absolute, ultimate, and unanalysable, we are prevented from inquir- 
ing into its nature and come under the spell of a mysticism that debars pro- 
gress and further philosophical research. 



;i62 



THE OFEN COURT. 



The " ought " is most certainly a fact, or to use Pro- 
fessor Sidgwick's words, it is "a co-ordinate with the 
notion expressed by the word- 'is' or 'exists.' " But 
he who attempts to describe the meaning of the 
"ought" will find that it is neither unanalysable nor 
ultimate ; on the contrary it is a complex fact of a very 
special kind. The expression "ought " represents a cer- 
tain relation among the ideas of a living, thinking, 
and acting creature. 

By "analysing an idea," I understand, as Professor 
Sidgwick expresses it, "a resolving it into more ele- 
mentary notions." All our notions are descriptions o'f 
facts. Those notions which represent a complex state 
of things accordingly are analysable, they can be de- 
scribed as certain relations or certain configurations of 
more elementary and more simple facts. Analysing 
is at the same time classifying. The most elementary 
and most simple facts would be those qualities of 
phenomena which are a universal feature of reality. 
And it is a matter of course that something that is uni- 
versal can in its turn be no further subsumed under 
more general views. Analysis as well as classification 
ends with the universal and simplest qualities of exist- 
ence. 

The mind of a living being consists of many im- 
pulses the origin of which is a problem that belongs 
(as Professor Sidgwick declares of the "ought"), to 
psychogony. Yet the subject is too important to be 
left out in ethics and if Professor Sidgwick knows of 
no system that can analyse such facts as the ethical 
impulse of "the ought," it is highly desirable to do 
the work. 

* * 

Impulses are tendencies to pass into action. To 
pass into action is an incipient motion. What is mo- 
tion? 

Motion is change of place. Hydrogen and oxygen 
when brought into contact show a tendency to com- 
bine ; they exhibit an incipient motion. A ball placed 
on a slanting surface will roll down ; it is going to 
change its place and this state is an incipient motion. 
The process of chemical combination and the rolling 
ball are motions, but no actions; they are not deeds 
of rational beings. 

The word "action" is used in two senses, (i) to 
designate the purposive deeds of rational beings ; and 
(2) to denote a certain view of motion, which should 
include every kind of efficiency, not only real mo- 
tions, i. e. changes of place, but also pressures where 
the effect of the action is to counteract another 
action of equal force : thus the result of + i and — i 
is a zero of motion, or rest. In this wider sense of 
the word we speak of the action of oxygen upon other 
elements and the action of a resting stone that exer- 
cises a pressure. Action in the narrow sense of the 



word, designating the deeds of rational beings, is a 
very complex kind of motion. There is some addi- 
tional feature in action. What is that additional 
feature? 

Action is purposive motion. What is purpose? 

Purpose is the aim of the actor. 

Has the rolling ball no aim? Yes it has an aim. 
Motion cannot be thought without possessing a definite 
direction. Every gravitating body has an aim. It does 
not always reach its aim, but that is of no account. 
Every chemical atom that combines with another atom 
has an aim. Every piece of reality is acting somehow in 
a definite way. The end of the direction of its action 
is called the aim of its action. If there are obstacles 
preventing a motion reaching its aim, the motion comes 
to a rest. That is the end of the motion, yet not the end 
of the activity of the moving body. The action of 
the moving body (i. e. in the wider sense of the term 
"action") continues in the shape of pressure in the 
direction of the aim. 

These processes are described by the physicist who 
uses the terms kinetic and potential energy to repre- 
sent the two forms of the activity of acting things. All 
acting things are real. Their activity is that feature 
which makes them real. Activity in this sense of the 
term is called in German Wirklichkeit, and Wirklichkeit 
at the same time means "reality." 

Every motion havfng an aim, purpose must be 
something more than "aim"; and indeed it is. Pur- 
pose is the conscious representation of an aim. The 
falling stone has an aim. If the stone were conscious 
of its aim, we should say, that the falling stone has a 
purpose. 

This then is the main difference between motion 
and action, between aim and purpose. Action (in the 
narrow sense of the term) is conscious motion, and 
purpose is a conscious aim. 

Action and motion are different, but on the other 
hand they possess something in common. The simi- 
larity between action and motion is their spontaneity. 

The gravity of a stone acts in a certain way ac- 
cording to the stone's position. This gravity is a qual- 
ity of the stone, it is part of its existence, it is its 
intrinsic and inalienable nature. There is not a force 
outside the stone that pushes it, there is no external 
so-called "cause"* that makes it fall, but the stone it- 
self falls. The stone falls because that is its nature, 
and when lying on the ground it exercises a certain 

* This wrong usage of the term " cause " has discredited the idea of cause, 
so that philosophers rose to say, there are no causes whatever. Their inten- 
tions were right ; there are no causes acting as agents upon things. But this 
wrong usage of the term cause is no reason to discard a useful idea. Causa- 
tion is transformation and the term " cause " should mean only the relatively 
first motion in a series of motions representing in a certain process the start 
of the transformation which can be arbitrarily selected, and " effect " the final 
state of things with which the process ends. (See Fund. Prob. pp. 96—104.) 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3163 



pressure, because that is its nature. In certain posi- 
tions this same nature, called "gravity," acts as mo 
tion, in others as pressure ; but throughout it is spon- 
taneous activity — spontaneous, because rising out of 
its own being, and characterising its real nature. 

This same spontaneitj' is found throughout reality, 
in organic nature, and also in the conscious actions of 
living organisms. The spontaneity of living organisms 
is so immediate that men have always believed that 
their actions (in the absence of compulsion) are their 
own doing and that they are responsible for their ac- 
tions. This state of things has been called freedom of 
will. And certainly this conception is not based upon 
error, it is true. Yet men noticing that actions per- 
formed without the compulsion of others are spontan- 
eous expressions of the actor's character, forgot that 
this is true of all activity in nature. The light burns 
because it is its nature to burn. The burning is spon- 
taneous. The oxygen combines with the fatty sub- 
stances of the oil in the wick not because there is a 
so-called "cause" operating upon it, but because the 
oxygen is a reality of a definite nature and to enter 
under this condition into a combination with certain 
atoms of combustible materials is this nature of the 
oxygen. Its action is spontaneous just as much as a 
man's action is spontaneous. 

There is no reality but it is possessed of spontane- 
ity, nay reality is spontaneity itself ; and the constancy 
of this spontaneity makes it that natural processes, the 
actions of men included, can be foreseen and prede- 
termined ; or as the scientist expresses it that all na- 
ture is governed by law — not that there were a law 
from the outside imposed upon the world, but that the 
nature of everything that exists is constant in all its 
changes, that accordingly it exhibits regularities which 
can be described in formulas called natural laws. 

Natural law is no oppression of nature. Natural 
law is only a description of its being ; and nature is 
free throughout. Everything in nature acts not as it 
must, but (to speak anthropomorphically) as it wills, 
i. e. according to its own being. 

* * 

Man's actions are distinguished from the motions 
of so called inanimate nature in so far as he is con- 
scious of his aim. The aims of so-called inanimate 
nature are not conscious, they cannot be called pur- 
poses. Conscious beings alone can have purposes. The 
problem of the origin of consciousness accordingly will 
also solve the problem of the origin of purpose and 
purposive action. We have treated the problem of the 
origin of consciousness at length on other occasions, 
which briefly recapitulated is as follows : * 

Consciousness is a certain feature of our existence 
which is best characterised as awareness. Conscious- 

* See The Soul of Man, pp. 23-45 



ness is not objective existence, it is not matter and 
not motion : it is subjective existence. Consciousness 
is a complex state of simpler elements and these simpler 
elements are called feelings. The simplest feelings a 
man knows of are perceived as awarenesses of certain 
states. Feelings as they are perceived and known have 
a meaning, and this meaning originates by comparison 
with other feelings and memories of feelings. Feel- 
ings represent something, and that which they repre- 
rent is called the object. A feeling organism feels it- 
self as a body, as an objective thing among things. 
This body affects and is affected by other bodies and 
it feels differently as it is differently affected. Although 
other bodies like our own body belong to and are a 
part of objective existence, we communicate with them 
and cannot deal with them otherwise than by treating 
them as possessing subjectivity. We regard them as 
conscious beings like ourselves. Their feelings, their, 
consciousness cannot be seen, but their whole attitude 
indicates that their feelings are analogous to ours. It 
is natural that feelings cannot be seen, or observed, 
for they are not objective states but subjective states. 
They are felt by the subject that is feeling. Our own 
feelings would appear to others who looked into our 
pulsating brain as motions, so it is natural that the 
feelings of others can appear to us likewise as motions 
only. Motion and feeling accordingly are the subjec- 
tive and objective aspects of reality. 

Every feeling is objectively considered a motion, 
but not vice versa. Not every motion is a feeling. 
Feelings are in their objective aspect very complex 
motions. Yet while we do not say that every motion 
is a feeling, we say that every objective existence, is 
at the same time a subjective existence, and this sub- 
jective existence which seems of no account in inor- 
ganic nature, is no mere blank, it is, not feeling, but 
potentiality of feeling ; it contains the germs of psy- 
chical existence, and this leads to the inevitable con- 
clusion that the world is throughout spiritual in its 
innermost nature. That which appears to a subject 
as objectivity is in itself subjectivity, that which ap- 
pears as matter is in itself spiritual : either actual spirit 
or potential spirit. 

We can form no idea of the subjective existence of 
inorganic nature, but its objective existence is grand 
enough to satisfy us. The subjectivity of the sun for 
instance may be as grand as the enormous amount of 
energy that carries his Hght through cosmic space, an 
extremely small part of which is intercepted by the 
earth where it is the main source of light and life and 
joy. Yet whatever be the subjectivity of inorganic na- 
ture, apparently it does not consist in representations. 
Representations originate only with the rise of feehngs 
when feelings acquire certain meanings, and when sub- 
jectivity becomes representative we call it mind. 



3164 



THE OPEN COURT. 



Living organisms, are active beings, and with the 
rise of consciousness the aims of their actions become 
purposes. 

Suppose a conscious being were possessed of one 
purpose only, his action would be determined by that 
one purpose. Yet living beings are very complex and 
the memory-structures of their minds will under cer- 
tain circumstances naturally suggest in a rapid succes- 
sion several propositions of which one only can be se- 
lected as a purpose. The conflict among these several 
propositions, which are called motives of action, will 
cause a delay, this conflict is called deliberation, which 
lasts until the strongest motive has overcome the re- 
sistance of the other motives. 

The strongest motive at any one moment is by no 
means the strongest motive at other moments. Thus 
actions are done which afterwards would not have been 
done. If a man considers a former action performed 
through a motive that has lost its strength, he pro- 
nounces the verdict "I ought not have done it." 

This "ought" is not as yet the moral ought. The 
moral ought is still more complex. 

If a man has a certain purpose and performs an 
action in compliance with that purpose but fails in 
realising his purpose, he says, I ought to have acted 
otherwise in order to attain my purpose. His means 
to the end were inadequate. If on another occasion 
he follows the same motive, he says to himself, I have 
more carefully to consider the means to the end I have 
in view. 

This idea of " I have to " is again an ought, but it 
is not as yet the moral ought. 

The choice among several motives to do a thing, 
or among several ways of doing a thing is the condi- 
tion of any ought. The idea that this or that will have 
to be regretted or will fail, that another thing will not 
have to be regretted and will succeed, leads to the 
formulation of rules. These rules appear to him who 
has the intention to obey them, as an ought. 

It is natural that those motives which promise 
pleasure are stronger than others. Almost all the rules 
of ought are to protect a man against the temptation 
of his pleasure-promising motives. 

The idea of ought in general is a very complex 
idea, yet the moral ought is still more complex. What 
is the moral ought? 

Man is a social animal. Society is not merely a 
collection of individuals, but the individual is a pro- 
duct of society. An individual that is prompted by 
egotistic motives alone will always fail in the end ; and 
suppose that a certain man's fate were an exception, 
that he succeeded by a favorable combination of cir- 
cumstances, death will defeat him after all. 

A man in whom the idea of his being a member of 
a family, of a nation, of humanity, is a live presence. 



will feel bound to stand up for the common welfare 
with equal or even more energy than for his private 
interests. He is impressed with the importance that 
everyone in his place has to attend to the work al- 
lotted him, and he himself will be serious in the per- 
formance of what he is wont to call duty. 

Duty is formulated as a norm or a prescript which 
is to be the highest motive for action and the intent 
of the moral man is to make it unbendingly strong so 
as to overrule all other considerations. 

* 
* * 

To sum up : 

We have seen that the moral ought is not unana- 
lysable, it is not an ultimate notion. It is a very com- 
plex mental fact which admits of analysis and a de- 
scription of both its origin and its nature. The moral 
ought is a special kind of any ought or of any rule of 
action devised for the guidance of conduct. Conduct is 
a special case of natural processes ; it is a motion plus 
purpose, purpose being an aim pursued with conscious 
intention. And aim, again, is one constituent feature 
of motion. There is no motion without aim. The 
ought grows from the realm of inorganic existence to- 
gether with the unfolding of mind in animal organ- 
isms and it reaches its grandest development in the 
moral ideals of man. 

Professor Sidgwick has sufficiently guarded his 
statement, saying that "he merely means he cannot now 
resolve it into or explain it by any more elementary 
elements. Nevertheless it is not advisable to deal 
with a fundamental idea as if it were unexplain- 
able or unanalysable and thus cast the glamor of mys- 
ticism over the whole realm of the most important and 
practical of sciences. There are ethical students who 
follow blindly the authority of such a great teacher as is 
Professor Sidgwick and they are too apt to forget the 
cautious limitation of his words preaching the mystery 
of the ought in its transcendent incomprehensibility. 

There are always minds who love to live in the 
twilight of thought, who think that the unintelligible 
is grander than that which can be understood; and 
these minds seize eagerly upon every expression that 
throws a shadow on science, that dwarfs philosophy, 
and makes human knowledge appear dull and useless. 

p. c. 

CURRENT TOPICS. 

Yesterday was Washington's birthday, and the celebration 
of it as described in the papers of this morning, was inspired by 
such an exuberant and thrifty patriotism as must e.xcite the won- 
der of the world. At Albany the Democrats assembled in honor . 
of the day, and tagged their platitudinous platform to the tail of 
Washington's coat ; under the belief, not altogether vain, that 
some people with votes to give, will honor it as a piece of the 
original garment. At Detroit the Republicans adopted the same 
stratagem ; and at St. Louis, the People's Party, or whatever the 
name of it is, did the same thing. Under the guise of patriotism. 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3165 



each of them pressed the memory of Washington into the service 
of party ; and all of them spent the day in coining the glorious 
legacy left by Washington to all his countrymen into political 
capital for themselves. Are there not enough days for faction 
outside of Washington's birthday ? In Chicago the great theme 
was not profaned by party politics. We asked nothing of the 
mighty shade of Washington, except a little help in Congress for 
the benefit of the World's fair. 



Political contradictions enough to fill the old curiosity shop 
were offered up yesterday at the shrine of Washington, and his 
festival day was principally devoted to the science of "winning 
elections." In the name of Washington, Senator Hill spoke to 
the democrats at Albany, and referring to the tariff, he said, " It 
is a maxim of sound policy better fitted to win elections than to 
lose them ; better dividing into easy chapters the lessons of a long 
campaign of education, abolish whenever you can one after an- 
other, one indefensible tax at a time." The sentiment and the 
grammar of that " maxim " are both bad, although not any worse 
than those proclaimed by the republicans at Detroit, and by the 
People's party at St. Louis. While Mr. Hill at Albany was " im- 
proving the occasion" to declare his policy, Mr. McKinley at De- 
troit was covering it with ridicule, as if it were a mere motion for 
continuance, or some other dilatory plea ; an excuse for treachery 
or cowardice. In rollicking banter, Mr. McKinley said, "The 
democratic party will not repeal the tariff in twenty-five years. 
They have started in to repeal it item by item, and there are two 
thousand five hundred items in it." And thus it was that party 
avarice begun the political strife of 1892 on the birthday of Wash- 
ington. 

* 
* * 

"A plague on both your houses," exclaimed the People's con- 
vention at St. Louis, also in the name of Washington ; and with 
no better taste than the others, the third party thre^ in its little 
contribution to the discords of the day. Said the tautological Mr. 
Folk, the President of the convention, " We want relief, we de- 
mand that we have relief, we will have relief, and I repeat, we 
must have relief, if we have to wipe out the two old parties from 
the face of the earth." This threat of wiping out the two old par- 
ties ought to have general approval ; and on any other day than 
Washington's birthday I rather think it would be a beneficial 
thing, but considering that the "two old parties" include within 
them about nineteen twentieths of all the people, it will not be an 
easy task for Mr. Polk to wipe them out, although Mr. Ignatius 
Donnelly offered to perform a still more difficult feat. He agreed 
to " wipe the Mason and Dixon line out of the geography, and the 
color line out of politics." Mr. Donnelly would also undertake 
for a very small wager to wipe out the ecliptic, and pull up the 
North pole. 

Chicago honored the day by patriotic exercises at the public 
schools, by appropriate services in the churches, by civic ban- 
quets of great magnificence, by generous hospitality to senators 
and representatives from Washington, and by a great meeting at 
the Auditorium addressed by Gen. Stewart Woodford, of New 
York, a very eloquent orator. From the life, character, and 
work of Washington, General Woodford drew a beautiful moral, 
wherein he showed that it was the duty of Congress to make a 
liberal appropriation for the World's Fair. "We want no un- 
seemly, wasteful, and barbaric extravagance." he said. " and we 
will tolerate no pitiful, niggardly, and miserly meanness." This, 
from a citizen of New York was very magnanimous ; and the same 
feeling was manifested by the guests from other states, who. in 
the figurative language of one of the reporters, were "sojourning 
within the gates." 



Generous as was the before dinner oratory of General Wood- 
ford, it was parsimonious economy when compared with the after 
dinner eloquence of the clubs, a gushing artesian well whose boun- 
tiful flow actually persuaded the people of Chicago that we were 
too modest in asking Congress for only five million dollars, when 
we might have had fifty millions. Mr. Doan, a member from Ohio, 
said that he had " heard a congressman say just after dinner that 
he was willing to vote a hundred million dollars to Chicago." 
Judging from the " Menu," which by the way, was published in 
the papers, I should think that any member of Congress who would 
not vote that way, after enjoying such an aristocratic and indigest- 
ible free lunch would show himself ungrateful, especially when 
the millions came not out of his own pocket. Merely reading the 
" Menu " was equal to an ordinary meal ; and a stimulant strong 
as a common drink was the suggestion artfully scattered through 
the bill of fare, about Old London Dock Sherry, Pommery Sec, 
Cognac, Liqueurs, and Siberian Punch, to say nothing of Chateau 
La Rose, and Chateau Yquem, which I think are wines of rare 
and precious vintage ; although for anything I know to the con- 
trary they may be the French names for turnips and potatoes, but 
I think they are Baronial brands of wine ; nectar that has been 
ripening in the cellars of old castles these hundreds and hundreds 
of years. The Siberian Punch was poetry in bottles. What in- 
spiration it would give to a Tennyson or a Browning, when a couple 
of glasses of it could make a newspaper man talk thus, " And so 
supper waned and champagne flowed. The immaculate china was 
soiled, the flowers withered as eyes grew brighter, and the time 
came as it always comes, when desire was satisfied, and when the 
things that were good became vanity. And only the curling, evan- 
escent blue cloud of the Havanna did not pale upon animal sa- 
tiety." 

* * 

Intoxicated by the "evanescent blue cloud of the Havanna," 
as by voluptuous incense, Mr. Enloe, a member of Congress, I 
think from Tennessee, showed his political sagacity and his knowl- 
edge of the world by giving to his hosts this most valuable bit of 
counsel, " I advise you," said he, " to get the appropriations com- 
mittee to come out here and see what you are doing. They are a 
lot of men whose brains need enlarging." Mr. Enloe had seen how 
the dinner and the Siberian Punch had enlarged the brains of his 
colleagues at the feast, and he thought that if the committees on 
appropriations could be Chicago's guests for a couple of days their 
brains might be enlarged in the same way. Mr. Enloe's advice 
ought to be acted on at once, because one member of the appro- 
priations committee is worth ten of the other kind ; and the recipe 
which Mr. Enloe found so effectual, will be just as good for the 
appropriations committees if we can only get them here. Of its 
power to enlarge the brain, I had convincing evidence this morn- 
ing, when a member of Congress who was at the banquet, was bid- 
ding good bye to a friend. " I do not like your Chicago drinks,'' 
he said ; and when his companion asked him why, he replied thus, 
"Well, I had some of them at the banquet last night ; and this 
morning, when I tried to scratch the top of my head, I had to 
reach up about four feet to get there, my brains were so enlarged." 

M. M. Trumbull. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE PATH OF LEAST RESISTANCE. 

To the Editor of The Open Court :— 

I WISH to call attention to one or two statements made by 
J. C. F. Grumbine in his last article in The Open Court on "The 
Present Religious Revolution." 

He says, "The right path (meaning the path of action) is 
right because it is the path of least resistance, and affords man the 
greatest possible and the highest quality of enjoyment." "The 



3i66 



THE OPEN COURT. 



wrong path is wrong because it is the path of greatest resistance 
and affords man the least possible and poorest quality of enjoy- 
ment." I cannot agree with him in these statements. There is 
truth in the statement that " man must be born anew." Man is 
in a constant state of development. He is born with tendencies 
and aptitudes founded on all his past in lower conditions. These 
tendencies and aptitudes are both good and bad and both mark 
alike the paths of least resistance. Constant action will in the 
lower conditions form paths of least resistance ; these paths are 
carried to a higher condition where they are the natural paths of 
least resistance also, but where action along them would bring evil 
consequences. Action along the paths of least resistance does not 
always "afford the greatest possible and highest quality of enjoy- 
ment," nor does action along the paths of greatest resistance " af- 
ford the least possible and poorest quality of enjoyment," on the 
contrary it may and does often afford just the reverse. 

The paths of least and greatest resistance cannot be the de- 
termining principles of action. There is a constant changing of 
the paths of least and greatest resistance. Our knowledge of the 
universe and our relation to it is constantly changing and increas- 
ing. As we develop and society grows and develops new relations 
are necessitated and there must be corresponding change of action 
regardless of the paths of least and greatest resistance. 

Minneapolis, Minn. Leroy Berrier. 

THE EFFICIENCY OF WOMEN IN FINE WORK. 

To the Editor of The Open Court : — 

A WATCHMAKER friend of mine surprised me with the infor- 
mation that there were no women watchmakers. I told him that 
the delicate manipulations required in watchmaking, it would 
seem to me, could be best performed by women, but he said that 
they were very efficient in such fine work as in the manufacture of 
the single parts, but when it came to the assembling of the pieces 
and the minute adjustment and general horological judgment, 
they had proven themselves incapable. 

I think it would be well to ventilate the subject and ascertain 
whether my friend is mistaken or not. 

Yours sincerely, 

S. V. Clevenger. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Natural Religion. By the Rev. Tlieo. W. Haven, Ph. D. New 
York : Twentieth Century Publishing Company. 1892. 

This little book is a collection of fifteen sermons which are 
broad as well as religious. The reader will look in vain for the 
author's creed, and we are at a loss where to place the reverend 
Doctor who must send his articles to The Twentieth Century to find 
a publisher. We note the following subjects from the table of 
contents: "Normal Living is Religion," " The Religion of Health,'' 
" The Religion of Mind," "God and Man." Dr. Haven quotes 
Christ's word "Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see 
God." He concludes the article : 

" Walk in the light of your eyes, with ears open, of your na- 
" tive sense, your judgment and your reason, of pure and spotless 
"emotion, and beneath the brightly burning stars of your moral 
" sense, and thou shalt behold God." 

Other chapters treat of : "Conscience," "Duty," "Heart," 
" Character," etc. In the article " The Moral Sense God-Given," 
the author does not appear to be clear as to the meaning and 
origin of conscience, and in the article " Intimations of Irt.morial- 
ity" he tells us too little about immortality. He pictures man's 
want of a continuance of life, when love kisses the lips of death, 
but he stops short when the reader expects to hear the author's 
own opinion on immortality. 

The appearance of the book is a good sign of the times. There 
are not many reverend gentlemen like Dr. Haven. upr,. 



SHAKESPEARE AND JOAN OF ARC. 

BY LOUIS BELROSE, JR. 

" Strumpet" ? Oh, Shakespeare, was your heart so blind ? 
What fair ideal is there, all your own. 
That casts no shadow by the light of Joan ? 

Her love prevailed beyond the strength of mind. 

A simple woodland flower, pensive, kind 

And fearful till she heard the time make moan 
And that great pity on the realm and throne 

Grew lily royal over king and hind. 

Proud vengeance this on her who turned to sheep 
The wolves of Crecy and of Agincourt ! 
Was faith in France triumphant infamous ? 

Or did you cast the groundlings bait so cheap ? 

How well might honest gain of such a sort 

Play minion to the gold of Pandarus. 



MR. C. S. PEIRCE has resumed his lessons by correspondence in the 
Art of Reasoning, taught in progressive exercises. A special course in logic 
has been prepared for correspondents interested in philosophy. Terms, $30 
for twenty-four lessons. Address : Mr. C. S. Peirce, "Avisbe," Milford, Pa. 

THE OPEN COURT. 

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aications should be addressed to 

(Nixon Building, 175 La Salle Street,) 
P. O. DRAWER F. CHICAGO, ILL. 

CONTENTS OF NO. 236. 

THE PAINE-CONDORCET DECLARATION OF 

RIGHTS. MoNctjRE D. Conway 3159 

BELIEF AND HAPPINESS. Celia Parker Woollev. . 3160 

AN ANALYSIS OF THE MORAL OUGHT. Comments 

upon Prof. H. Sidgwick's View. Editor . 3161 

CURRENT TOPICS. Washington's Birthday. Party Poli- 
tics. World's Fair. M. M. Trumbull 3164 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

The Path of Least Resistance. Leroy Berrier 3165 

The Efficiency of Women in Fine Work. S. V. Clev- 
enger 3166 

BOOK REVIEWS 3166 

POETRY. 

Shakespeare and Joan of Arc. Louis Belrose, Jr. . . . 3166 



The Open Court. 




A WEEKLV JOURNAL 



o the Work of Conciliating Religion "w^ith Science. 



No. 237. (Vol. VI.— I 



CHICAGO, MARCH 10, 1892. 



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I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 



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re permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Autho 



MODERN LANDSCAPE PAINTING. 

BY LOUIS J, BLOCK. 

The world of art is a world of reflections. As in 
some magic mirror phase after phase of human life 
and experience glitters across that polished surface 
and gives place to others, subtler and nobler as the 
ages proceed. For whatever the past has done, and 
to what extent soever certain aspects of expression, 
whether in words or marble or color, have been car- 
ried to their limits, and exhausted in the entire range 
of their possibilities, yet to each perfected flower and 
fruit as it hangs and glows on the marvellous tree of 
time, another succeeds which touches deeper sensi- 
bilities, presents the story of the everlasting idea in a 
newer and more seductive guise, discloses depths of 
nature and heart and mind the earlier artists dreamed 
not of. 

The history of art is the history of the human soul. 
The babbling infant, ages ago, sought to sing to itself 
its thought of the world that it saw around it, and the 
abyss that it felt within it ; the religious tales of the 
older time remain as a precious heritage to these latter 
years ; successively the deep heart of humanity has 
told to itself in vast piles of architecture, or wondrously 
chiseled marble, or passionate commixture of colors, 
the old, old story of its hopes and aspirations, its be- 
liefs and its convictions, its worships and its venera- 
tions. To understand these progressive manifestations 
of human power and tendency, to grasp them in their 
unity and intention, is to learn a lesson in the compre- 
hension of the world. 

The art of the world has developed in a series of 
progressive phases which are manifestations of the 
successive unfolding of the human spirit. The en- 
vironment in which humanity dwells overshadows at 
first with its immensity and vague generality the earlier 
efforts of intelligence. Complete consciousness and 
separate understanding of the self as opposite, and in 
a measure antagonistic of the world, both natural and 
spiritual, are ripe developments of the spirit, and only 
attained after ages of struggle and resistance. The 
human soul confronted by this vast and moving spec- 
tacle, which we have learned to call the universe, 
swoons back as it were into unity with it, and can only 



murmur inarticulately and dimh' its reverence, its fear, 
and its hope of enswathement in universality, and con- 
sequent freeing from the torments of growing individ- 
uality. The oriental peoples illustrate fully this ten- 
dency. To them the flight of time meant so little that 
they have developed no consistent histories of their 
progress and advancement. They lived in a luxury 
of the imaginative consciousness, an ecstatic half- 
slumber, in which their personality was continually 
on the verge of extinction into the all — Nirvana, as 
the Buddhist devotee calls it, in which somehow mys- 
ticall}' without volition of his own the illimitable po- 
tencies of the universal life sway through him and the 
thin shell of his distinctive personality is a constantly 
obliterating shadow before the splendor of the All- 
light that is to suffuse him. Nature to such minds had 
no separate existence and could therefore be neither 
an object of representation or study. In that twilighted 
consciousness the exquisite form of tree and flower 
and cloud floated bathed in the irradiation of an ideal- 
ising tendency, but always as an accompaniment of 
the wished for realisation, the breaking down of the 
barrier of the self before the imposition of the larger 
life that had neither limitations nor characteristics 
such as constitute the essence of things we know by 
the processes of the reason. Government under such 
spiritual conditions could only be a tyranny, history 
only the baseless and capricious transference of power 
from dynasty to dynasty, each as irresponsible and as 
little devoted to human amelioration as its predeces- 
sor. In such a dream-life, art could only manifest it- 
self in massive and symbolic structures, whose chief 
significance lay rather in another formalising of the 
one idea of unity with the All, the divine, the uni- 
versal, than in any specific content of its own. 

To the Greek the problem presented itself anew, 
and with fair«r chances for a successful solution. In 
his rocky peninsula, sea-girt and island-girt, life put 
on a severer face, and spurred to loftier achievements. 
The awaking from the dream became inevitable. Un- 
der those sapphire skies, and fanned with the glorious 
salt winds of the neighboring sea, overlooked by the 
solemn mountains, and urged by the intractable soil, 
face to face with Mother Earth, who offered her gifts 



3168 



THE OPEN COURT. 



of subsistence and leisure only to strenuous effort, con- 
fronted by hordes of orientals who came upon them like 
devastating swarms of locusts, and engaged in heroic 
rivalries with each other, that people could do nothing 
less than be aroused to an appreciation of what hu- 
manity was, and how nobler than the environment was 
the human heart that pulsated beneath each fleshly 
covering. It was the morning song of joyance and 
delight, when humanity first knew itself, and the dark- 
ness of the night fled never to return as it had been. 
Freedom, clearness, ecstasy became the appanage of 
the human spirit. The noblest study of man was man. 
Human individuality was recognised as the ground of 
history, and the basis of progress. Art reveled in this 
discovery as never before or since. With a passsion 
of pleasure she plunged into the novel realm, and pro- 
duced her splendors of creative success, which can be 
neither equalled nor surpassed. Out of her marble 
quarries, she evocated those representations of hu- 
manity, which glitter through all the ages as white 
miracles embodying the perfection of human natural- 
ness. She placed on hilltop and acropolis harmonies 
of line and proportion, which were as unconsuming 
beacon-lights to all the nations, proclaiming the worth 
of individuality, gloriously finished as the outer tem- 
ple, in which it was worshipped. She sang her death- 
less songs of the greatness of the heroes who ploughed 
the unknown seas like the Argonauts, in search of the 
golden fleece, conquest of the unknown world that 
darkened around her, or she hymned the worth of hu- 
man perfection in the Achillean demand for sufficient 
recognition, or in the victory of Ulysses over the welter- 
ing wastes of ocean and tumultuary disaffection at 
home, or in the sacrifice of human life at the shrine of 
beauty, beauty so transcendent that all claim of con- 
science or government or domestic attachment shriv- 
eled before its flame like flax or paper. But to her, 
Nature was only as an orchestral accompaniment to 
the grander human chorus. Her sculptors had no need 
of other background than her silver-wooded moun- 
tains, and pale blue sky arched over foam-flowered 
waters. Painting had a beginning to be sure as a sep- 
arate art, but landscape painting had no sufficient 
motive in the national idea. Even descriptions of na- 
ture are rare in Greek poetry, and are never introduced 
as in modern times for their own sake, but as acces- 
sories to the human emotion that underprops them. 
Indeed, to a Greek, nature as such was unworthy of 
real attention ; except as accompanying the special 
myth to be represented, she was unfit to be made the 
subject of a serious artistic effort. 

Genuine landscape painting, it must be seen from 
what has been said, could in those days have barely 
raised its first slender stalklet and leaf above the soil. 
The conditions for its successful prosecution did not ex- 



ist. We have accounts of painters, who had made 
large advances in their art ; the secrets of perspective 
and light and shade were not unknown to them, but 
the art as such was barely rising above the horizon of 
human consciousness. The world had yet many steps 
to take before she reached the plateau whence nature 
shone back to her as a reflex and symbol of all her 
strivings, and therefore a marvellous material for the 
expression of her deepest moods and most graceful 
fancies. 

But the Greek seized his solution wholly on the 
natural side. Life to him was the joyous equipoise of 
man and nature, the happy flow of thought into sense, 
and the transfiguration of sense into thought with no 
consciousness of the depth of spirituality involved in 
his own being and destiny. While upon the earlier 
civilisation destiny and the movement of things pressed 
like a weight no effort could alleviate or lessen, there- 
came with the bursting of these bonds the delightful 
consciousness that man and nature were natural com- 
plements of each other, that achievement and manifes- 
tation, hope and realisation were the opposite faces of 
the same shield, that to think was to be, and that ex- 
istence was not to be conceived without thought. His 
perfect art is but the necessary expression of this equi- 
librium attained once and once only on the earth. He 
and his work are the "one thing finished in this hasty 
world." 

But the content of life could not rest here ; summit 
after summit loomed yet to be climbed, outlook upon 
outlook shone in the growing illumination of the ever- 
lasting day of the world, yet to be reached, whence 
life assumed an aspect for other than had yet been 
surmised or anticipated. It is the glorious privilege 
of the race thus forever to tread upon exaltations which 
the previous realisation hinted or but vaguely fore- 
shadowed. We cannot tell whither the next opening 
of the doors of time will lead us, into what realms of 
splendor we are advancing, upon what new scenery 
our eyes are yet to open. 

Suffice it to say here that individuality had been 
recognised as the counterpoise and co-equal of nature. 
The eyes of the nations had been directed within, and 
the depths of spirituality were now to be explored. 
The Roman is the incarnation of will, resistless, un- 
vanquishable will, But he is essentially prosaic ; he 
has no art of his o\yn. He has wit enough to borrow 
from his neighbor the Greek, and make him subserv- 
ient to his luxury and caprice. His view of the land- 
scape is that of the kitchen garden ; his poetry is di- 
dactic and tells us how to cultivate the soil and get 
the most abundant crops. But yet the will is the 
deepest internality of man, and the step forward has 
been taken. The whole world of the inner life, the 
secrets of the heart and conscience, the mazes of hu- 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3169 



man aspiration begin, to dawn upon us. Heaven lies 
within us ; and now for the first time the outer fades 
from the view, is looked upon as a mean and degrad- 
ing accessory, is relegated to the limbo where dwell 
the evil and Satanic potencies. As formerly nature and 
life had been seized abstractly and as all dominat- 
ing, so now the soul of man is looked upon as the only 
verity, and the environment, the life outside and around, 
sinks into the shadow of disrepect and depreciation. 
But such abstraction could not last long ; nature must 
reassert herself ; once more the soul and the world 
confront each other ; but with deepened content. As 
the soul had grown richer by the contemplation and 
knowledge of itself, so nature forced into relief has 
become an abyss where the student might spend his 
days and nights and never come to an end with his 
ceaseless meditations. But to the artist nature is now 
the symbol of that which is rarest and noblest in the 
heart of man ; he can contemplate her in her separate- 
ness, and yet give her that human interest without 
which no art product can be successful. Nature is to 
him but undeveloped man ; all the contents of the soul 
are mirrored in her restless movement, in her vast and 
heaving waters, in her night glittering with stars, in 
her valleys encircled by her snowy mountain peaks. 

We see the growing sentiment of nature in the 
works of the old painters. Giotto released the human 
■figures from the gold background into which the By- 
zantine painters had sunk them. The artist could not 
resist the charm of this innovation ; he began to hol- 
low the distances in which his personages were placed, 
and spend his loving care upon the depth of sky or 
green expanse of field or meadow which engirt his 
creations. Perspective, which, had, with the rest of 
the learning of the Greeks, been submerged for a time 
in the deluge which had destroyed the ancient world, 
was re discovered, and a whole vision of unachieved 
possibilities crowded upon the apprehension. It was 
thus that " with the beginning of the fifteenth century, 
there appeared a new and independent development 
of painting, which aims more universally at a powerful 
conception of nature, at a more radical study of form, 
and at a more complete perfection of coloring and per- 
spective. " So in the attempt of the artists of the fif- 
teenth century it often happens, that "the incident is 
no longer the main matter, but it serves them, as it 
were, with a pretext for the life-like conception and 
representation of reality. Hence they place their fig- 
ures in rich landscape scenes, and delight in magnifi- 
cent architectural backgrounds, introducing their own 
contemporaries, in the costumes of the day, as in- 
terested witnesses of important events." 

Thus spirit has travelled through the long course 
of ages, and discovered its own depth and significance, 
and thus too nature, the opposite of spirit, has been 



thrust into bold antithetic relief, and become a genuine 
object of study and contemplation. But while nature 
has thus been found to be the opposite of spirit, yet 
this antagonism is resolved into unity, inasmuch as, 
threading nature, and converting it into a systematic 
interplay of potencies, are found laws whose signifi- 
cance is perceived only by viewing them as forms of 
rationality, of the infinite reason. Nature and spirit 
are thus but opposite manifestations of one substance, 
and the former reflects the latter throughout its breadth 
and extent. To the artist nature becomes in truth 
the garmented form of his idea, the visible reality in 
which are already imbedded the thoughts, the emo- 
tions that constitute the very essence of his being. 
He has to study reality, pass it through the alembic 
of his imagination, and it emerges the transfigured ex- 
pression of his profoundest thought ; no longer mere 
natural beauty, but the beauty bathed in the light that 
never was on land or sea. It is noticeable that with 
the rise and growth of landscape painting, appear the 
first great achievements of natural science. Galileo 
asserts that the earth moves ; Copernicus rejects the 
old astronomy and places the sun in the centre of the 
system ; Kepler discovers the golden secrets of the 
stars ; astrology vanishes into the mists of the fore- 
done and finished ; alchemy gives place to chemistry, 
and the Healing Art studies the human body, and be- 
gins its genuinely philanthropic mission. The reason 
for this parity of appearance is the same ; nature is 
first seen as she really is, and then studied as she de- 
serves to be. 

The content of landscape painting is the same as 
that of all the arts. The human heart in all its varying 
play of emotions again essays to make a portrait of 
itself, and again leaves a precious and incomparable 
representation. There is nothing spiritual that the 
landscape painters have not endeavored to delineate ; 
their canvases glow with every hope that has ennobled 
man, gloom with every fear that has darkened his 
career. Individual caprices, and vast conceptions of 
whole peoples as shown alike upon these canvases. 
The progress of the race, the throes of religious an- 
guish, the ecstasy of assured success, the abstraction 
of the philosopher, look back to us from these radiant 
comminglings of colors. This world and the next, 
mankind in the totality of its realisations, are again 
portrayed so that all who choose may read the old, old 
story. Pessimism and optimism, lyric despair, and 
dramatic collision, degradation and supernal heights 
of the spirit, glitter before us once more, and the words 
of hope and the incentive to lofty effort are again the 
general purport of the message. 

The culture of the landscape artist should be of the 
widest. All science he needs in the fulfilment of the 
dreams that pursue each other in radiant guise through 



3170 



THE OPE>sr COURX. 



the precincts of his imagination. He needs must be 
something of a geologist to reproduce the soil of valley 
and mountain, the rocks in all their regularity of ar- 
rangement or contortion in which the play of titanic 
forces has left them. Into the old myths of giants and 
titans and monsters, in which are reflected primitive 
nature views of the early peoples, he must read the 
deep significance which the rugged struggling thought 
of slowly advancing civilisation set there. The fond- 
ness of Turner, for old classical themes, for instance, 
is not difficult of explanation. By the force of im- 
agination, and a necessary kinship, he thrust himself 
back into the thought-modes of the Greek or Roman, 
and the landscape became to him the manifestation of 
mind- processes which were inevitable stages in the 
development of mankind. As some one has said no 
painter can successfully paint an object without in some 
sort being that object, so the landscapist must sink 
himself in the spectacle he sees, till from a process 
analogous to the one that brought forth the real land- 
scape, he ushers into the light of day the resplendent 
scene he has placed upon canvas. World-life, rock- 
formation, river-fluency, cloud-transformations, growth 
and death of plants, the passion and pathos of semi- 
articulate animal-life, the phases of human motives 
which are subordinated to natural processes, all these 
must enter into his conception, not as mere picture 
and outer shows, but as real living processes, the es- 
sence of whose production he has grasped, so that it 
is from a creative idea, as it were, that his picture 
grows upon the canvas. The majestic memory of a 
Turner needed no studies from which to evocate into 
visibility his gorgeous mysteries of light and color ; na- 
ture was to him as a larger body, his soul was akin and 
fused with the vast potencies whence the everlasting 
mountains proceed and in the solitude of his chamber 
the ocean in all its vicissitudes, the sky in all its mu- 
tations, struggled into view as in the realm of nature 
herself. 

Nature is the inexhaustible treasure house to which 
he goes that he may forever learn her new moods and 
phases. She is a language so various, so profound, 
so creative of ever new glories, that he must forever 
be near to her or sink into a mere repetition, a soulless 
echo of his previous achievement. But she is after all 
a language, a mode of speech, an instrument for the 
utterance of ever-variant harmonies. The attempt to 
be merely photographic in the reproduction of natural 
scenes, must be forever a failure. The details of na- 
ture are too great to be grasped ; human achievement 
sinks exhausted before the endeavor. Besides nature 
herself only glows into significance when related to 
humanity ; what she is in herself alone, apart from the 
universal mind that perceives her, is one of those phil- 
osophic fantasies, which haunt certain crude forms of 



philosophic speculation, so childish as not to recog- 
nise that the endeavor to ascertain what nature is, ab- 
stracted from the general consciousness, presupposes 
always the effort of mind that is sought to be elimin- 
ated. This language of tree and flower and hill and 
sky the artist beholds as expressive of thought, and 
he puts it on his canvas in such guise that all mankind 
ma3' read. It required his specially endowed suscep- 
tibility to discover the secret of the real landscape ; he 
makes it on his canvas plainer to his lesser contem- 
poraries. As has been well said by a French writer : 

' ' The spectacles of nature want the essential characteristic of 
art, unity. Nature not only varies every moment of the day, but 
in her inBnite complexity, her sublime disorder, she contains and 
manifests to us that which corresponds to the most contradictory 
emotions. Capable of exciting these emotions in man, she is 
powerless to express them. He alone can render them clear, vis- 
ible, by choosing the scattered features lost in the bosom of the 
real, and eliminating from them what is foreign to or contradic- 
tory of his thought." 

This is far from being the shallow idealism which 
attempts from a most cursory study of nature to re- 
produce her beauties and sublimities. It involves the 
most tender and loving appreciation of her, that pene- 
tration into her most subtle and recondite processes 
which she grants only to her devotee and worshipper. 

Says Ruskin : 

"All great art must -be inventive, that is to say, its subject 
must be produced by the imagination. If so, then the great land- 
scape art cannot be a mere copy of any given scene," 

And Wm. M. Bryant,* one of the great authorities 
on this subject : 

" In landscape painting then as in art generally — as in all hu- 
man endeavor — freedom in the use and choice of materials, will 
always prove co-extensive with the power of the individual to 
choose wisely and well, and to use rightly and nobly : the artist 
like every other man, realises for himself a broader and a richer 
freedom by deepening and widening his individual culture." 

All the ardors and glories of the imagination have 
disclosed themselves in the work of the landscape 
painter. To a Salvator Rosa, nature is the reflection 
of moods sombre as the darkness of his own soul; to 
a Claude Lorraine she is fresh with the joyousness of 
a soul to whom life was a scene of innocence and 
childlike gayety. Very justly is he said to have been 
the first landscape painter who set the sun in the 
heaven of his creations ; but that sun had first risen on 
the horizon of his own soul in the radiant view which 
his clear and joyous character took of the world and 
man. In Turner on the other hand, all the tempest- 
uous intellectual conflicts of his time are displayed ; 
the attempt to believe what is no longer credible, the 
attempt to accept what is barely acceptable, the des- 
pair of doubt that disdains itself for the lack of power 

* " Philosophy of Landscape Painting," by Wra. M. Bryant, Griggs & Co. 
Chicago. 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3171 



to allay its own torments, and exorcise its self-created 
ghosts, the moral struggle which leaps from stern as- 
ceticism to wildly ecstatic indulgence, and finds satis- 
faction in neither, with moments of transcendent peace, 
idyllic and serene as the golden age dreamed of by 
poets in the foreworld, all shine, and darken, and fas- 
cinate in his incomparable portrayals of nature, made 
to be, as she is, the vehicle of the expression of 
thought in all its phases. 

But the great landscape painter above all per- 
ceives the total process of nature, how she perpetu- 
ally destroys herself only to reproduce herself. He 
seizes all these aspects in their most permanent and 
essential form ; the capricious, the merely vague, the 
unimportant, by the instinct resident in his creative 
skill, he recognises at once, and drops from his pic- 
ture. He sees how all nature is resumed and com- 
prehended in the atmospheric process ; how as Emer- 
son says, the mountains are dissolved into the air even 
as the waters are, how everything is engirt by the mist 
of its disintegration. Out of this marvellous medium 
the solidities of the earth are so to speak precipitated. 
The modern painter no longer portrays his object in 
clear isolation, in a medium crystalline and pure, but 
as it really is enveloped in the smoke and vapors of 
existence. The landscapes of Corot seem like dreams 
so pervaded by mists and exhalations are they ; but 
the attempt is here distinctly made to reproduce that 
total process in which all things live and move and have 
.their being, that dying into life and living into death to 
which everything sublunary is subject. These paint- 
ers introduce the air into their pictures, and lo ! the 
genetic processes of nature become their subject 
matter and premeditated delineation. Such pictures, 
seeming irrational agglomerations of light, and shade, 
and color, are gigantic efforts to throw upon canvas 
the whole movement of nature's life. No object in 
them has a definite outline ; it flames up into the air, 
and seems gradually dissipating into space; the golden 
glow of the universal movement of all things suffuses 
the delineation, and one is confronted with nature as 
she really is, eternally passing away, eternally restor- 
ing herself. 

The art of the landscape painter like music is an 
essentially modern art, complex, capricious, various, 
but expressive of the deepest emotions, humane, en- 
nobling. The past after all has not entirely exhausted 
the range of artistic power as some writers have sug- 
gested ; the destinies yet hold in their providence 
some gifts not vouchsafed to the earlier and happier 
generations ; out of the mysterious All whence all 
things great and noble have come by ways as myster- 
ious as itself these two, music and landscape painting 
have descended in our own times ; no doubt the ever 
fructuant years will continue to give to mankind new 



powers which will approximate the earth to the love- 
liness of those dreams, which are unreal only because 
all reality is contained in them, as the stars disappear 
in the golden glory of the pervasive light of the day- 
time. 



THE MEANING OF STATE. 

BY J, G. HERTWIG. 

What does State mean ? Jurisprudence, the science 
of law, teaches, that generally considered it means 
human society organised for realising the highest des- 
tination of man, within a certain country. The essen- 
tial requirements, therefore, of State, as such, are : a 
State government, a State constitution, a people, and 
finally a territory. State is also defined as the whole 
body of a people united under one government. 

The opposite of State is said to be the natural con- 
dition, the state of nature, a kind of social life lacking 
the essential characteristics of State, when every in- 
dividual acts according to his own notions and interest, 
and every one lives in an unsettled and inordinate man- 
ner. It cannot be proved by historj?, that such a state 
of nature, involving complete lawlessness, has ever 
existed permanently among men, and it is also incon- 
ceivable, that it would ever exist among them for any 
length of time. Anarchy, therefore, intended for a 
certain territory and meaning such a permanent state 
of nature, is a non-entity for any civilised country, the 
United States of America included. Without just 
laws, equally promoting the welfare of all its inhabit- 
ants, and without their strict enforcement, there would 
be no public order, no civilisation, no education, in 
fact nothing in the Union, that could render life dear 
therein to man. 

The civil liberty of a country acquires its true value 
only by the mental, moral, and social education of the 
inhabitants thereof, under the protection of the law, 
and not in the chaos of lawlessness. Lawlessness, 
anarchy, as a permanent thing in any country, would 
be the greatest misfortune for it, destroy all human 
happiness in it, render all men living there mutual 
outlaws, and prevent true social life among them. In 
other words, it would reduce man there to the condi- 
tion of the animal. Lawlessness, anarchy, as the basis 
of civil life in the Union, would mean a wrong of all 
against all in this country. 

The object of Slate is the realisation of the moral 
law, dwelling in every man's heart. State, therefore, 
means a moral community. It is the most general in- 
stitution of educating mankind for its highest destina- 
tion. Yet, the highest destination of man is the most 
perfect development of all his mental, moral, and phys- 
ical powers and faculties. 



3172 



THE OPEN COURT. 



The question now arises, what does State mean 
according to American public law, based upon the 
Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of 
the United States. The Declaration of Independence 
says ; 

"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are 
created equal ; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain 
unalienable rights ; that among these are life, liberty, and the pur- 
suit of happiness. That, to secure these rights, governments are 
instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent 
of the governed." 

The Constitution says : 

" We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more 
perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, pro 
vide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and 
secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do 
ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of 
America." 

In this free and independent country. State does not 
involve any power based upon so-called, but untrue 
birthrights, an individual could claim over the citi- 
zens of this country. On the contrary, it means a 
compact of all the citizens of the land, as free men, 
subject to no one, and under the principle of equal 
rights to all before the law, mutually to protect and to 
defend themselves in the full and unabridged enjoy- 
ment of all their natural, inherent, and inalienable 
rights, that is, of the rights of man, including life, 
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The principle 
of equal rights to all, in all matters of public concern, 
that is, in all matters affected or to be affected by law, 
is and forever will be the corner-stone of American 
liberty. 

In, this free country the people govern themselves 
by laws and principles adopted by them, and all the 
public officers of the legislative, executive, and judicial 
branches of the government are not rulers but servants 
of the people, elected by the latter for certain periods, 
fixed by law, or appointed by elective officers, to hold 
their own offices during good behavior or during other 
definite or indefinite periods. In such a free country 
public life should always be as pure as private life, 
and public affairs should constantly be conducted as 
truthfully as private business. In other words, in such 
a country public life, the so called politics, should al- 
ways and under all circumstances be strictly moral, 
that is, just and honest. Education and morality are 
the only meaps for the American people of preserving 
their freedom, their free institutions, permanently, for 
all time to come. By education the highest intellectual 
development and by morality the truest self-respect of 
an individual or of a community are meant. 

Freedom and education naturally are and always 
will be true and inseparable companions. For the 
welfare of the American people, this ought to be in- 
variably the case in the Union. 



WHAT SHALL THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS TEACH.' 



A DEBATE OF THE SUNSET CLUB. 



BY M. M. TRUMBULL. 

Less than a hundred men, and no women, appeared at the 
banquet of the Sunset club on the i8th of February ; a great fall- 
ing off, when compared with the attendance at the previous meet- 
ing where several women spoke with a magnetic power conspicu- 
ously abser.t from the proceedings on the i8th. The after dinner 
theme at this later meeting was, " What shall the public schools 
teach?" — and in sympathy with diminished numbers, the debate 
started on the dull plane of mediocrity, and stayed there. Ex- 
cepting praises to the kindergarten and the manual training school, 
there was little said that was of any special value ; and the whole 
debate was tainted with an air of apology and excuse for the ex- 
istence of the common schools. 

The talk was monotonous, and rather flat, because nearly 
ev'ery man who spoke to the question had carefully narrowed bis 
mind Not a man of the club knew anything about the democratic 
genius of the American common school ; and the principle of 
equal rights on which it stands was totally disregarded. Theoret- 
ical democracy is common enough in this country ; but in our 
social constitution actual and real, there is only one absolutely 
level floor, and that is the floor of the common school. Even the 
ballot box cannot secure political equality between the rich and 
the poor, although the "one man, one vote," principle is the the- 
ory of our political system. Nowhere, in any public institution 
provided for by law do "sense and worth " establish rank, except 
in the common schools. Nowhere else does the child of the poor 
man have an equal chance with the child of the rich man. There, 
merit, and merit alone is the test of quality. In the bosom of de- 
mocracy throbs the heart of the common school system ; and that 
system exists not for the state, but for the child. 

The debate was opened by Mr. William G. Beale, who pitched 
the tune in a low key, where it remained until the end. He said, 
"The existence of the free public schools supported wholly by 
public funds procured by enforced levies, seems to be warranted 
only on the theory that the public welfare requires it. The public 
school is directly for the public benefit. Its fundamental function 
is much the same as that of a policeman. The personal benefit to 
pupils is neither the ultimate nor the main consideration. The 
conferring of such benefit is but incidental to the chief object." 

The reverse of that is true. Mr. Beale's doctrine puts the ab- 
stract shadow called the state above the citizen, but he forgets 
that the citizen is the very substance of the state. The sentiment 
must be tested by political conditions. The words of Mr. Beale, 
had they been spoken by the German emperor at Berlin, might 
have been in logical harmony with the genius of the German 
monarchy, but they are discordant here, where public education 
rests on the principle of equal rights and equal opportunities. In 
this country the right of the state to educate the children grows 
out of the right of the children to be educated ; and the preroga- 
tive of the state is limited to the simple duty of providing the 
means to enforce the right of the child ; for the child's own sake, 
in order that every boy and every girl may have an equal start 
with every other in the race for honorable position, and in the 
struggle for a respectable existence. 

In the opinion of Mr. Beale the supreme question was, not 
how much, but how little should be taught in the public schools ; 
not how public education might be expanded, but how it might be 
diminished. "The question," he said, "is as to the boundary 
line, which must not be passed. — as to the subjects to be ex- 
cluded." He was willing to concede to American children, "read- 
ing, writing, and the simpler arithmetical processes, together with 
something of grammar, geography, and history." This is a meagre 



THE OPHN COURT. 



3173 



bill of fare on which to bring up citizens of a republic, although 
it may do for subjects of a king. There is an air of college con- 
descension in the "something of grammar, geography, and his- 
tory," as if they were merely seasoning for the more substantial 
food, delicacies too rich for the mental digestion of the poor. 

Mr. Beale did not approve of the free high school He 
thought that free public school instruction should stop at the 
grammar grades, and that the public money now expended for the 
benefit of high schools should be taken from the top of our educa- 
tional system, and used at the bottom of it, in attaching the kin- 
dergarten to all the public schools. He was not in favor of abol- 
ishing the high schools altogether, but he would require the pupils 
therein to pay some tuition fees ; and on the same conditions he 
thought that a manual training school might be added. " In the 
high schools, he said, "the main benefit is to the pupils, and the 
public benefit is a comparatively small and incidental one." In 
other words, when a child learns arithmetic, the state gets the 
benefit of it, but when it comes to algebra the pupil gets it. The 
distinction is fanciful and gratuitous ; the child gets the benefit of 
the learning in both cases. Let us have the high school and the 
kindergarten too. 

Professor Bamberger, Superintendent of the Jewish Manual 
Training School spoke next. Some prefer one study, and some 
another, explained Professor Bamberger ; with the Greeks it was 
one way, and with other nations a different way, but as for him 
he would state emphatically that "manual training in the fullest 
acceptation of the term should be included in every curriculum." 
He did not condescend to consider "the state" as a party in in- 
terest at all, yet he stood on high moral and intellectual ground, 
when he spoke of developing men and women, and of the use of edu- 
cation to them ; but except as to manual training, and reading, 
writing, and arithmetic, he was non-committal ; and he said, " Let 
us listen to those who plead the cause of other studies, how im- 
pressively they prove their necessity. It must therefore have al- 
ways been as impossible as it is to-day to prove what objects of 
■study should be incorporated in the public school system and 
which should not, as long as the principle of utility has the de- 
ciding vote." 

The subject having been thrown open for general debate the 
public school was put on trial as a criminal under indictment, while 
hasty, thoughtless opinions passed for evidence. One gentleman 
said, "The public school used to be called the common school, 
and I always liked that term, the school of the common people." 
In that he showed a complete misunderstanding of the word com- 
mon as applied to the public schools. The phrase "common 
school " never did mean the school of the common people, except 
in the minds of persons who use the word common in the sense of 
inferior. The common school meant a school common to all the 
people, to rich and poor alike. Another member believed in the 
egotistic absolutism of Louis the Fourteenth, " I am the State" ; 
and had he been at the battle-field of Gettysburg on the day of the 
dedication he would have contradicted Abraham Lincoln thus, 
" It has been said that this is a government of the people, by the 
people, and for the people, but I believe the reverse of that. I 
think the people should be of the government, by the government, 
and for the government." In admirable harmony with that belief 
was the opinion of the same gentleman that children should not be 
compelled to go to school before they are fifteen years of age, nor 
after they are eighteen; and he also thought that "the general 
education of the people should be under the control of the federal 
government." 

The one particular member most critical of the public school 
system as oppressive and unjust, was willing to compromise on the 
" three R's," for the curious reason that they "gave us Cleveland 
for President." This intelligent explanation gave a partisan flavor 
to the cigar smoke and puzzled the club by startmg this new and 



unnecessary conundrum. If the three R's elected Mr. Cleveland, 
what beat him ? Taken in connection with the antediluvian theory 
of government advocated by the preceding speaker, this remark- 
able argument showed how valuable a term or two in the public 
schools would be for the Sunset Club. 

Of course there were some gentlemen present who opposed 
the public schools on taxation grounds, and they paraded in all its 
rags and wrinkles the ancient formulary, " Government has no 
right to tax one man for the education of another man's child." 
Many of those who proclaim this doctrine, vehemently declare 
that it is the duty of government to tax one man for the benefit of 
another man's business. Some of them remind me of old Billy 
Clark who was always writing censorious letters to the papers un- 
der the signature of "Tax-Payer," although he never paid a tax 
nor anything else in his life. In the domain of social justice there 
is no such thing as "another man's child." The smallest baby is 
a distinct personality of itself, a potential man or woman, having 
individual rights of its own, which as such are independent of its 
father or its mother, especially the right to an education ; and let 
me here once more insist upon it, in addition to an education the 
right to a trade. 

There was also present at the banquet that optimistic person 
who thinks that when a boy has learned to read the Constitution 
of the United States his education is finished. After that the state 
has nothing more to do with him except to govern him and tax 
him ; and he has nothing more to do with the state except to obey 
it and pay the taxes. This gentleman's "curriculum " had a very 
high fence around it, to keep out everything in the shape of wis- 
dom except reading, writing, simple addition, and the Constitution 
of the United States. "Teach him to read," he said, "teach him 
to write, and if you wish to amuse him as he goes along, teach him 
that two and two make four, teach him to read the Declaration of 
Independence and the Constitution of the United States ; then you 
have done everything that the state is called upon to do." All that 
is very much in the style of the wine-fed old squire who flourished 
in England just before the age of steam came in. What magic 
virtue is there in the power to read the Constitution of the United 
States ? Edison's phonograph can read it and repeat it every word ; 
and yet there are thousands of men who would make even the right 
of suffrage dependent on the ability to read the Constitution. 

Any attempt to abridge our common school education will 
fail ; the tendency now is to enlarge it. The right to reading, 
writing, and arithmetic having been conceded, it was natural that 
the victorious democracy should expand its claim, and insist that 
the principle covered every kind of education ; and that every kind 
of education was included in the rights of every child growing up 
to usefulness in a society based on the doctrine of equal rights for 
all. Men will make inequalities for themselves, but children have 
no power to fix their own state, and for that reason a democracy 
must require that all the children shall have equal rights and equal 
chances in all the schools of learning. A democracy that will not 
insist upon that is a comiciil imposture. It is a Bourbon king 
wearing the cap of liberty. 

In that splendid catalogue of accomplishments which is called 
scholastic education, where shall the line be drawn between those 
branches of learning which ought to be paid for by the community, 
and those which must be paid for by the parents of the child ? I 
answer. Nowhere ! It must not be drawn at all, 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE BOSTON SOCIETY FOR ETHICAL CULTURE. 

To Ike Ediloi- of The Open Court : 

As YOU will observe, our Society was founded in '81 and in- 
dependently of Mr. Adler's. Sometimes, I am sorry that we 
changed our earliest title, though the present is so attractive, and 



3174 



THE OPEN COURT. 



truly expressive of our work. We are often misconstrued to be 
the offspring of Mr. Adler's genius. 

Some day, the title will appear the general property that it 
ought to be. 

Your article of the i8th inst. (in The Open Court) seems unjust 
to our own Society, which, for eleven years has sought a reliable 
basis for its ethical instructions. 

Our young people are taught that definitions mean much, that 
they do much towards clarifying thought which precedes word 
and act. 

So soon as pupils enter the third, or advanced grade, of our 
school, they are told that "ethics is the science of human con- 
duct " ; and forthwith their efforts are to build a scientific formula 
of right and wrong, discussing first the origin of these terms, and 
their bearing upon life. We believe that the common ground to 
which science conducts all, will thus grow, and gradually be rec- 
ognised. 

We teach this class that " right," "good," and "just," as ap- 
plied to conduct, mean neither the isolated selfishness of Hobbes, 
nor the equally isolated unselfishness of the historian and phil- 
osopher, Hildreth ; but, rather, that cotnbined egoism and allniism, 
which is promotive of general welfare. 

I am surprised to see the quotation from Mr. Adler in regard 
to " philosophical sectarianism." One of his disciples, years ago, 
led me to believe, that, in his estimate, only a Kantian should ac- 
cept the position of leader, on the ethical platform, ll^e make it 
fund-nmental that the "credo" of every member, leader or not, 
should be open to change, and thus, through possible growth, posit 
more and more towards the universal creed. 

Yours, most sincerely, 

Mrs. Clara M. Bisbee. 

[There are several societies for ethical culture which have 
nothing but the name in common with Professor Adler's and are 
quite different in spirit. The late Prof. Wm. D, Gunning was the 
speaker of an ethical society in the far West ; the Rev. Wm. G. 
Babcock and Mrs. Clara M. Bisbee are the speakers of an ethical 
society in Boston. The Brooklyn Ethical Society whose President 
is Dr Lewis G.Janes and where Mr.Wakeman waged his war con- 
cerning Monism, Agnosticism, and Spookism is again quite distinct 
from Professor Adler's as well as the other Ethical Societies. — Ed.] 



FURTHER RELIQUES OF CONSTANCE NADEN. 

To the Editor of The Open Court: 

Audi alteram partem. 

Permit me, at your convenience, a very brief review of the 
generally able and suggestive critique of the above volume by fl. in 
The Open Court of February ii, page 3142. The point to which I 
chiefly desire to attract the attention of your readers is the sen- 
tence ; "This is a truth we can receive, but to argue from the 
identity of the cosmos to the identification of the cosmos with the 
ego, as Miss Naden does in her criticism of Professor Green's 
transcendental psychology, appears to us unreasonable." Now, as 
her literary executor, and familiar with her most esoteric convic- 
tions, let me be allowed very shortly to traverse this critical judg- 
ment. Miss Naden's position is to foreclose all metaphysics and 
psychology, which latter is only the former under a new name, by 
physics and physiology. Indeed psychology and biology are syno- 
nyms, as the Greek terms Psyche and Bios — both connoting the 
Latin vita — are solidaire. As I have shown on many former oc- 
casions, one strong argument — apart from the more strictly scien- 
tific thesis against Dualism and Animism in any shape or form, — is 
that no words have been ever coined to express the latter. Spirit 
is but Breath and generally, as in Hamlet, all percepts and a fortiori 
concepts, are at once bodily and bodiless creations of the Brain. 
If, and surely we must concede that it is so. Thought or Mind be 



the natural function of an anatomical (somatological) organism, its 
vicarious exercise is quite unthinkable— a postulate which, of itself 
alone, eliminates altogether the separate idea of the object, not as 
being "annihilated," but only as absorbed in, and annexed to, the 
subject self. Hylo-Idealism, or Neo-Materialism, as I have often 
said, is only the positive of Kant's negation of Thing in itself— the 
only alternative to which is Thing in myself. Or in other words 
all Perception, and Conception must follow suit, is only Appercep- 
tion (Self-Perception). So that all thought, including all empirical 
research, little as specialists reck of the rede, can be only an Au- 
topsy or Self-inspection. — Q. E. D. 

The outside world must be therefore only the outer or dis- 
tal project of all-and-self-sufficing-egoity — a position physically 
proved by Wohler's identification of the organic and inorganic from 
his artificial manufacture of Urea more than sixty years ago. And 
also by the morphology of ocular vision which shows that the cones 
and rods of the retina are directed backwards and inwards, not to- 
wards the "outer'' light, which latter " offspring of Heaven, First 
born of the Eternal Co-Eternal beam," can have no claim to be 
called so till called into being by the retina and brain themselves. 
' ' Thing " is thus seen to be transfigured into ' ' Think " ere enter- 
ing the domain of conscious knowledge. 

R. Lewins, M. D. 

MR. C. S. PEIRCE has resumed his lessons by correspondence in the 
Art of Reasoning, taught in progressive exercises. A special course in logic 
has been prepared for correspondents interested in philosophy. Terms, S30 
for twenty-four lessons. Address: Mr. C. S. Peirce, "Avisbe," Milford, Pa. 

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CONTENTS OF NO. 237. 

MODERN LANDSCAPE PAINTING. Louis J. Block.. 3167 

THE MEANING OF STATE. J. G. Hertwig 3171 

WHAT SHALL THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS TEACH ? A 

Debate of the Sunset Club. M, M. Trumbull 3172 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

The Boston Society for Ethical Culture. Mrs. Clara 
M. Bisbee 3173 

Further Reliques of Constance Naden. R. Lewins. . . 3174 



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No. 238. (Vol. VI.— II.) 



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TIDES OF PROGRESS. 



BY FELTX L. OSW.\LD. 



In a little watering-place of southern Switzerland, 
I once met an old French officer, who entertained his 
comrades with contributions to the military chronicle 
of the first Empire. 

"It is a wonder how your recruits could survive 
that passage of the Alps," said one of his companions ; 
" do you think that any human beings of modern times 
could stand greater hardships? " 

" That depends," said the veteran; "during the 
first Italian campaign we weathered worse fatigues 
and didn't seem to mind it a bit. We all felt like 
moving along with a tide of good luck that made us 
forget petty troubles." — "The whole world, in fact, 
seemed to experience a revival of energy," he added 
in deference to his international audience. "Only 
those who witnessed it can realise the elating influence 
of that time, and a good many hundred years may fail 
to repeat a chance of that sort, but by some coinci- 
dence or other the same quarter of a century appeared 
to produce the ablest men of some twenty-five different 
nations." 

Can that coincidence be explained? Was it an ac- 
cident that made Napoleon the Great a contemporary 
of Goethe, Byron, Volney, Mirabeau, Beethoven, Bent- 
ham, Davy, Jefferson, Schopenhauer, Petofi, Carlyle, 
C.ivier, and Humboldt? The analogies of history have 
confirmed, rather than elucidated the fact that eras of 
memorable reforms were ushered in by meteor show- 
ers of genius ; but it seems a suggestive circumstance 
that such eras generally involve a revolt against some 
abnormal obstacle to the progress of evolution : a phe- 
nomenon which finds its most striking analogue in the 
possibility of changing the current of a stream by the 
sudden removal of an artificial obstruction. The pent- 
up waters surge and rise, and the crest of the dam 
feels the first effect of their more and more irresistible 
pressure. The foundations of the dike at last give way 
en masse, and the moral history of the seventeenth 
century proves, indeed, that the great flood-wave of 
the Napoleonic era revealed its first premonitions of a 
coming change by its effect on the upper strata of so- 
ciety : the doctrines of Danton and Mirabeau were 



foreshadowed by the scepticism of King Frederick, 
the Emperor Joseph, and the Czarina Katherine. The 
top of the dam had yielded by inches, the main body 
yielded with a suddenness that turned the sluggish 
stream into a rushing torrent. 

The outburst of the French revolution, in fact, was 
the consummation of the long prepared revolt against 
the most obstinate obstacle that has ever been opposed 
to the progress of mankind, viz. the alliance of secular 
power with the doctrine of asceticism and renuncia- 
tion. The absolutely inhuman tenets of that doctrine : 
the monstrous monastic ordinances of the Middle Ages 
had already been modified by the insurrection of the 
North-European reformers, and the life-blighting 
gloom of antinaturalism led to a reaction revealed in 
the Italian revival of pleasure-worship, in the libertin- 
ism and licentious literature of the Queen Anne period, 
in the extravaganzas of luxury at the courts of Louis 
Quatorze and Augustus the Strong. 

The doctrines inculcating the incompetency of hu- 
man reason and the duty of passive submission to the 
" powers that be," held their ground longer till they 
were shattered by the upheaval of downtrodden mill- 
ions and the equally Titanic explosions by which secu- 
lar genius proved its ability of shining with a tran- 
scendent splendor of its own. 

In tracing the record of similar phenomena, we 
must go back to the end of the seventh century, and 
the fifty years following the caliphate of Omar the 
First. Then, too, a world-changing reform was ac- 
companied by the appearance of dazzling luminaries 
in every quarter of the intellectual horizon : the fame 
of great warriers, like Musa and Parik was rivalled by 
that of great statesmen and philosophers, historians, 
orators, and poets. The enthusiasm of that period 
led the disciples of the prophet from conquest to con- 
quest and sufficed to lift the noblest of the Semitic 
nations above reach of the far spread deluge of super- 
stition. 

Was that enthusiasm evoked by the precepts of 
the Koran ? We might as well be asked to believe 
that the victors of Jena and Austerlitz were inspired 
by the paragraphs of the Code Napoleon. The promise 
of Paradise may have steeled the arm of numerous 



3176 



THE OPEN COURT. 



true believers, but thousands of half- believers and 
sceptics instinctively realised the significance of a mis- 
sion that turned the scales of fortune against ignorance, 
misery, priestly terrorism, crusades, and autos-da-fe, in 
in favor of Unitarianism, tolerance, science, and pros- 
perity. The rise of Islam was the Protestant revolt of 
the Far East. 

That outbreak, too, had been prepared by centuries 
of obstruction. About three hundred years after the 
beginning of our chronological era, the missionaries of 
Buddhism succeeded in fostering their doctrine upon 
the nations of the eastern Mediterranean, and the 
mania of world- renunciation spread southward and 
westward like a virulent epidemic. Monachism in its 
ugliest forms infested Syria and before long the entire 
north coast of the African continent from Alexandria 
to the western foothills of Mount Atlas. Before the 
middle of the sixth century all the south-eastern prov- 
inces of the Roman Empire were studded with con- 
vents. Begging friars roamed the highways. Anchor- 
ites haunted the caves of the desert and vied in the 
exhibitions of self-tortures a la Simon Stylites. "A 
gaunt, filthy fanatic," says Lecky, "a self- torturing 
wretch without knowledge, without patriotism, with- 
out the instincts of manhood, glorying in self-abasement 
and crazed by the phantoms of his own diseased im- 
agination, had become the ideal of nations that had 
been familiar with the writings of Plato and Cicero." 
The celebration of secular festivals was restricted, and 
at last entirely abolished. The suppression of secular 
science not rarely took the form of murder, as in Alex- 
andria, where a noble female disciple of pagan phil- 
osophy was slain by a gang of rabid fanatics. The 
relics of pagan art were demolished with a rage pro- 
portioned to their beauty. The propagandists of the 
new faith became more and more inclined to supple- 
ment their logic by an appeal to force. Self-abasement 
became the chief standard of merit. 

The worn-out sensualists of southern Europe might 
welcome a doctrine of that sort, but on the borders of 
the Roman Empire its missionaries met with a very 
different reception. The manful tribes of the southern 
Semites were just then emerging into the conscious- 
ness of intellectual life and the first phases of national 
development. The valley of the Atlas Range had re- 
cently been colonised by valiant Germanic immigrants, 
the adventurous vandals and several Suevi hordes, — 
the ancestors of the modern Zouaves. To such neigh- 
bors the constant encroachments of the crusading 
creed must have been a fearful menace. They could 
not help witnessing the life-blighting effects of monas- 
ticism and the more and more ruinous neglect of sci- 
ence and industry; religious persecution began to rear 
its horrid head ; their own borders were haunted by 
the harbingers of the moral epidemic. 



"Woe unto the race of men! I see a cloud ap- 
proaching ! A great darkness is going to overspread 
the face of the world !" cried the son of the prophetess 
Sospitra on awakening from his trance in the temple 
of Serapis. That darkness began to spread over the 
hills of the Semitic border, when the advent of the 
Unitarian prophet ushered in the sunburst of a mirac- 
ulous Goshen. The doctrine of Mohammed, too, had 
its substrata of superstitions, but they differed from 
those of St. Jerome as the fancies of supernaturalism 
differ from the nightmares of antinaturalism. The 
zeal of its followers was undeniable, but that zeal was 
compatible with tolerance, with the love of nature, 
with a liberal encouragement of science and art. In 
less than sixty years that revival of common sense 
triumphed throughout a territory of fifteen hundred 
thousand square miles, and the enthusiasm of its apos- 
tles would have been sufficiently justified by the al- 
most unparalleled prosperity of Moorish Spain — not 
to mention the palace-cities of Moorish Egypt and 
Syria — during the five centuries when priest-ridden 
Europe brooded under the darkest gloom of monastic 
barbarism. 

At the birth of Mohammed just about a thousand 
years had elapsed since the last great tidal wave of 
human progress. The energy of the Roman common- 
wealth in the establishment of its independence during 
the fourth century of -their national existence has per- 
haps never been equalled in the annals of heroism. 
Could those deeds of valor and devotion and the cheer- 
ful enterprise of almost superhuman toils be explained 
by the jealousy of petty rival states ? The pleasure of 
substituting the eagle emblems of Rome for the lion 
emblems of Samnium? Could they be explained by 
the ambition which often gets its only reward in the 
honor of a warrior's funeral ? 

" So much labor for a winding-sheet ?" 

The last purpose of the Herculean toils bequeathed 
from sire to son of long successive generations, was 
revealed by their final outcome and foreshadowed by 
the inspiration of patriot-poets: The long-cherished, 
though often only half conscious hope of deliverance 
from the very evils which reached their climax during 
the storms of the transition period : The horrors of 
continuous warfare. 

War, in that boisterous spring-time period of the 
human race was a curse that could not be exorcised 
by homilies, but only by the dread of rousing the 
wrath of a clearly superlative and inexpugnably estab- 
lished military power. Under the auspices of such a 
power, developed beyond the fear of invasive barbar- 
ians, the arts of peace might hope to flourish for cen- 
turies, and an era of that kind was actually inaugu- 
rated by the establishment of the Pax Romana — the 
three hundred years' calm intervening between the 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3177 



bustle of erecting the citadel of the Roman world- 
empire and the crash of its final collapse. 

It has been said that the sceptre of the Roman 
CjEsars was only a club in disguise, but the fact re- 
mains that under their sway the tributary provinces 
enjoyed a prosperity and an amount of personal free- 
dom unknown under the yoke of their native rulers ; 
and no sophistry of court-chaplains can explain away 
the still more significant fact that during a period 
equal to the long interval between the birth of Luther 
and the death of Napoleon III, the peace of an em- 
pire embracing thirty-five different nations and nearly 
four million square miles was maintained by a stand- 
ing army of eighty thousand men. 



NON-MYSTICAL AGNOSTICISM 

BY ELLIS THURTELL. 

Mr. T. B. W.-iKEiiAN's essay entitled "The Nature 
of the Soul," and inserted in The Open Court of Dec. 
17th, is one with which I feel a good deal of general 
agreement. I should however like to be allowed a few 
paragraphs of protest against certain over sweeping 
condemnations of agnostic world-conceptions con- 
tained therein. 

To start with — the lines translated from Goethe 
saying 

" Into the Infinite wouldst thou stride ? 
Go in the Finite only on every side," 

have my entire assent. But Mr. Wakeman must needs 
spoil perfect satisfaction with the spirit of his citation 
by declaring : "These lines give no quarter to agnos- 
ticism. They are the essence of monistic positivism." 
Now if it turns out that Monistic Positivism has really 
so excellent an essence as this, I for one shall have 
to grapple it to my soul with hooks of steel. But I 
shall by no means feel bound to give up my Agnosti- 
cism in so doing. I say my Agnosticism advisedly. 
For it seems beyond question that there is more than 
a single type of this philosophic faith, and that my 
own can scarcely be called the most orthodox of all. 

That, as Mr. Wakeman declares, "there is no 
"room for an unknowable," I fully believe. And in 
this belief am reluctantly compelled to fall behind (or 
is it to shoot ahead of?) Herbert Spencer, and other 
lesser thinkers for whose opinions I feel much regard. 
For his and their Unknowable is simply my Unknown. 
To say that anything whatever is absolutely and for- 
ever unknowable seems certainly nowadays a some- 
what needless piece of dogmatism. And it is a psy- 
chological conclusion to which the advanced and 
advancing views of a younger generation of Agnostics 
appears to give but scant support. So that when Mr. 
Wakeman speaks of a "ghost-world" which "simply 
"does not exist, except in the imagination of agnostic 
"philosophers," there are many of us — who would 



fain be philosophers, and who consider the term ag- 
nostic as on the whole our most appropriate epithet — 
whose withers will nevertheless remain unwrung. For 
Dr. Fiske, whom our author is especially attacking, I 
of course do not presume to answer. But for myself, 
and I should fancy for some others also, I may express 
a very strong conviction that there does still exist, 
beyond our utmost stretch of working thought, the 
realm of the Unknown. And that in this region dwell 
those problems of " Materialism, Atheism, Agnosti- 
"cism," from which Mr. Wakeman would (apparently 
under the high authority of Professor Haeckel) have 
us "get free " through the easy expedient of smother- 
ing our doubts in' that blessed word Monism. 

I am as far as possible from wishing to cast ridicule 
upon a philosophic theory that, under one form or an- 
other, is probably destined to become the common in- 
tellectual possession of the foremost thinkers in this 
century's last decade. But Monists have yet much to 
make out, and must keep their head. For Monism is 
at present but a tendency, and is far from being a ter- 
minus of thought. One may very well be monistic, 
in the sense of believing in an ultimate tracing of all 
existences and all ideas to a single origin appropriate 
to each, without declaring that this suitable and single 
source has hitherto been found in any but an occa- 
sional and uncomplicated instance. Moreover Ma- 
terialism, whether old or new, is in itself monistic. 
The older forms of it may be discredited by the best 
opinions of the day. But the Neo-Materialism so ably 
set forth by Mr. Edmund Noble (in The Open Court 
for Nov. 26th) has assuredly the promise and potency 
of much strong and continued life. Nor does Monism 
any more get us free from Atheism, which is again es- 
sentially monistic. To say, as the Positive Monists 
do, that God and the world are one ; that God is the 
world, or the world is God may be by them called 
Pantheism or Entheism. But the difference between 
this belief and Atheism is not so obvious after all. It 
may well enough be doubted whether any clearly-de- 
fined difference of either practical or philosophic value 
has ever been conclusively set forth. Whether Athe- 
ism is a true solution or not, it is most certainly a mo- 
nistic one. And monistic again Agnosticism very 
generally is, though not necessarily so. Monism indeed 
can certainly not at present set us free from the ag- 
nostic attitude of thought, this attitude I at least 
hold to be but tentative and transitional to a state of 
greater certitude. But the greater knowledge nec- 
essary to the greater certainty is still withheld, and no 
ignoring of palpable and present limitations will do 
anything to speed our acquisition. We may all be 
monistic with the authority of the best science of our 
time. But we can I think be Monists only with great 
reserve — a reserve frankly recognised by the Agnostic, 



3'78 



THE OPEN COURT. 



but far too boldly or blindly resented by the positivis- 
tic household of belief. 

I cannot therefore at all assent to what is expressed 
in Mr. Wakeman's second quotation from Germany's 
great philosophic poet. To the context I am not able 
to refer. But the citation stands as follows : 

*■ Is it then so great a secret, what God, and Man, and the World may be ? 
No ! But no one is willing to hear it. So a secret it remains." 

Upon this sentiment Mr. Wakeman's comment is : 
"Thus our Agnostic or Unknowable [sic] friends seem 
"unable or unwilling to have this great 'mystery' ex- 
" plained. They keep telling us that if feeling is not 
" a space — motion — force correlate it must be some 
"inscrutable kind of power, entity, or spook. But the 
" monist says : No it is not such at all, but simply 
"the/iZiT/ side of nervous changes, which as facts are 
"being noted hy the organism. Such noting is a fact, 
"and the continued repetition of such noting of facts 
"is a process constantly going on and called aware-_ 
" ness, feeling, consciousness, etc." Well here, though 
not caring much to speak of the Unknowable myself, 
I nevertheless side promptly with those who do so 
speak. And I have no hesitation in emphatically de- 
claring that Mr. Wakeman's so called "Unknowable 
friends " are — unless they are altogether unlike my 
own friends of the same persuasion — just as willing to 
have this or any other mj'stery explained as Mr. Wake- 
man is himself. They are also just as little able to 
give any satisfactory explanation of "what God, and 
man, and the world may be." But they are much more 
able to see their own inability than their Positive Monist 
friends appear to be to see the equal inability that ex- 
ists for them. What feeling may, in its actual essence 
be, is still a very much disputed and disputable point. 
The Agnostic at any rate is in fully as good a position 
as the Positivist to find the solution that science shall 
eventually accept. Nor would any Agnostic with whose 
ideas I am acquainted dream of describing feeling as 
an "entity or spook." Whether or not we gain any- 
thing by calling Feeling "the fact side of nervous 
changes," it is certain that there is nothing about a 
belief in the Unknowable to prevent anyone assenting 
to this proposition, should it seem to him for psycho- 
logical reasons a sound one. It is really high time 
that we should have done with this idea that people 
who agree with us entirely upon the grand principle 
of a perfectly naturalistic (as against a supernatural- 
istic) philosophy, are to be considered precluded from 
employing any of the methods, or attaining any of the 
results appropriate to that philosoph)', merely because 
of some difference of opinion as to how far our cosmic 
theory is capable of carrying us at present. 

With Mr. Wakeman's last quotation from Goethe: 
"There is no wisdom save in truth," I am of course, 
having no theological prepossessions, in entire accord. 



But I cannot see that the truth is served by the casting 
of such aspersions upon a school of severely scientific 
opinions as would be merited only by a body of spirit- 
ualists, theosophists, or theologians. I feel no such 
antagonism to the school of Positive Monists as some 
of the leading writers of that school exhibit to the cir- 
cle of Agnostic Monists. That sort of intellectual 
animus is reserved for the genuine exponents of spook- 
ism, sorcery, and superstition. Of these — Christians 
apart — we have a most menacing and strangely in- 
creasing number still amongst us. These are the true 
traitors to common sense, sound science, and profound 
philosophy. Even ordinary honesty is by some of them 
plainly set aside to suit purposes of popular edifica- 
tion or personal ambition. We Monists, of the posi- 
tivistic and agnostic school alike, shall do well to close 
our ranks more firmly, and to concentrate our fire 
more effectively than we have hitherto done. What 
we now chiefly need is, I believe, a more clearly con- 
ceived distinction between our friends and foes. And 
to this end let Mr. Wakeman and myself both bend 
our powers. 

IS MONISM A TERMINUS OF THOUGHT? 



IN REPLY TO MR. ELLIS THURTELL. 



The agnostic that has surrendered the idea of the 
unknowable is most certainly a verj' welcome confed- 
erate to monists and positivists ; but we were always 
under the impression that the very core of agnosticism 
lies in the doctrine of the unknowable. The name ag- 
nosticism seems to have no sense otherwise, for I do 
not knovv that any thinker would object to what is best 
called the agnosticism of modesty, which prescribes 
that we suspend our judgment until proofs are forth- 
coming. There is accordingly no quarrel with Mr. 
Ellis Thurtell's agnosticism. 

Mr. Thurtell says of monism, that it "is at pres- 
ent but a tendency and far from being a terminus of 
thought." I wish to add a few explanations to this 
sentence, which I should say is true, but must be 
rightly understood. 

Monism is in a certain sense indeed a terminus of 
thought ; yet in another sense it is a tendency, or rather 
a principle applied to scientific investigations. 

Monism, as we understand the term, is a solution 
of certain philosophical questions. It explains certain 
problems concerning which agnostics usually say that 
we can know nothing at all. Such problems are the 
God-idea, the nature of the soul, the connection be- 
tween soul and body, the immortality of the soul and 
others. Monism looks upon all existence as one great 
inseparable whole and does not forget that man's ideas 
are abstract symbols representing certain features of 
reality. They do not, any of them, exist as absolute 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3179 



or separate entities, but as parts or qualities of the One 
and All. 

If anybody pleases, he might call monism a hypo- 
thesis or a tentative theory. We have no objection 
either to calling the Copernican system a hypothesis 
or the Newtonian doctrine of gravitation a tentative 
theory. We might call the law of causation an as- 
sumption and mathematical theorems dogmas which 
ma}- not hold true in other worlds. But we should 
say that these names are at least misleading. Monism 
is more than a tentative theory, it is the basis of cog- 
nition ; it is the condition of all scientific work when 
applied to practical life, it serves as the corner-stone for 
the formulation of our rules of conduct. 

What is knowledge but a description of facts ? what 
is cognition but a systematisation of knowledge in one 
unitary conception free from contradiction and form- 
ulated with consistency? Every science exists only 
by the application of this principle ; every branch of 
science is the attempt to establish monism in a special 
province of nature, every problem is an apparent dual- 
ism, every discovery is always a step forward in rec- 
ognising the unity of facts, the solution of a problem 
is the establishment of a monistic conception. 

Thus monism is a terminus of thought which is 
the solution of a very important problem, the problem 
of method. Monism, however, does not solve all the 
problems, it only solves one fundamental problem, and 
this-solution is made the basis of further scientific pro- 
gress. 

We do not hold our judgment suspended concern 
ing the monistic solution of the philosophical problem, 
but we use the solution, we operate with it, we apply 
it to new problems. 

The monistic solution is thus a terminus of thought 
as much as the Copernican conception of the planetary 
system is a terminus of certain astronomical investiga- 
tions. But neither the one nor the other is a terminus 
of thinking. On the contrary, both represent starting 
points for entirely new departures ; they become lead- 
ing principles for the solution of new problems, and 
monism indeed was the principle of science even before 
the scientists became conscious of it. 

Agnosticism (that agnosticism which believes in 
the unknowable) either suspends judgment concerning 
the God idea or it calls its unknowable itself God. 
Either solution is very unsatisfactor}'. Atheism, start- 
ing from the pupular conception of God as a personal 
being, denies the existence of God. This is also un- 
satisfactory because it does not explain how an abso- 
lute error could be the fundamental ethical idea of 
mankind for ages. Ethical ideas that are wrong can- 
not enjoy a long existence. Perhaps the God-idea is 
no absolute error. There may be some truth in it I 



The God idea is the solution of a certain problem 
which although insufficient held good for certain pur- 
poses. There is a moral order in the world ; there is 
a law which cannot be violated with impunity ; there 
is an authority which with irresistible power enforces 
a certain kind of conduct. This moral order, this law, 
this power or authority is that something in the world 
through which and in which we live such as we are — 
thinking, aspiring, and constantly progressing beings. 
This something exists and we call it God. 

God has been conceived as a person, and this con- 
ception of God is the best allegory by which man on a 
certain stage of scientific maturity or rather immatur- 
ity can form an approximate idea of God. The allegory 
is wrong, but the idea is right. To say that God is no 
person is not atheism. 

Atheism says there is no God, for man was not 
shaped bj' a huge person but is the product of evolu- 
tion. Very well, these conditions that shaped man 
are not a chaotic play of forces, but a certain and con- 
sistent order. The materialist sees in a stellar nebula 
only a heap of gaseous matter in an irregular turmoil 
of raging whirls. But there is something more in it 
which he cannot see. How grand this cosmic exist- 
ence is of which we are a part, how spiritual it is in 
its nature, how orderly in its relations and arrange- 
ments, can be seen in the highest efflorescence of 
the world which we know — in man, his intelligence, 
his civilisation, his ideals. 

The problem is not (as Atheism puts it). Is there a 
God at all ? but What is God ?. And denying the per- 
sonality of God is not yet a solution of the problem. 

The problem. What God and man and the world 
may be, is not a mere theoretical problem, for our ac- 
tions are expressions (albeit unconscious expressions) 
of a certain solution of this problem. It has to be 
solved again by every generation, and let us hope that 
the solution of every new generation will be an improved 
edition of the solution of former generations. The 
personal God idea is a solution which we no longer 
accept. But, after all, it is truer than the atheistic so- 
lution ; for the personal God-idea is a mythological 
conception of a great truth. There are very astute 
and keen thinkers among atheists ; nevertheless athe- 
ism is superficial : it disposes too quickly of a problem 
which is deeper than it seems. 

Most philosophical systems come with great pre- 
tensions as a final solution of all problems, which im- 
plies that they form a terminus of thinking. Monism 
is different : it solves the problem of method ; or rather 
it renders it clear, for it has been applied in science 
unconsciously since times immemorial, and thus it 
will be of help for further investigations. Negative 
solutions of denying an error or keeping judgment sus- 
pended, or assuming an attitude of reserve, are only 



3i8o 



THE OPEN COURT. 



partial solutions. Doubt is better than going astray 
and reserve is better than making mistakes ; but doubt 
and reserve are demands to arrive at a positive solu- 
tion. The test of truth is always the practical appli- 
cability of an idea. So far as an idea can be used in 
real life, so far as it works in the right way with the 
desired results, that far it is true. Thus a mytholog- 
ical idea may be true. We may know that the my- 
thology of the idea is a mere and an erroneous anal- 
ogy, we may at the same time be unable to express it 
better, yet it would be a mistake to say that the idea 
is wrong. This is not only true of religious ideas but 
also of scientific ideas. The terms electric current, 
atoms, ether-waves, etc., are mythological expressions, 
but we have no better means of describing certain facts 
than by such terms, and although they are insufficient 
because mythological, they are (so far as they go) true. 
We use them for practical purposes, and we know 
that we can rely on them. The mythology of the 
terms is an artifice to represent truth, but the truth 
contained in this mythology is no mere hypothesis, no 
mere tentative conception of things, but it is a de- 
scription of facts that can be employed when we have 
to deal with facts ; and that is after all the purpose of 
all knowledge. v- c. 



CURRENT TOPICS. 



Once upon a time, when a boy, I visited some of my rela- 
tives, and on a certain evening by riotous romping in the house 
with two or three cousins, I gave serious annoyance to my aunt, 
who was busily cooking supper while my uncle sat in the chimney 
corner serenely smoking his pipe. Having tried in vain to keep 
us quiet, she at last appealed to my uncle for protection, and 
wanted to know whether he was going to " attend to them boys" ; 
and whether he was going to let them "ride rough shod" over 
her; I quote the dear old lady's very words ; to all of which he 
calmly answered, "They ain't a meddlin' wi' me." This indolent 
reply will serve as a motto for the American citizen, in his indi- 
vidual character, so careless has he become about the injustice 
that others have to bear. So long as he can hear his national clock 
ticking with mechanical regularity he cares very little whether it 
is truthfully telling the time or not. So long as he enjoys a re- 
publican/or/// of government, he is willing to let the substance go. 
Only when a political wrong falls heavily upon himself does he 
invoke the spirit of the Constitution. He sympathises with the 
subjects of Russian despotism, but for the victims of American 
misrule he cares nothing. He knows that the Constitution ordains 
that freedom of the press must be respected as part of the organic 
law, but when the ministers of government suppress that freedom 
where he himself is not concerned, he calmly smokes his pipe, and 
says, " They ain't a meddlin' wi' me." 



There is published in the city of New York a journal called 
TAe Voice, an influential organ of the Prohibition party. In a 
country blessed with " two great parties," one Republican, and the 
other Democratic, there is evidently no need for a third, and the 
Prohibition party, or any other party intruding into American pol- 
itics must be regarded as a trespasser, infringing on the patent 
right of exclusive ballot-boxing ; a right which the two great par- 



ties claim to own in common. Where there is no use for a prohi- 
bition party there cannot be any need for a prohibition paper, and 
therefore certain postmasters, with a public spirited zeal to protect 
the vested rights of the two old parties, refuse to recognise T/ic 
Voice as legitimate mail matter, and they decline to deliver it. Up 
to date, no less than twenty-seven postmasters have refused to de- 
liver The Voice, and there are several states to hear from yet. 
Eager to perform their duty according to party ethics, and anxious 
that the people should receive only proper politics through the 
mail, those postmasters have written to the editor of T/ie Voice 
telling him not to send any more of his papers because ' ' they are 
not taken out," which indeed was true, for the sufficient reason 
that they were not "given out " by the postmasters, as appears by 
more than a hundred letters received from subscribers and others 
to whom the paper had been sent. All this reminds us of the dear 
departed good old slavery times, when the two great parties were 
Democratic and Whig, and when the intrusion of the Republican 
party into politics was rebuked in that very same way, as the his- 
tory of the A'ew York Trilnme will clearly show. When Horace 
Greely complained to the Postmaster General that certain post- 
masters refused to deliver the Tribune to subscribers, the answer 
was that it served the Trihune right, and that the conduct of the 
postmasters was praiseworthy and patriotic. We know what came 
of all that, and what a ragged appearance that Postmaster General 
makes in history. Now the republican postmasters apply the same 
discipline to Tlie Voice: and republican papers complacently re- 
mark, " they ain't a meddlin' wi' me." Mr. Wannamaker himself 
must be held guiltless of this wrong until he has had an oppor- 
tunity to correct it, but no longer than that. No doubt Tlie Voice 
is a very aggravating paper, especially to the two great parties, but 
the suppression of it by the "Department " at any post office is a 
despotic assault upon the rights of every newspaper and every 
magazine published in the, United States. 



There is something hopeful and stimulating in the prospect of 
plenty of money, and I feel as grateful to the St Louis convention 
for the promise of it, as I do to my bankrupt friend, who, not hav- 
ing five cents in all the world, leaves me ten thousand dollars in 
his will. He shows at least his love. So the Third Party Con- 
ference, with the same powerless generosity, would give to every 
man of us ten thousand dollars a piece if it could. For a beginning 
it will be satisfied with fifty dollars a head as a circulating medium, 
to be issued by the government in a currency " safe, sound, and 
flexible," and to be loaned at a rate of interest not to exceed two 
per cent, per annum, " as set forth in the Sub Treasury plan of 
the Farmers Alliance or some heller syslein." There is a suspicious 
look in that alternative, as if the leaders of the People's Party, 
were about to betray the Sub Treasury plan, and substitute for it 
"some better system." What better system can there be than 
making unlimited money and loaning it to the people at two per 
cent, a year ? Pleasing as the prospect is, I feel discouraged by 
the contradiction of the policy by one of its ablest advocates, as I 
find it in The Arena. Describing the " plenty of money " paradise, 
and the financial good time coming, he says, "When money is so 
plenty that the farmer or planter who has need of $50, or a $100, 
can obtain it for thirty or sixty days of a neighbor, as easily as he 
can borrow that neighbor's wagon ; then there will be plenty of 
money in the country and not before." I fear that the logic of the 
."Mliance is no better than its money ; for if that argument proves 
anything, it proves that there is not plenty of money in the coun- 
try, when farmers and planters are ground down to the necessity 
of borrowing from neighbors $50, or $100, for thirty or sixty days. 
Why not borrow it of the government, the creator of money out 
of nothing, rather than of a neighbor who must earn every dollar 
he gets ? 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3181 



I 



In the iVe'iU Review for February is an article by Tom Mann 
and Ben Tillett on "The Labor Platform," that social and po 
litical structure which is again undergoing alterations and repairs 
The architects who have presented in the iVew ReTi,-,,' their plans 
and specifications for an improved labor platform are the popular 
firm of Tillett and Mann, platform builders and cabinet makers, 
and they will put in as low a bid as any other firm for the job of 
building it. Messrs. Tillett and Mann are a couple of statesmen 
with much practical sense and some theoretical nonsense in their 
scheme of social change. By force of mental and moral ability 
they have become the teachers and leaders of many men ; but un- 
fortunately they have been in the reprehensible habit of earning 
their daily bread by daily labor, and therefore society cannot pat- 
ronise them with any higher titles than the nicknames "Tom" 
and "Ben." After they enter parliament, and the cabinet, which 
by the way will be a fine improvement, they will get revenge for 
"the proud man's contumely " when he doffs his plume to "The 
Right Hon. Thomas, and The Right Hon, Benjamin." Perhaps, 
however, Messrs. Tillett and Mann affect those very sociable 
nicknames, as our own aspiring politicians do, to captivate the 
crowd by a show of equal 'umbleness and a public invitation to 
friendship and familiarity. In that case I should withdraw the 
praise I have sincerely given them, and class them no higher than 
I do the Honorable Toms, Dicks, Harrys, and Micks, who so pro- 
fusely ornament American public life. 
* * 

One of the easiest and most pleasant of the mental exercises 
that I enjoy is the luxury of calling every man a crank whose 
theories and arguments I have not sense enough to understand. 
I shall not do so now, although Mr. Mann offers me some very 
strong temptation when he says. "We demand that the slums be 
cleared out, that healthy dwellings be constructed at reasonable 
rents, that town life be made tolerable, even comfortable, and we 
demand that pover/y be banished." In that part of the "demand" 
which Mr. Mann has placed in italics every man can join, because 
it includes all the rest of his claim, and it is an absolute and final 
solution of the social problem. When poverty is banished there 
will be no slums ; and town life, and country life too, will be not 
only comfortable, but happy. We may demand that poverty be 
banished, and we may ' ' call spirits from the vasty deep " ; but who 
is to abolish poverty, and how shall the work be done ? The edi- 
tor of a social reform paper was one day carrying his "form" to a 
job office to be printed, when he was met by a friend, who said, 
"Joe, why don't you buy a power press ?" " Yes," he answered, 
"and why don't I buy the Palmer House, and the Auditorium ?" 
Men large of heart and brain, impatient of injustice, and seeking 
like Archimedes for a fulcrum by which to lift the world, look to 
beneficent conclusions, and passionately demand that they be es- 
tablished at once by some revolutionary miracle. But the mills 
of the Gods grind slowly, and the banishment of poverty is a work 
of painful detail, comprising hundreds of specific improvements in 
our own individual characters, in our social customs, and in our 
public laws. Mr. Mann is in the debatable domain of statesman- 
ship with social ethics for his guide when he demands "the aboli- 
tion of systematic overtime, the fixing of a forty-eight hour max- 
imum working week, the abolition of the half time system for 
children under thirteen years of age, and the withdrawal of wives 
from mills and workshops." Here he is definite, and we can all 
confer with him as to the wisdom of his plans and the best means 
of securing their adoption ; but he steps into the mist again when 
he demands that there shall be "some kind of communal respon- 
sibility recognised, making provision for those who are dislodged 
from their ordinary occupations by changes of fashion, of seasons, 
or methods of manufacture. Borrowing the jargon of the law- 
yers, who is to "fix " the measure of damages " here ? And how is 
the community to be made responsible for a change of seasons ? 



I desire to notice for a moment one part of Mr. Tillett's argu- 
ment, because the ends he aims at are like those of Mr. Mann, 
ideally good, although I think bis reasons are occasionally un- 
sound. In a summary of the points that he has made, he advo- 
cates the "abolition of all poverty by a scientific appreciation of 
natural and economic laws ; assuming each human being's real 
worth to consist of capacity to consume as well as to produce. If 
the wages of ten thousand are no more than adequate to maintain 
in comfort one thousand, it necessarily follows that trade is im- 
poverished in an ever narrowing circle." The logical connection 
between those two propositions is not very clear, but I only wish 
to notice "the capacity to consume" doctrine, which, although it 
has long been cherished by the working men of England is, I be- 
lieve, unsound in social, domestic, and political economy. It 
stands as the antithesis of "the capacity to save" doctrine, and it 
converts waste and extravagance into virtues. For ages, English 
working men have held it mean to save their wages instead of 
spending it because extravagance is " good for trade"; and so is 
loss by fire and by flood. The capacity to consume, and the greed 
for its gratification is one fruitful cause of the injustice that op- 
presses the working men to-day. One day when Sam Weller and 
his father were enjoying themselves over a " pot o' beer," Sam 
took a ravenous long pull at the mug, and his father looking into 
it and observing the enormous cavity that Sam had made, re- 
marked with reprt achful sarcasm, "You've a werry good power 
of suction, Sammy ; you would have made a good oyster, if you 
had been born in that station of life." Here Sam's healthy "ca- 
pacity to consume" was all very well, but in the gratification of it 
he deprived his father of a fair proportion of the beer. And this 
principle carried as it is into all the relations of human life, de- 
prives millions of their legitimate social share. The "capacity to 
consume" creates more poverty than it cures. 

M. M. Trumbull. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



Cheap-Money Experiments in Past and Present Times. New 
York: The Century Company. 1892. Price 10 cents. 

This pamphlet is a compilation from " Topics of the Time " 
in The Cetitiiry Magazine from March i8gi, to January 1892. It 
contains much more than ten cents worth of instruction ; and 
warning examples worth millions of dollars. The argument of it 
has been anticipated in T]ie Open Court, especially in the " Wheel- 
barrow " papers and the discussions growing out of them. We are 
glad to see it in this pamphlet form, because having upon it the 
image and superscription of Tlie Century Magazine, it ought to have 
a circulation of many many thousands, as it very likely will. The 
pity of it is that the men who need its lessons most will read it least, 
the mechanics and laborers who want their wages paid in cheap 
money, and the farmers who want to be paid in cheap money for 
their corn. The "awful examples" of the cheap money mistake 
presented in the book are The English Land Bank, The Rhode 
Island Paper Bank, The John Law Bubble, The Argentine Cheap- 
Money Paradise, The Michigan Wild Cat Banks, and some others. 
These would be amply sufficient warning if the question were one 
of economics only. Unfortunately, ambitious men use the "cheap 
money " theory for their own political advantage, while thousands 
of others think they see in it a method by which they may scale 
their debts. The subject must be discussed from the ethical side. 

The author of this pamphlet says, "The harmful delusion 
that the Government has the power to create money is traceable 
directly to the Legal Tender Act of 1862." Perhaps so, in its more 
direct and immediate influence upon the American people, but the 
virus of it was in our monetary legislation long before that. It 
was put there when the government first usurped the power to de- 



3i82 



THE OPEN COURT. 



clare anything whatever a Legal Tender in payment of debts. The 
"fiat" that makes gold coins a legal tender in payment of debts is 
just as potential in the case of silver, brass, leather, or paper coins ; 
the difference is only in the extent and degree of the mischief done 
by the " fiat." The truth is that Legal Tender acts are all morally 
void. A debt cannot be paid until the moral obligation contained 
in it is cancelled, and no government can cancel that. It appears 
by the papers that a recent explorer has discovered that the source 
of the Mississippi river is not in Lake Itasca, as we have long sup- 
posed, but in a fountain farther back. So, the author of this 
pamphlet will discover that the source of this "harmful delusion" 
lies in legal tender legislation farther back than the Legal Tender 
Act of 1862. The greatest statesman that this world has ever pro- 
duced was the ruler who invented indirect taxation, and persuaded 
the people who could not see the amount they paid, that the taxa- 
tion itself was the source of their prosperity. The next greatest 
was the man who invented the scheme of "Legal Tender," and 
nicknamed coins so that the people might be deceived as to their 
weight, quality, and value ; calling them shillings, dollars, florins, 
and other abstract names instead of ounces, half-ounces, quarter- 
ounces, and other concrete words expressive of the actual quan- 
tity of metal they contain. . M M. T. 



NOTES. 

Baronin Bertha von Suttner is an author of uncommon re- 
pute. She wrote a powerful novel under the title." Die waffen 
nieder ! " in which she preached peace upon earth and good will 
among men. We are now in receipt of a new monthly published 
and edited by Bertha von Suttner which bears the same signifi- 
cant title as her novel. (Price 6 marks per year. Berlin, W. 
Potsdamer St., 27.) It is designed to be an organ for the aspira- 
tions of those who endeavor to supplant war by decisions of inter- 
national tribunals. Bertha von Suttner had received when at- 
tending the last Congress of Peace, at Rome, many exhortations 
from prominent men among whom she mentions E. Haeckel, F. 
Spielhagen, E. de Laveleye, Fr. Bodenstedt, L. Fulda, the Duke 
of Oldenburg, Prince Stahremberg, B. Carneri, P. K. Rosegger, 
L. Biichner, H. Heiberg, and Count L. Tolstoi. In the first num- 
ber of the new periodical she publishes several additional letters 
from Max Nordau, Lieut. Col. M. v. Egidy, Charles Lemonier, 
Frederic Passy, and Dr. M. G. Conrad. The more threatening a 
constant danger of war hangs over Europe, which may be brought 
about as the last war between France and Germany for frivolous 
reasons, the more the nations yearn for peace ; and it is right that 
they should not submit to being rushed into war for mere party con- 
siderations of a government that uses such means to remain in 
power. One of the contributors says; "Struggle is necessary, 
struggle is beautiful, struggle is human, struggle is a natural law, 
the strong, the healthy must be victorious, — but war is not struggle, 
war is horrible murder ! " Dr. Knauer, of Vienna, gives a short 
expos^ of Kant's propositions how to attain a perpetual peace 
among the nations. It is no mere fancy, says Kant (kein leeres 
Hirngespinst). "The eternal norm as the basis of a state constitu- 
tion abolishes war among its members. A society organised in 
this way is its representation according to laws of liberty, practi- 
cally given in experience ; yet it can only be acquired with diffi- 
culty after various struggles and wars; but its constitution, if once 
accomplished, is best qualified to keep off war the destroyer of all 
good things." 

Dii- IFaff'i-ii iiit'i/dr ! is so far as we are informed the only Ger- 
man periodical of its kind. Similar periodicals are Concord, a jour- 
nal of the international arbitration and peace association, London 
(40 Outer Temple, Strand), L'amico de/ la pace, published at Milano, 
Alinanach dc la Paix, published by Plon-Nourrit & Co.. Paris 



MR. C. S. PEIRCE lias resumed tiis lessons by correspondence in the 
Arl of Reasoning, taught in progressive exercises. A special course in logic 
has been prepared for correspondents interested in philosophy. Terms, S30 
for twenty-four lessons. Address: Mr. C. S. Peirce, "Avisbe," Milford, Pa. 

THE MONIST. 

A QUARTERLY MAGAZINE. 



PHILOSOPHY, SCIENCE, RELIGION, AND SOCIOLOGY. 



NTENT 



VOL. 



3 (A 



i«92): 



The Doctrine of Necessity Examined. By CHARLES S. PEIRCE. 
Psychical Monism. By DR. EDMUND MONTGOMERY. 

The Conservation of Spirit and the Origin of Consciousness. By F. C 

RUSSELL. 
On Criminal Suggestion. By J. DELBCEUF. 

1} France— LUCIEN ARREAT. 

2) Germany— CHRISTIAN UFER. * 

Criticisms and Discussions. 
Book Reviews. 
Periodicals. 

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THE OPEN COURT. 



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CONTENTS OF NO. 238. 

TIDES OF PROGRESS. Fklix L. Cswald 3175 

NON-MYSTICAL AGNOSTICISM. Ellis Thurtell. .. . 3177 
IS MONISM A TERMINUS OF THOUGHT ? In Reply 

to Mr. Ellis Thurtell. Editor 317S 

CURRENT TOPICS. Suppression of rZ/f To/f,'. Plenty of 

Money. Tom Mann and Ben Tillette. Labor Platform. 

The Capacity to Consume. M. M. Trumbull 3180 

BOOK REVIEWS : 3181 

NOTES 3182 



u,M?5^ 



The Open Court. 



A. WEEKLY JOURNAL 



Devoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion with Science. 



No. 239. (Vol. VI— 12. 



CHICAGO, MARCH 24, 1892. 



Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



THE RELATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL TO THE COM- 
MUNITY * 

BY WILHELM WUNDT. 

While I request your most thoughtful attention to 
a brief consideration of the relation of the individual 
to the community, I desire above all to emphasise the 
fact that it is not the juridical nor even the legal phil- 
osophical aspect of this problem, that I purpose to dis- 
cuss, however much the)' may crowd into the foreground 
at the mention of the theme. It is rather another 
point of view, heretofore little observed, that has led 
me to this question and for which I should like to 
claim your attention. This is the psychological point 
of view. In fact, the question, how the individual is 
related to the life-communities that surround him, to 
the nation, to the state to which he belongs, is cer- 
tainly, perhaps I could say in the first degree, a psy- 
chological question. For if it is the spiritual nature 
of man, upon which his being and the character of his 
existence chiefly depend, then that science which has 
this spiritual nature as its object, must also give ac- 
count, first of all, concerning the nature of the rela- 
tions, which, in all forms of human association unite 
men with men. Does that nation, which, united by the 
same language, customs, and views of life, looks back to 
a common history and calls intellectual products of im- 
perishable value its own, consist of nothing but the mul- 
titude of individuals who belong to it? Or is there some- 
thing else added, which first makes possible the qualities 
of this community, a spiritual collective power which 
cannot be conceived of merely as a sum of particular 
effects ? And is the state, in which such a national 
community is compacted into a firmly united organ- 
isation, nothing but a multiplication of the same com- 
binations, as individuals arbitrarily enter into with 
each other, at pleasure, for passing purposes ? Or is 
it also a unitary, collective being, no less independent 
and sui generis than the individual organism ? 

It is a spectacle which the history of science fur- 
nishes frequently enough, that problems which we 
count most difficult in view of the opposition of opin- 
ions which exist concerning them, appeared capable 

* This is the substance of a lecture delivered as an oration by Professor 
Wundt on the birthday festival of the King of Saxony. The oration was pub- 
lished in the Deutsche Rundschau. 



of easy solution at a remote period which furnished 
them with more simple explanations but also under 
more simple conditions. More rarely it may happen 
that we again to-day, after long circuitous courses, pre- 
fer such early discovered solutions to the multitude of 
painfully conceived theories that have since asserted 
sovereignty, and we prefer them perhaps just because 
an investigation begun under more simple hypotheses 
might more easily succeed in comprehending the es- 
sence of the thing with hasty glance, since the eyes 
of those coming later are blurred by the plentitude of 
circumstances that have since come to light, or also 
by accepted opinions. 

The problem that lies before us, belongs as I be- 
lieve to those of such a character. That the nature 
of human association can be understood only upon the 
basis of a comprehensive insight into the spiritual na- 
ture of the individual man, and that the qualities of the 
individual presuppose, none the less, the community 
as its necessary condition, has scarcely ever since been 
expressed so excellently and clearly as by that thinker 
who presented the collected world and life-views of 
antiquity in a complete system that observes all just 
claims proportionately, — I mean Aristotle. It is not 
to his logic and metaphysics, which in spite of the 
long sovereignty which they have asserted, are for us 
long since antiquated, that I would like to give prefer- 
ence, but to two other writings of this philosopher, 
because the fundamental thoughts by which they are 
sustained, even to-day, possess for us, with certain 
limitations, a living significance. These are the little 
treatise concerning the soul, and the most mature work 
of his age, " Politics." The two belong together ; for 
only the two united give a perfect idea of how the 
man, who was a teacher of Alexander the Great in 
philosophy as well as statecraft, conceived of the na- 
ture of the individual and of the community. 

I. THE STATE OF NATURAL GROWTH AND MAN A 
POLITICAL BEING. 

To be sure, in almost every phase, the disclosures 
of the Aristotelian psychology can no longer be our 
standard. To desire its restoration would be no less an 
anachronism, than if one were to attempt to transplant 



3i84 



THE OPEN COURT. 



the physical doctrines of Aristotle into the physics of 
to-day. But when he points to the indivisible con- 
nection of all psychical activities, to the evolution of 
the higher from the lower, according to law, to the 
inner union of the psychical life with other life pro- 
cesses, and above all when he beholds the true spirit- 
ual essence of man in the spiritual activities them- 
selves, not in some sort of transcendental substance, 
in which the psychical phenomena flit by simply as 
perishable shadows, foreign to the true essence of 
spirit, — these are views, to which, again, to-day psy- 
chology returns after long wandering about upon the 
uncertain sea of changing metaphysical opinions. 

Most of the political doctrines of this philosopher, 
indeed, are likewise unfit for restoration. Not merely 
is what he says concerning the participation of the clas- 
ses in government, concerning the relation of the citizen 
to the non citizen and stranger, and of the freeman to 
the slave, repugnant to our present feeling of right 
and humanity, but also the narrow compass of the an- 
cient state, the total lack of those manifold interac- 
tions and voluntary combinations of individuals, which 
we in the notion of "society" contrast with the po- 
litical community, make his discussions inapplicable 
for us. Nevertheless his fundamental view of the state 
might even to-day appear to very many superior to 
all the artificial hypotheses that have since obtained. 
Above all, the thought that it is not permissible, to 
derive political existence from any past condition in 
which the individual has lived apart from any asso- 
ciation with his like ; the thought also, that man from 
the beginning was a "political being," as well as the 
other thought that the state does not exist merely for 
the sake of the possession and security of its citizens, 
but that it is besides an end in itself, destined to pro- 
duce good and beautiful results, — these fundamental 
thoughts of the Aristotelian politics, will have now 
more prospect of acquiescence than heretofore, since 
the knowledge gradually begins to prevail that egoistic 
ultilitarian considerations, are a much too insecure 
basis upon which to found the noblest impulses of the 
human soul. 

The ways, indeed, are long and strangely entangled, 
that have to-day led us back to views akin to those which 
an impartial thinker, independently surveying human 
affairs, expressed more than two thousand years ago. 
When the civilisation of antiquity became antiquated 
and the gospel of the redemption of disconsolate hu- 
manity had placed before our eyes an ideal that pre- 
sented the strongest contrast to the ideal of life- enjoy- 
ing Greece, that antithesis had also to find expression 
in views regarding being and the value of the individ- 
ual existence and the life-associations to which the in- 
dividual belongs. The Christian view of the world, 
which esteemed the sensuous life merely as a prepara- 



tion for the true life, the supersensuous, was here con- 
soled incomparably more than by the Aristotelian doc- 
trines or that Platonic conception, which considered 
the union of spirit with body as an evil, as an impris- 
onment of the soul, from which the latter looked back 
with longing to the unsullied purity of its previous in- 
corporeal existence. Even, later, when Aristotle had 
become the unquestioned leader of mediaeval science, 
people accommodated themselves to his doctrine of 
the nature of the soul only under reservations that 
limited the union of the lower psychical powers with 
the bodily organs to the earthly life. Among life com- 
munities, however, only one in the eyes of the me- 
diaeval church had permanent value ; the community 
of believers, who without regard for political limits 
realise the Divine state, a representation of the heav- 
enly kingdom upon earth. This one community alone, 
is of Divine, supernatural origin. All secular states 
arose in the natural way. They are founded for per- 
ishable purposes, by compacts, which like all secular 
compacts can be dissolved when those purposes are 
on the point of subversion. The ideal life, however, 
is life separate from state organisation. Therefore 
man in Paradise, before the fall, lived separate from 
state organisation, just as the future life, which will no 
longer need the laws and legal ordinances of this world, 
will be unconnected with state organisation. World 
revolutionising deve-lopments can only be perfected in 
violent oppositions. When Christianity overcame the 
one-sided idea of happiness of ancient ethics, when it 
overcame the limited political conceptions of the civic 
institutions of antiquity, finally, when it assured to 
the individual personality as such, without regard to 
race and class distinction, its claim to moral esteem, 
it succeeded only by rendering everything that seemed 
good and valuable to the Greeks, as worthless when 
compared to the higher goods,. which it taught men 
to know. But it has, visibly to all eyes, come to light, 
that the negation of real life to which Christian phi- 
losophy was thus continually impelled, gradually had 
to destroy itself, that, thought out with consistency, it 
led necessarily to the opposite of that which it strove 
after. This appeared not merely in the secularisation 
of the medisEval church, to which it was doomed as if 
by fate, but is to be traced also in many other phe- 
nomena, which as they belong to the more obscure 
development of scientific views, are more wont to es- 
cape observation. To these phenomena, belongs also, 
as I believe, the remarkable fact that the weapons 
forged by ecclesiastical philosophy for the protection 
of its transcendental system, when turned against this 
system in the following age, transformed themselves 
into the most effective instruments for a perfectly sec- 
ular, natural view of life. 

When, in the sixteenth and seventeenth century. 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3185 



the newly prevailing impulse for investigation abol- 
ished, in all domains, the remnants of mediaeval scho- 
lasticism, when there no longer remained one stone 
upon another of the building of Aristotelian Physics 
and Metaphysics, then those two essentials of the 
ecclesiastical philosophical doctrinal edifice, which re- 
late to the anthropological and the sociological problem, 
preserved themselves intact, according to their essen- 
tial fundamental concepts, in the new era. While 
mediaeval metaphysics had regarded the union of spirit 
with body, in the sense of the relation of all earthly 
things to the supersensuous world, as a transitory im- 
prisonment, from which it was the hope of the suffer- 
ing soul to be released, this same conception of Aris- 
totle's became a welcome tool for the worldly minded 
philosophy of the following centuries, to implant an- 
thropological concepts in that mechanical view of 
the world, which obtained sovereignty under the in- 
fluence of the pioneer discoveries in the natural sci- 
ences. At this time, the body was esteemed little more 
than a prison, involuntaril}' endured by the soul. Nev- 
ertheless body and spirit confronted each other as 
equall}' real substances, and in the conceptions con- 
cerning their interactions, the preponderance lay so 
much upon the side of the corporeal event, that there 
fell to the soul, at the most, only the role of an atom 
of specific inner qualities, which, like the material 
elements in which it was bound up, was subjected to 
the universal, mechanical conformity — to law. There- 
fore, it is comprehensible, that people, from these con- 
ceptions came easily to accept the spiritual life as 
nothing but a sport of mechanical movements. As 
the rise of mechanical physics, soaring above every- 
thing as it did, after the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, furnished aid to materialistic views, so the 
very idea of the transcendentality of the spirit, which 
at one time, sprang from the negation of the sensuous 
world, offered also to this differently moulded era, 
the expedient for satisfying the claims of faith. The 
immaterial, immortal soul, — thus a Francis Bacon, a 
Pierre Gassendi and many others explained it, — the im- 
mortal soul lies outside the pale of cognition : Cogni- 
tion has only to do with the sensuous soul, which is 
necessarily a sensuous being. 

Modern times accepted the inheritance of the me- 
diaeval church, in the same manner, in the conceptions 
that prevailed concerning the significance of political 
institutions. The political powers striving after an in- 
dependent unfolding of strength, even in the fourteenth 
century, made a vain attempt to resurrect the Platonic 
conception that the state was a living being, with or- 
ganic members. The German Reformation, at a later 
period, in a similar sense, sought in vain to secure rec- 
ognition for the precept that the magistracy was es- 
tablished by God. The notion that the state was the 



result of a compact between men, did not again dis- 
appear from science and it soon, victoriously super- 
seded all other views. However, there was no longer 
any question of opposing a divine state to this human 
s'tate, established for perishable purposes. On the 
contrary, when Thomas Hobbes developed his idea of 
the state church, he boldly claimed the unconditional 
subordination of the latter with the cynical words: 
"Religion is the belief permitted by the state, super- 
stition the belief forbidden." The main principle of 
these new theories of the state was to create a legal 
basis for the sovereignty of the state, which led back 
to no supersensuous origin, but taught men to con- 
ceive of the "corpus politicum," as a no less natural 
creation than is any natural body that issues from 
known natural powers. Thus, the secular theory, in 
this respect also, takes possession of the same concep- 
tion as the ecclesiastical once did for opposite pur- 
poses. For the latter, the state had been a work of 
human agreement, in order to subordinate it all the 
more certainly to the divine state, which was of su- 
pernatural origin. The contract-theory now became 
an expedient for insuring the state against all attacks, 
just because that only is regarded as legitimate which 
is of natural origin. 

The logical development of this conception, how- 
ever, was obliged gradually to lead far beyond its 
aim, in order, finally, to attain a result again annul- 
ling it. In the endeavor to establish the primitive 
equality of the natural rights of individuals, Hobbes 
replaced the early idea of a "contract of subordina- 
tion " which was applied to the state on the basis of 
the relation of the ruler to the ruled, by that of a 
"social contract, " which each concludes with each, 
because in the natural condition precedent to the 
state, each is dependent upon his own will alone. 
Now, as indeed actually happened, this social con- 
tract could be adapted to all possible political views. 
However, the ideal of an absolute sovereignty of the 
people, corresponded to it most perfectly, according to 
which the best state's constitution was said to be that 
in which each foregoes, in his originally unlimited will 
only the minimum which is indispensable for the safety 
of all. Here, again, the social contract of a Jean 
Jacques Rousseau accorded most beautifully with the 
testimony of those Christian philosophers, who es- 
teemed the state as a necessary evil and the anarchical 
or stateless primitive condition, as the true paradisian 
ideal. 

Thus, in manifold relations, that mediaeval doc- 
trine prolonged its existence up to the threshold of 
our century. Wilhelm von Humboldt, in his " At- 
tempt to Determine the Limits of State Interference," 
condemned even that activity of the state which seeks 
to further the positive well-being of its citizens, as 



ii86 



THE OPEN COURT, 



deleterious. For it would be the highest ideal of 
the collective life of human beings, "if each devel- 
oped from himself alone and for his own sake." And 
Fichte, a few years later, in his "Lectures Concern- 
ing the Vocation of Scholars, " thought that there must, 
surely, lie a point somewhere in the prescribed course 
of the human race "where all political institutions 
will be superfluous," because pure reason will be uni- 
versally recognised as supreme arbiter. Only from 
that point however, and only when the state has grad- 
ually become unnecessary will we, in general be "true 
men." Truly, the antithesis to the Aristotelian prin- 
ciple, that the state was prior to the individual and that 
man is a political being, cannot be more vigorously 
expressed. 

Yet, in the latter case as well as in the former, the 
conception of the community stands in the closest con- 
nection with that of the individual man. If good and 
truth are, everywhere, only a product of subjective 
reason, a commonwealth that binds the wills of indi- 
viduals will be experienced only as a galling restraint 
that, finally, may be unable to withstand the struggle 
after a perfectly free activity of the rational will. Thus, 
the bold idealism of the Storm and Stress Period 
leads to the same result that the naturalism of the 
social theories of the seventeenth century attained. 
As for Fichte, the individual reason, so for Hobbes, 
the individual body only, possessed a title to inde- 
pendent reality. In both cases the commonwealth 
becomes a sum of individuals, which, by voluntary 
assent, subject themselves to certain rules of action, 
for harmonious, subjective purposes. 

But the author of the "Addresses to the German 
People," (Fichte) had already abandoned much of the 
fundamental thoughts of his earlier lectures, as, after 
him, likewise the statesman Flumboldt wished no longer 
to acknowledge the content of his youthful labors. 
There were two intellectual streams, independent of 
each other in external appearance, but, at bottom, 
sustained, half consciously and half unconsciously, by 
the force of national exaltation, in the beginning of 
our century, which caused those views to totter. 

On the one side, a deeper historical conception of 
habits and laws of previous eras, awakened and roused 
to independent life by Romanticism, caused the ra- 
tionalistic constructions of state and society to appear 
in an increasingly more doubtful light. On the other 
side, in German philosophy, there issued forth from 
the logical progressive development of Fichte's ideas, 
the notion of an objective world-rationality, of a spirit 
of universality, concerning which people assumed that, 
in history, political life and in all ideal creations de- 
pending upon the united intellectual labor of mankind, 
such as art, religion, and philosophy, it proves its real- 
ity, independent and infinitely superior to individual 



existence. An age whose distinction from the former 
ages consisted, not the least in the fact that it had 
learned to think historically, could not escape the 
power of this idea, even although the abstruse, dialectic 
garment, in which Hegel's system, its most thoroughly 
developed presentation had clothed it proved obstruc- 
tive to its propagation. But for just this reason, one 
cannot regret enough that the logical scheme of that 
system established everywhere in the place of real, 
historical developments an artificial system of concepts 
and that, led astray by this, it split into opposites such 
things as according to their essence and origin belonged 
together. Thus the domain of objective morality was 
here, like another higher world, placed in opposition 
to subjective morality. Law and state appeared like 
beings sui generis, almost as if they could exist inde- 
pendent of individuals. Thus arose the idea of an in- 
dependent existence of communities, through which 
they were, on the whole, considered too much like in- 
dividual beings. 



NATURE AND MORALITY. 

AN EXAMINATION OF THE ETHICAL VIEWS OF JOHN 
STUART MILL. 

I. THE WEANING OF BASING ETHICS UPON NATURE. 

John Stuart Mill has written an essay on Nature 
in which he "inquires into the truth of the doctrines 
which make Nature a test of right and wrong." He 
sums up the results of his inquiry in the following con- 
clusions : 

" The word Nature has two principal meanings ; it either de- 
notes the entire system of things, with the aggregate of all their 
properties, or it denotes things as they would be, apart from human 
intervention. 

" In the first of these senses, the doctrine that man ought to 
follow nature is unmeaning ; since man has no power to do any- 
thing else than follow nature ; all his actions are done through, 
and in obedience to, some one or many of nature's physical or 
mental laws. 

" In the other sense of the term, the doctrine that man ought 
to follow nature, or in other words, ought to make the spontaneous 
course of things the model of his voluntary actions, is equally irra- 
tional and immoral. 

"Irrational, because all human action whatever, consists in 
altering, and all useful action in improving, the spontaneous course 
of nature : 

"Immoral, because the course of natural phenomena being 
replete with everything which when committed by human beings 
is most worthy of abhorrence, any one who endeavoured in his 
actions to imitate the natural course of things would be universally 
seen and acknowledged to be the wickedest of men." 

If the word Nature is used in the second meaning, 
it is obvious that an imitation of nature would signify 
the suppression of the human in man, of that which 
is properly called ethical ; it would deprive man of his 
most characteristic and noblest feature, — rationality 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3187 



i 



— and degrade him into an animal blindly obeying its 
instincts. 

Yet what is instinct but inherited habit? How 
have habits been acquired but by repeated action ? 
Instinct is by no means bare of the rational element. 
Instinct is not totally blind. Although it may not 
prove rational intelligence in the individual, yet it 
does prove rational intelligence in the race. Instinct 
can be explained only as having been acquired through 
race-experience. The human has grown out of the 
race-experience of man's ancestors, and the rationality 
of certain instincts are a prophecy of the human. If 
the blindness of instinct has to be called "natural," 
and that element of rationality, however small it may 
be, which represents judgment and may be con- 
sidered as the germ of humanity is to be counted as 
"non-natural," the whole animal kingdom from man 
down to the moner must be classed as part of the non- 
natural domain of the world. Nature in that case 
would have to be limited to the province of unorgan- 
ised things, to stones or minerals, and the world of 
plants might be a disputed ground. 

This conception of nature is not admissible, and it 
contradicts its etymological meaning, which is not as 
yet forgotten. The word "Nature" is derived from 
?!asiere, to grow, and denotes especially the evolution 
of organised life. 

If we take "nature" in its first meaning, denoting 
" the entire system of things with the aggregate of all 
the properties," Mr. Mill declares that the doctrine 
that "man ought to follow nature " has no meaning. 
He says : 

"The scheme of Nature regarded in its whole extent, cannot 
have had, for its sole or even principal object, the good of human 
or other sentient beings. What good it brings to them, is mostly 
the result of their own exertions." 

Certainly, that good which nature brings to sen- 
tient beings, is mostly the result of their own exertions. 
But if nature comprises the entire system of things, it 
also includes the exertions of sentient beings. That 
sentient beings can make efforts, is one of the most 
important, nay, for us it is the all-important part of 
nature. In other words, ethics is not something arti- 
ficial in contrast to that which is natural, it is not some- 
thing non-natural or unnatural ; ethics is the most 
characteristic feature of human nature. 

Mr. Mill has much to say about art and the arti- 
ficial. He treats art as something radically different 
from nature. He ought to have remembered Shake- 
speare's lines : 

" Yet nature is made better by no mean. 
But nature makes that mean ; so, over that art, 
which, you say, adds to nature, is an art 
That nature makes 

This is an art 

Which does mend nature — change, rather ; but 
The art itself is nature \"— Winter's Talc. 



Mr. Mill tries to dispel some ambiguities that lurk 

in the old proposition naturam seqiii, yet he confines 

his investigation to one interpretation of this rule only, 

and indeed to that which is the crudest and the most 

obviously absurd conception we can form of it, so crude 

that nobody has ever maintained it and, so far as I 

know, even thought of it before Mr. Mill refuted its 

proposition. 

* 
* * 

In the introductory remarks to his essay on Na- 
ture, Mr. Mill complains about the "many meanings, 
different from the primary one, yet sufficiently allied 
to it to admit of confusion." The article was appar- 
ently suggested by the reading of certain propositions 
of theological authors, who maintain that nature must 
be considered as a divine revelation ; nature's doings are 
acts of God; the scheme of nature indicates a plan 
wisely premeditated and designed to serve the good 
of human or of other sentient beings; and that "all 
things are for wise and good ends. Such a view has 
been presented to "exalt instinct at the expense of 
reason." 

Mr. Mill deals with these notions with great adroit- 
ness. He refutes the idea that natural processes are 
an indication of the Creator's designs. Natural laws 
act blindly; the storm rages without taking into con- 
sideration that it may do harm to sentient beings. 

Now, if we consider nature as a personal being who 
acts not in uniformities of law, but with conscious 
knowledge of the consequences of his doings, and ad- 
justing them to special ends, it would truly be ridic- 
ulous to say that we must act as indeliberately, ruth- 
lessly, and blindly, as nature acts. Mr. Mill has 
succeeded completely in the refutation of this view, 
although it almost appears to me that a serious refu- 
tation is scarcely necessary. 

The following passage might be suspected of hu- 
mor, but Mr. Mill is in deep earnest. 

He says : 

' ' In sober truth, nearly all the things which men are hanged 
or imprisoned for doing to one another, are nature's every day 
performances. Killing, the most criminal act recognised by hu- 
man laws. Nature does once to every being that lives ; and in a 
large proportion of cases, after protracted tortures such as only 
the greatest monsters whom we read of ever purposely inflicted on 
their living fellow-creatures. 

" Nature impales men, breaks them as if on the wheel, casts 
them to be devoured by wild beasts, burns them to death, crushes 
them with stones like the first christian martyr, starv-es them with 
hunger, freezes them with cold, poisons them by the quick or 
slow venom of her exhalations, and has hundreds of other hideous 
deaths in reserve, such as the ingenious cruelty of a Nabis or a 
Domitian never surpassed. All this, Nature does with the most 
supercilious disregard both of mercy and of justice, emptying her 
shafts upon the best and noblest indifferently with the meanest 
and worst ; upon those who are engaged in the highest and wor- 
thiest enterprises, and often as the direct consequence of the no* 
blest acts ; and it might almost be imagined as a punishment for 



3i88 



THE OPEN COURT. 



them. She mows down those on whose existence hangs the well- 
being of a whole people, perhaps the prospects of the human race 
for generations to come, with as little compunction as those whose 
death is a relief to themselves, or a blessing to those under their 
noxious influence. Such are Nature's dealings with life. Next to 
taking life (equal to it according to a high authority) is taking the 
means by which we live ; and Nature does this too on the largest 
scale and with the most callous indiiTerence. A single hurricane 
destroys the hopes of a season ; a flight of locusts, or an inunda- 
tion, desolates a district ; a trifling chemical change in an edible 
root, starves a million of people. The waves of the sea, like ban- 
ditti seize and appropriate the wealth of the rich and the little all 
of the poor with the same accompaniments of stripping, wound- 
ing, and killing as their human antitypes. Everything in short, 
which the worst men commit either against life or property is 
perpetrated on a larger scale by natural agents. 

" Nature has Noyades more fatal than those of Carrier ; her 
explosions of fire damp are as destructive as human artillery ; her 
plague and cholera far surpass the poison cups of the Borgias. 
Even the love of ' order ' which is thought to be a following of the 
ways of Nature, is in fact a contradiction of them. All which 
people are accustomed to deprecate as ' disorder ' and its conse- 
quences, is precisely a counterpart of Nature's ways. Anarchy 
and the Reign of Terror are overmatched in injustice, ruin, and 
death, by a hurricane and a pestilence." 

The passage quoted appears to me of special in- 
terest because the anthropomorphic view of nature is 
pushed to its utmost extreme. Mr. Mill combats here the 
conception of a personification of nature which is un- 
equalled in mythology. Mr. Mill concludes from his 
considerations : 

" Nature cannot be a proper model for us to imitate. Either 
it is right that we should kill because nature kills ; torture because 
nature tortures ; ruin and devastate because nature does the like ; 
or we ought not to consider at all what nature does, but what it is 
good to do. If there is such a thing as a rcduclio ad absurduiit, 
this surely amounts to one. If it is a sufficient reason for doing 
one thing, that nature does it, why not another thing ? If not all 
things, why anything ? The physical government of the world 
being full of the things which when done by men are deemed the 
greatest enormities, it cannot be religious or moral in us to guide 
our actions by the analogy of the course of nature." 

Mr. Mill apparently takes the words naturam sequi 
in the sense of natin'am imitari. To follow nature is 
in his conception not a conforming to the entire system 
of things and its laws, but the regarding the facts of 
nature as the actions of a person, and acting accord- 
ingly. 

If "nature" is taken in the sense of the whole 
system of things, the precept to follow nature, Mr. 
Mill says, is, with reference to the irrefragable neces- 
sity of natural laws, meaningless. For every atom — 
so to say — obeys the law of gravitation, and every mo- 
tive sufficiently strong to incite a man to action, if not 
counteracted by other and equally strong motives, will 
pass into an act; it will — so to say — obey the laws of 
psychical^ dynamics. Any advice to obey the laws of 
nature in this sense is not quite as ridiculous as the 
injunction to imitate nature, but it is meaningless. It 
makes no sense. 



But there is another sense still — and Mr. Mill has 
not overlooked it — in which the doctrine of basing 
ethics upon nature can be conceived. Mr. Mill, it 
appears, has devoted little space to an explanation of 
it, because to his mind it seemed so very obvious and 
unquestionably correct. Indeed it is as unquestion- 
ably correct as the other views which he combats are 
unquestionably erroneous and meaningless. 

The original definition of nature is formulated by 
Mill as follows : 

"As the nature of any given thing is the aggregate of its 
powers and properties, so Nature in the abstract is the aggregate 
of the powers and properties of all things. 

" Nature means the sum of all phenomena, together with the 
causes which produce them ; including not only all that happens, 
but all that is capable of happening ; the unused capabilities of 
causes being as much a part of the idea of Nature, as those which 
take effect." 

Mr. Mill concludes : 

" Since all phenomena which have been sufficiently examined 
are found to take place with regularity, each having certain fixed 
conditions .... on the occurrence of which it invariably happens ; 
mankind have been able to ascertain, either by direct observation 
or by reasoning processes grounded on it, the conditions of the oc- 
currence of many phenomena ; and the progress of science mainly 
consists in ascertaining those conditions." 

Mr. Mill proposes to express the doctrine not by 
naturam sequi but by naturam observare. He says : 

' ' To acquire knowledge of the properties of things, and make 
use of the knowledge for guidance, is a rule of prudence, for the 
adaptation of means to ends ; for giving effect to our wishes and 
intentions whatever they may be. 

"If, therefore, the useless precept to follow nature were 
changed into a precept to study nature ; to know and take heed of 
the properties of the things we have to deal with, so far as these 
properties are capable of forwarding or obstructing any given pur- 
pose ; we should have arrived at the first principle of all intelligent 
action, or rather at the definition of intelligent action itself." 

The ancients, Mr. Mill says, were very unequivocal 
in basing their ethics upon nature. "The Roman 
jurists, when attempting to systematise jurisprudence 
place in the front of their exposition a certain Jus 
natiirale, ' quod natura ' as Justinian declares in the 
Institutes, ' omnia animalia docuit.' " Mr. Mill after 
alluding to Christianity, continues : 

"The people of this generation do not commonly apply prin- 
ciples with any such studious exactness [as the ancients], nor own 
such binding allegiance to any standard, but live in a kind of con- 
fusion of many standards ; a condition not propitious to the for- 
mation of steady moral convictions, but convenient enough to 
those whose moral opinions sit lightly on them, since it gives them 
a much wider range of arguments for defending the doctrine of the 
moment." 

This is very true. But how can we improve the 
present state of ethics, otherwise than by being exact 
and trying to find out the leading principle of ethics. 
A leading principle of ethics, which may serve us as a 
standard for the rules of action and a test for right or 
wrong, cannot be artificially constructed. The facts 



TfiE OPEN COURT. 



3189 



upon which moral aspirations have to be based, are 
just as much facts of nature as the formation of crys- 
tals or the growth of plants. The conditions under 
which those facts are formed can be ascertained ; and 
we can by observation and forethought predefine their 
consequences. They can be described in laws that 
are just as immutable as the laws which concern the 
growth of plants or the health of the body. Morality 
in all its phases and possibilities is deeply founded in 
the nature of things, and unless morality be an unex- 
plainable fact in contradiction to all other facts of na- 
ture — there is but one way of comprehending morality 
and discovering its principle. This way is to study 
the facts of social life, the consequences of what is 
called immorality and the consequences of moral 
aspiration, to analyse them, to observe them in their 
origin and further development, to understand their 
importance, and to formulate their operation as exact 
natural laws. 

The principle of morality cannot be contrived ; it 
must be discovered. It cannot be devised like a work 
of art, but has to be found out not otherwise than any 
other natural law. Principles of art might be fashioned 
so as to suit our imagination — not so principles of 
morality. Artistic taste, yet even that in a certain sense 
only, is arbitrary, but the principles of morality are 
not arbitrary ; they are not a product of our fancy, to 
suit special inherited or acquired inclinations, be they 
ever, so lofty, charitable, altruistic, generous, or self- 
sacrificing. The principles of morality are to be based 
upon rigid truths which must be ascertained by ex- 
perience and demonstrated by the usual scientific 
methods. 

There is no choice left ; but we have to base ethics 
upon nature. 

[TO BE CONTINUED.] 



k 



CURRENT TOPICS. 

The practice of giving a dead congressman a roaring wake is 
again exciting comment. Dead statesmen have become so expen- 
sive that the people desire not the death of a congressman, but 
rather that he be converted and live. It costs so much to bury 
him. The funeral bill of a congressman depends apparently upon 
what state he hails from, as the figures vary from a few hundreds 
up to several thousands of dollars per head. The undertaker's bill 
for burying the late Mr. Houk, a member from Tennessee, amounts 
to $1,994.90, but this does not include the expenses proper of the 
wake itself. These are in addition to the undertaker's bill. The 
price of the coffin alone was $1,200, not including the "trimmings" 
which cost $200 more. True, it appears in the bill as a " burial 
casket," but it was nothing but a coffin after all. When a man is 
buried at the expense of his own family it is of course a private 
matter with which the outside world has nothing whatever to do ; 
but when he is buried by public generosity, a $1,200 "casket" is 
an illegal perquisite, and a. post mortem vanity setting a bad exam- 
ple. There also appears to be some invidious distinctions made 
between the members, for it is remarked that the undertaker's bill 
for burying the late Mr. Ford, a member from another state, 
amounted to only about $500, and the report ironically says, " In- 



stead of a $1,200 casket, Mr. Ford rests in a $150 coffin." Mr. 
Ford may rest fairly well in a $150 coffin, but not so laxuriously 
as Mr, Houk reposes in a $1,200 casket, decorated and adorned 
with $200 worth of trimmings. Petty payments made out of the 
public money by legislators for the benefit of each other weaken 
the moral sense, and end in the squandering of millions. Tailors' 
bills and undertakers' bills are alike private affairs, and congress 
has no legal right to pay either of them out of the national treasury. 

It is not surprising that undertakers charge exorbitant rates 
for burying congressmen, when the committees in charge of the 
funeral set them the example. When a member of congress dies 
the custom is to appoint six members of the House and three sena- 
tors to escort the body home ; and this pious duty often takes the 
form of extravagant self-indulgence. A few years ago, a member 
from Kansas died in Washington, and the usual funeral committee 
was appointed. Their bill for taking him to his home and burying 
him amounted to $3,561. This great e-.pense could not have been 
made except by indulgence in the most costly wines, liquors, and 
cigars ; and by their help the funeral was converted into a " wake " 
coarse, lavish, loud. It appears by the vouchers that the commit- 
tee fortified themselves for their journey, and tempered their grief 
by a "lunch," at the moderate cost of $200. As we have a right 
to assume that they had something to eat at their own homes in 
Washington, why did they need a $200 lunch before starting on 
their journey ? And what sort of a lunch fiend is it that can de- 
vour twenty dollars worth of lunch at one effort ? Nine or ten 
men cannot eat $200 worth of lunch at one trial. They may drink 
it, but even then each man of them must consume two or three 
quarts of the most expensive champagne ; and this is enough to 
make any one drunk except a congressman. By the time they 
reached Harrisburg, the disconsolate mourners were in such a 
state of sorrow and starvation that it became necessary to strengthen 
and stimulate them with a $200 breakfast. By careful nursing 
and proper nourishment of this kind, they managed to reach Kansas 
and get back to Washington at the cost of $3,561. All the funeral 
expenses that were dignified and respectable probably cost about 
$561, — the other $3,000 represented luxury, jollity, and drink. 

In a highly colored sketch of Mr. Spurgeon, somewhat partial 
by reason of private friendship, the Review of Rexrie-us for March, 
confirms what I said a few weeks ago about the collossal faith of 
that celebrated preacher. According to his religion, belief was the 
key of heaven ; not belief in reasonable things, for there is no re- 
ligious merit in that, but belief in the impossible, and in the Sa- 
cred History of that which never happened. In his theology the 
soul's danger lay just behind the forehead, and therefore the 
smaller the facial angle the larger the chance for heaven. He be- 
lieved, says the Review of Reviews, ' ' that the whole revelation of 
the Divine Will was contained in the canonical books of the Old 
and New Testaments, in the verbal inspiration of which, from the 
first chapter of Genesis to the last chapter of Revelations, he 
never ceased to believe." The leaves of Nature's Book of Revela- 
tion, the geologic strata were all heretics to him, for they con- 
tained the testimony of the rocks, physical revelations uncorrupted 
by interpolation or forgery. He warned his church against the 
pagan story of the stars, for Astronomy was the science of Lucifer. 
He was impatient of mental development especially among the 
Baptists, although they greatly needed it ; and, says the Review of 
Reviews. ' ' he protested with such vehemence as he possessed — and 
that was not small — he denounced, he thundered, he almost ex- 
communicated those of his brethren who could not share his con- 
viction that no one could really believe in God the Father and 
Christ the son who was not certain that the majority of the human 
race were created to pass a whole e'ernity in endless torment." As 
the vision of hell faded from human eyes, the despair of Spurgeon 



3190 



THE OPEN COURT. 



grew. As light fell upon other men, darkness fell upon him. With 
fear and trembling he saw Faith diminish, and Hope and Charity 
increase. His friend and biographer says, "He roundly assailed 
the tendency of the present time to take a broader view of the fate 
of man and the love of God ; and his last years were saddened and 
darkened by what he regarded as the apostasy of English Chris- 
tianity." 

* * 

It is only fair and generous to pay a tribute of admiration to 
a brave man fighting against the stars in their courses, as the stars 
in their courses fought against Sisera ; and therefore I give sym- 
pathy to Spurgeon wrestling against the sunshine, and challenging 
the very learning and temper of his time. He made a stubborn 
fight for his doctrine, but he found that not only were the mental 
powers of the world arrayed against him, but the spiritual and 
moral forces too. He did not know that these were all one in es- 
sence and in substance, and that they rose and fell in sympathy 
together. The soul is not weakened by strengthening the mind, 
for as the world grows wiser it grows better, and as men become 
better they cherish a better opinion of Gdd. Even the Baptists 
have grown wise enough and good enough to btlieve and hope that 
the "fallen angels" will rise again ; and it appears even by the 
Calvinistic census that the population of the bottomless pit is 
growing smaller day by day, and the sulphurous cavern will soon 
be empty. With a touch of pathos, the Kdvie-a 0/ Revie-ivs thus 
explains the defeat of Spurgeon. " He who had proved himself a 
very Hercules, who had successfully accomplished all those labors 
imposed upon him by a kindly providence, nevertheless found 
himself baffled and confounded by the subtle Zeitgeist or spirit of 
his time, with which he waged an uncompromising warfare." 
Yes, but unfortunately for Mr. Spurgeon "the subtle Zeitgeist" 
wages an uncompromising warfare too ; and in a contest with him 
the mythological Hercules and the theological Samson both go 
down. M. M. Trumbull. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Methods of Instruction and Organisation in the German 
Schools. By John T. Prince. Boston : Lee & Shepard. 

Dr. John T. Prince has made a very careful study of the Ger- 
man school system and presents in a most convenient form within 
the small compass of 237 pages all its most characteristic and most 
important features. The reviewer of the book has been trained 
in German schools and was for several years in active service as a 
teacher in Germany ; he feels confident that he is as well informed 
on the subject as anyone can be ; so he believes that his opinion 
has some weight when saying that Dr. Prince's report is in every 
respect accurate. But it is more ; it is judicious. The author 
notices the drawbacks as well as the virtues of the German schools 
and exaggerates neither the one nor the other. He wants the Amer- 
ican teacher to learn from the German educational methods, but 
he is far from demanding their direct imitation. The concluding 
chapter states the author's opinion in the following words : 

" I have said that our schools are poor in comparison with the 
"schools of Germany. And yet, I believe I am not inconsistent 
"in saying that the best we have are better for us than the best 
" that exist in Germany would be." 



NOTES. 

The Truthseeker Co. (28 Lafayette Place, Yew York City) 
have again collected their illustrations of the last year in a hand- 
somely bound volume, entitled " Old Testament Stories Comically 
Illustrated by Watson Heston." Their plan is to propagate free- 
thought by ridiculing the superstitions and errors of religion, but 
they are not careful as to whom or what they strike. They are 
as vigorous in their work as are the most fanatic believers on the 



other side. We do not approve of this method of the Truthseeker 
Co.; they spread in this way a wrong kind of freethought and we 
believe ihat they will make but few converts by their grotesque 
pictures It will make the iconoclast laugh, but the believer will 
turn from them with disgust. In the general household of human 
thought, iconoclasts of this kind seem to equilibrate the balance 
with those eccentric forms of piety which find an expression in the 
Salvation Army and similar institutions. So long as the one ex- 
treme exists, the other extreme has also right to existence, and 
there seem to be deeper causes that demand that it should exist 
too. 

The A'eiu England Magazine for March contains an article 
which will be interesting to all Americans. It is entitled "Rec- 
ollections of Louisa May Alcott," the author of " Little Women,'' 
and is written by Maria S. Porter. The article is preceded by a 
beautiful frontispiece engraving of Miss Alcott, taken from a por- 
trait made at the age of twenty, and contains besides a number of 
reproductions of later photographs handsome cuts of the Alcott 
homes. Every one will find in these "recollections" pleasant and 
welcome glimpses of the life of a woman whose fame rests as much 
on her private virtues as on any of her literary achievements. 



MR. C. S. PEIRCE has resumed his lessons by correspondence in the 
Art of Reasoning, taught in progressive exercises. A special course in logic 
has been prepared for correspondents interested in philosophy. Terras, 830 
for twenty-four lessons. Address : Mr. C. S. Peirce, "Avisbe," Milford, Pa. 



THE OPEN COURT. 

PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY BY 

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All communications should be addressed to 

(Nixon Building, 175 La Salle Street,) 
P. O. DRAWER F. CHICAGO, ILL. 

CONTENTS OF NO. 239. 

THE RELATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL TO THE 

COMMUNITY. Wilhelm Wundt 3183 

NATURE AND MORALITY. An Examination of the 

Ethical Views of John Stuart Mill. Editor 3186 

CURRENT TOPICS. The Wake of a Statesman. The 

Soul's Danger. Fighting the Zeitgeist. M. M. Trumbull 3189 

BOOK REVIEWS 3190 

NOTES 3190 



The Open Court, 

A ^A^■EEKLV JOURNAL 

Devoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion v/ith Science. 



No. 240. (Vol. VI.— 13.) 



CHICAGO, MARCH 31, 1892. 



Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



FIRST PRINCIPLES IN ETHICS. 

BY WILLIAM M. SALTER. 

Ir is the prerogative of man to ask for reasons for 
what he is enjoined to do or believe. An animal does 
not ask a reason why ; a child may not — but a devel- 
oped human being has a dignity with which mere blind 
obedience and unreasoning assent are felt to be in- 
compatible. 

It is as legitimate to question and inquire in the 
ethical field as in any other. There is nothing sacred 
about duty, right, good — in the sense of their making 
a region which we should not explore, or look upon 
with critical eyes. If we are told we ought to do any 
special thing, we have a right to ask, why? — just as 
we have a right to ask for the evidence of any theo 
logical creed or any scientific or philosophical proposi- 
tion. -Yes, more than "having a right," I may say 
that we should ask for reasons in the realm of morals : 
For, in the first place, some things which we may be 
told to do may be questionable and we should not wish 
to be imposed upon ; in the second place, there are 
different notions of right and wrong abroad in the 
world, conflicting notions, and we are obliged to have 
some standard by which to judge between them ; 
thirdly, the very sacredness of what is really right 
should make us jealous of anything that falsely goes 
by that name ; and fourthly, even what is absolutely 
right should not be accepted as such by a rational 
being on authority, because this or that person says 
so, or this or that book so teaches — but only because 
he sees it to be so with his own eyes, because it is 
the deliverance, the discovery of his own reason. It 
may not be possible for every one to be rationalised 
at once ; and in the meantime those for whom suffice 
the poets "few strong instincts " and " few are fortun- 
ate ; none the less is it the ideal for every one who 
has the capacities of reason in him to develop those 
capacities, to "look before and after" and know the 
why and wherefore of everything he does, to bring his 
whole life, moral and intellectual, out into the light. 

And now perhaps the first thing we need to do is 
to get a clear idea of what the ethical field is, which 
we are to explore. It is, firstly, the field of human 



action — and not only of actions in the outward sense, 
but of all that we do, whether by body or mind, so we 
do it voluntarily. Whatever happens in us apart from 
our will is outside the realm we are considering, just 
as much as what happens without us : the digestion 
of our food, for example, the circulation of the blood 
— though to the extent that we can affect these by our 
will they may come inside ; if, for instance, they are 
feeble and imperfect and by anything we can do we 
can make them stronger, healthier, it may be our duty 
to do so. It is our life so far as it is regulated by our 
thought that we have to do with as ethical inquirers ; 
so far as it goes on of itself and is ruled by laws which 
we are powerless to affect, it is beyond the province 
of ethics. Yet, more particularly, all voluntary actions 
may be of one sort or another, according as our thought 
determines. We may, for example, in taking a walk, 
go along this street or that as we choose. In talking 
with a friend, we may give or we may withhold certain 
information in our possession. In recollecting a prom- 
ise or a vow, we may keep it or break it as one or the 
other thought is predominant in us at the time. Now 
wherever there are two possible thoughts and it occurs 
to us to say that one is better than the other, that one 
should be followed rather than the other, we enter the 
field of ethics proper. This by no means always hap- 
pens in the case of voluntary actions ; when we are 
off for a holiday it may not matter, within limits, what 
we do — whether we ride or walk or row or "lie in the 
sun " and do nothing; the only duty in the matter, may 
be, may be to do as we please. But sometimes we say. 
This is good and that is bad ; this deserves to be done 
and that ought not to be done. Such judgments are 
ethical judgments ; they are not of course descriptive 
of the actions, but of what the actions should be ; in 
other words, they assert an ideal, and when they are 
repeated and generalised, they become formulations 
of a rule. Ethics is really a study of the rules of hu- 
man action ; if we call it a science, it is an ideal science 
— for it is not a study of the actual conduct of men 
(and so differs entirely from sociology or history), but 
of what that conduct would be if it conformed to cer- 
tain rules ; and these rules themselves are not simply 
the matter-of-fact rules which an individual or a peo- 



3192 



THE OPEN COURT. 



pie reverences, but the true rules, the rules which are 
intrinsically worthy of reverence. 

Here then is the field for our inquiry — not nature, 
not man in general, not his actions, but the rules ac- 
cording to which he conceives he should act ; and our 
inquiry now is not so much, what these rules are in 
detail but what is their reason for being, not so much 
how and when they arose and what is their history, but 
what is their justification and validity. To trace the 
rule, " Thou shalt not steal," for example, back to the 
one who first conceived it, to fix its authorship and 
date in the dim distant past, and follow its history since, 
is not the same as justifying it ; customs and rules 
may have existed for ages and yet be without a rational 
basis. Ethics proper, on its intellectual side, is a rea- 
soning about rules of conduct, it is a testing, criticising, 
accepting or rejecting the rules commonly proposed ; 
and in searching for firfct principles in ethics, we are 
really asking for the ultimate reasons why we should 
follow (or refuse to follow) this, that or the other spe- 
cial injunction, for the final justification of whatever 
we call right. 

Where shall we turn for light as to this problem ? 
There seem to be those who think that science can 
settle it for us ; they say that the basis of ethics is to 
be found in a clear knowledge of the world in which 
we live. And there is a measure of truth in this. If 
we do not understand our own being and natural laws 
about us we are to this extent in the dark, in our ac- 
tions. Ignorance of the teachings of physiology and 
hygiene may cause us aches and pains that knowledge 
might have prevented. Ignorance of sanitary science 
is doubtless responsible in part for the large mortality 
of great cities. It is only by a knowledge of nature's 
forces — gravity, heat, steam, electricity, — that we can 
turn them to account and make them serve and benefit 
man. If we study the facts of sociology and history, 
we learn what conditions are favorable and what un- 
favorable to the growth and prosperity of communities. 
Such knowledge is of incalculable value ; it is a help 
and guide to action — and yet there is some confusion 
in regarding it as the basis of ethics or as giving us an 
ultimate standard of right action. For who does riot 
see that everything depends upon the use to which we 
mean to put our knowledge ? It seems to be taken 
for granted that everybody desires happiness or long 
life for himself and for others ; that the only wish of a 
person can be to use nature's forces for the general 
benefit ; that all we care for is to make communities 
grow and prosper — in which case it would of course 
only be necessary to learn how these ends can be at- 
tained. But the fact is that we may desire other 
things ; we may wish to know how to cut short our 
lives and how to end the lives of our people — time and 
again this has happened and is happening to day, a 



great part of the activity of men consisting in killing 
one another or making preparations to ; we may use 
nature's forces to injure as well as to benefit — a man 
of violence has the same motive for getting a complete 
scientific understanding of dynamite that any other 
sort of man would have ; we may desire to degrade 
and humiliate a people as well as uplift it and make it 
prosperous — as England seems to have acted toward 
Ireland. Such scientific knowledge as I have referred 
to cannot be the basis or ultimate standard of ethics 
(however useful and necessary it may be in a subsid- 
iary way), for one may act in complete accordance 
with it and yet aim at opposite things ; one may have 
the clearest view of the world in which we live and yet 
play either (what we are accustomed to call) a good 
part or a bad part in it. The real question of ethics 
is, what are the true things to aim at, what is the 
meaning of playing a good or a bad part in the world 
— and, so far as scientific knowledge is concerned, for 
what ends shall we use that knowledge? Our veryin- 
tentness on those ends (when we have discovered them) 
must make us resolute on finding out every possible 
means and observing every condition necessary for 
attaining them. 

But if science -fails us at the critical point (a cer- 
tain mental confusion being involved in the very no- 
tion of its being more than a subsidiary guide for us), 
what else have we to do than to face the problem with 
our own discursive minds and by thinking of this end 
of our action and that, by weighing and balancing be- 
tween them, try to find out that which seems worth- 
iest, completest, most final and self-sufficient? For 
this, let it now be distinctly said, is what we are in 
search of — something, some state or condition which 
seems good in itself, which does not need to be re- 
garded as a means to another end but which of itself 
satisfies the mind. If we ask for a reason for any ac- 
tion or rule, it must be because the action or rule re- 
quires a reason, being incomplete, objectless, irrational 
without it — as when a person going down town is asked 
Why? by a friend and in replying he tells his errand, 
while if he should saj'. For nothing, the friend would 
not know what to make of him. There are plenty of 
human actions, and sustained courses of conduct that 
have no meaning save in relation to some purpose be- 
yond themselves. Yet on the other hand there may 
be things that seem so good that we do not look be- 
yond them, things that it is superfluous to ask a reason 
for ; they are complete in themselves and do not re- 
quire any justification. It is such things that we have 
no reason of, things in virtue of which, or by their re- 
lation to which, all other things are good, things that 
it would be as absurd to ask for a reason for aiming 
at, as for conceding the truth of any self luminous fact 
of nature. If such things can be found, if a supreme 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3193 



rule (or rules) can thus be formulated and if, on the 
other hand, all minor, special rules can be traced back 
to the supreme one and an explanation and justifica- 
tion thus be furnished for each single duty, then our 
problem would be virtually solved. To give a reason 
for everything that requires a reason, and to find those 
things for which no reason can be given only because 
they are self-evident — is all that the ethical student 
can ask. It is as when (to take a minor and imperfect 
illustration) having been in distant parts, we begin to 
travel homewards ; at every step of the journey, at 
every change from sea to land, or from train to train, 
there is a reason for the action beyond itself ; but when 
at last we reach the loved spot, and are safe within 
the dear old walls with father and mother or with wife 
and child, we do not ask a reason for being there — it 
is where we belong. 

Let us, then, without attempting systematic com- 
pleteness, take up a few of the duties and see if good 
reasons can be given for them and gradually work our 
way, if it is possible, toward the discovery of ends 
that are good in themselves. Temperance is one of 
man's duties ; it is almost universally admitted. Yet 
I think it is legitimate to ask, why we should be tem- 
perate — for though familiarity with the idea may make 
it appear almost self-evident, it is not from the stand- 
point of. reason really so. We take in as much air as 
we can with our lungs, we can hardly have too much 
light and sunshine — why may we not drink as much 
water or wine as we can and eat as much food? The 
answer obviously is that eating or drinking beyond a 
certain amount or measure is injurious to our health ; 
if we have gone beyond certain limits, we strain our 
bodily organism and weaken it. Hence, to the end of 
health, we must be temperate ; but for this, temper- 
ance would be no virtue and intemperance no vice. 
Or consider the virtues of chastity and modesty ; re- 
spect for them is almost instinctive in men and women 
who have been normally born and educated — and yet 
we may ask why these should be virtues and may 
come to see that if the race were not perpetuated as 
it is, if certain peculiar consequences did not flow 
from certain acts, if the institution of the family 
were not such an all-important factor in the evolu- 
tion of man, there would be no more occasion for chas- 
tity and modesty than there is for refusing to shake 
hands with more than one person or for covering 
one's face so it shall not be seen. A duty is no less 
binding because we see the reason for it ; rather it is 
only he who does see the reason who feels the full ex- 
tent of the obligation, as knowing all the duty rests 
upon. This, it appears to me, equally applies to truth 
and falsehood. We should tell the truth to others be- 
cause they need it, because without knowledge every 
one is more or less in darkness ; and if there are ever 



times when we should withhold the truth it is in those 
rare circumstances when it may injure rather than 
help. Falsehood is base because it is a sort of treach- 
ery — a disowning of the bond by which we are united 
to our fellow men. For the same reason we have a 
right to the truth from others ; and, moreover, we 
ought to give it to ourselves, or search for it, if it is 
not at hand ; we can only grow, we can only step sure- 
footedly in life, as we know. In brief, truth is obli- 
gatory, because it is a means of benefit ; if it were in 
and of itself a virtue, irrespective of the needs or cir- 
cumstances of those to whom the knowledge is im- 
planted, then we should have to speak the truth though 
it killed people and should have to refuse to deceive 
a raging animal though at the risk of being killed our- 
selves. 

But now let us take a step further. We have 
found that there is a reason for some of the commonly- 
recognised duties of life, that they are duties, because 
in doing them we contribute to certain desirable ends. 
In the one case, it is health ; in another, the perpetua- 
tion of the race ; in another, the benefit or welfare of 
men. The question then forces itself upon us, are 
these ends desirable for themselves alone, or have in 
turn we to give a reason for choosing them, just as we 
had to for temperance, purity and speaking the truth ? 
Have we at this stage arrived where we can rest, have 
we the ultimate ends, the final goods, the first prin- 
ciples of which we are in search? It does not alto- 
gether seem so. What is for the good of our health 
should indeed at once have respect from us ; and yet 
I think it is tolerably evident on a little reflection that 
health is desirable, because with it we can best do our 
work in life, because with it we are put in possession 
of all our faculties — and without it we are in a measure 
useless, a burden to others and a burden to ourselves. 
If we could do our work as well, if we could be as 
cheerful, if we could think and attain all our higher 
spiritual development as well without health as with 
it, health would be a matter of indifference. And if 
we ever allow an injury to our health, if we ever take 
risks with it (with the sanction of conscience, I mean), 
it is in aiming at some good beyond it — as mothers 
may in child-bearing, as explorers and pioneers may 
in opening up new countries to the world, as students 
and philosophic thinkers may in endeavoring to un- 
ravel the mysteries of existence, as reformers may in 
contending with old wrongs and abuses, as patriots 
ma)' who risk their very life in the defense of their 
firesides and homes. We should keep our health for 
a purpose ; it is not an end in itself. I am obliged to 
think in the same way of the perpetuation of the race. 
I think we may ask, why should we follow these deep- 
seated instincts of our nature? Natural as it may be 
to obey them, self-evident as it may seem to many 



3194 



THE OPEN COURT. 



that there ought to be more and more people in the 
world, I think that on sober reflection we are bound to 
ask, why? My answer would be that whether more 
people in the world are desirable depends upon what 
sort of people they are to be, how circumstanced 
(whether favorably or no to a really human develop- 
ment) — for we can easily conceive of conditions (and 
there are likely to be such in the later history of the 
globe) in which life would be a pitiful, useless strug- 
gle ; and there may be inborn tendencies, physical and 
mental, that may make it better for some men and 
women not to have children now. The perpetuation 
of the race is a good, so far as it means the possibil- 
ity of the race rising ever to higher and higher levels, 
so far as it means that there may be new human be- 
ings who may do better than their fathers and moth- 
ers did (or, at least as well), so far as it means the 
continuity and perpetuation and advancement of that 
spiritual something we call human civilisation and 
culture. No, the family, is not an end ; it is a means 
to an end — a necessary means, indeed, and thereby a 
sacred institution, but still looking beyond itself; and 
these fathers and mothers are truly hallowed in their 
domestic lives who wish to bring up their children to 
carry still further the conquests of light, of love, and 
of justice in the world. 

Yet when we think of the third end of which dis- 
covery was made — namely, the benefit or welfare of 
men, must we not say that this is a self-evident good, 
that no reason outside it is required for seeking it, 
since it appeals so immediately to us? In a sense it 
must be admitted that this is so. The reasons that 
have been given for the other ends, just discussed, 
are more or less closely connected with this end. And 
yet it is necessary that we have a clear idea of what 
the benefit or welfare of men means. There may be 
different standards by which to judge it, there may be 
limited notions of it; and we must not content our- 
selves with a phrase or a vague idea. Some may un- 
derstand by welfare simply being well-situated in life, 
secure against enemies and accidents ; but such wel- 
fare is as one-sided and incomplete a notion as health 
— we may ask, Why should we be thus favorably situ- 
ated ? what is the good of it, if we do not make more 
of ourselves thereby ? Others may understand by wel- 
fare happiness ; and surely happiness has the marks 
of being a good in itself. When we are happy, we 
do not ask why, to what end are we happy? For all 
labor, for all effort, for all self-denial there must be a 
reason ; but there needs be no reason for happiness. 
And yet happiness, while a good (in itself), is not nec- 
essarily the good, the whole good; and such is its sin- 
gular nature that it may be connected with not only 
what is otherwise good, but with what is unworthy 
and bad. Are there not those who find happiness in 



ruling other people and bringing them under their 
thumb, are there not those who find happiness in liv- 
ing in the eyes of the world and being continually no- 
ticed and applauded, are there not those who find 
happiness in giving themselves up to selfish pursuits 
and are never so pleased as when they have driven a 
successful bargain at somebody else's loss? Happi- 
ness in and of itself is innocent and is one of the first 
ends of our being, but when it is made into the only 
end, when other goods are made secondary or ignored, 
it may be the accompaniment of ignoble as well as no- 
ble action; moreover, in the existing state of human 
nature, happiness is so variable a quantity, that it can 
scarcely be said to furnish a standard at all (even a 
low or poor one), and so an ancient writer said well, 
" Pleasure is the companion, not the guide of virtue." 
We may live for happiness, if we only make it con- 
sistent with other ends of our being ; we may work for 
other's happiness, so it be a worthy happiness, a hap- 
piness which is a harmonious part of a total good. 

Physical security and comfort, happiness — these 
are not enough as measures of man's welfare; the one 
is too low, the other too variable. And how is it pos- 
sible to judge of welfare save by saying that it must 
take in the whole of man, not only the life of the body 
or the satisfaction of existing desires, but the life of 
the mind and spirit, the possibilities of willing and 
achieving, the capacities of love — so that to work for 
human welfare means to work for the cultivation, the 
enrichment, the indefinite enlargement and expansion 
of the entire life of men, physical and spiritual? If 
we mean by human welfare, human perfection, if we 
set before ourselves the ideal of a perfected humanity 
— then we have an end in which we can rest, a goal 
that has every appearance of being a final goal, be- 
cause we can imagine nothing greater beyond it, be- 
cause there is no outside purpose a perfected human- 
ity could serve which could be as great as itself. We 
may not be able to say beforehand all that a perfected 
humanity would attain, all it would be ; we may not 
be able to present a definite picture of it — yet we know 
the tendencies, the capacities that await a full and 
complete development, we know the lines of advance 
in the past, we see how they stretch out before us 
now ; we know our direction, our bearing — and what 
will be (or should be) in the future is only an exten- 
sion, an unfolding, a blossoming and ripening of what 
we have now. Humanity's powers, (all it has con- 
sciously, all that may be revealed to it) passed into 
realisation — the mind, the heart, the will of universal 
man in full play and triumphant activity ; that is the 
ideal that seems to sum up what is valid in all other 
ideals, that is the good which serves to measure all 
other goods ; everything is right which tends to its 
accomplishment and everything is wrong which tends 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3195 



to defeat it and make it impossible ; all our duties 
(which are real duties) have their ultimate sanction 
here — they are explained by, derived from the one su- 
preme duty of laboring for such a consummation; 
every valid rule of action is only an application of the 
sovereign rule to work for the perfection of society, 
for the total development of the capacities of man. 

It is only another way of stating this to say that we 
have now reached the point where we cease to ask for 
reasons. It is as with any scientific investigation ; 
when we reach an ultimate law of nature or an ulti- 
mate fact, we are satisfied. We do not wish to go be- 
yond it, because there is no going beyond it; and all 
the demands and efforts of our reason might be said 
to be to the end of finding something about which we 
have to reason no more. Such a recognition as this 
when made in the realm of morals is sometimes mis- 
understood. When we propose an ultimate rule of 
right action and say that no reason can be given for it, 
this is misinterpreted as meaning that we give up re- 
liance or reason and abandon ourselves to mysticism ; 
while it is reason and reason only that has brought us 
to the discovery of the ultimate rule, and the rule 
might be called (if so long a word can be pardoned) 
the objectification of reason — that is, reason written 
out into an objective law. Mysticism is, if I under- 
stand the word, a love of vague, shadowy, nebulous 
thoughts, a preference of twilight or the dark rather 
than the clear light of day ; but nothing is clearer, more 
distinct, (to one who thinks along the lines I have just 
followed) than this ultimate law of right which I have 
stated ; no reason could be given for it that is as clear 
as the law itself. A sense of all this is the motive for 
the assertion sometimes made that it is absurd for a 
man to ask. Why should I do right ? For when one finds 
the real, ultimate right, the question is absurd ; but 
this does not mean that it is absurd to ask why one 
should be temperate, or truthful, or chaste, or obedient 
to authority, all of which are right only in relation to cir- 
cumstances that may change. When we find out what 
is right, when we discover any special minor duty that 
is really duty, there is nothing under heaven for us 
but to do it; and the question. Why? as it is some- 
times raised does not mean a demand for intellectual 
clarification, but rather. What am I going to get by 
doing right ? and springs from a base motive rather 
than a noble one. There are not a few of these spe- 
cious questioners to-day — weak, timid children of fash- 
ion and conventional religion — who ask why should 
they rule their passions and live sober righteous lives, 
unless it is that they are going to be rewarded for it 
hereafter; so little does popular Christianity really 
educate the moral nature of its followers. For there 
is this implication in the idea of an ultimate rule of 
action — namely, that man has a capacity of acting in 



accordance with it, that there' is (what we may call for 
lack of a better term) an instinct for the right in him, 
a love for the right as such, just as there is a love for 
the truth as such, irrespective of any personal gain 
save the consciousness of knowing it; this disinter- 
ested love of truth is the basic motive of science and 
the love of right is the basic motive of really moral 
conduct. 

From the standpoint of the supreme rule it ought 
now to be possible to survey the whole field of duty 
and to give an explanation and justification for each 
minor rule. This would be necessary to complete our 
investigation and to give it a thoroughly scientific 
character. But I fear I have already taken more space 
than should be accorded to a single article. 



THE "IS" AND THE "OUGHT." 

The distinction between explicative and normative 
sciences is for certain purposes very commendable. 
Such sciences as psychology, physiology, botany, gram- 
mar, etc., explain the "is," they describe facts as they 
are, while such sciences as logic, horticulture, hygiene, 
ethics, etc., set forth an "ought"; they prescribe the 
methods by which a certain ideal is to be attained. 
Normative sciences in so far as they are practically 
applied are also called disciplines. 

Yet the distinction between explicative and norma- 
tive sciences is artificial ; it serves a certain purely 
scientific purpose, viz. to discriminate between natural 
laws and rules ; but it is not founded in the nature of 
things. The realities which form the objects of these 
sciences are undivided and indivisible. Hygiene is 
possible only on the basis of physiology ; logic only 
on the basis of a knowledge of the actual modes of 
thought ; horticulture only on the basis of botany, and 
ethics only on the basis of psychology and sociology. 

It is true that as a rule a skilled gardener will raise 
better fruit than a scientific botanist, but the best fruit 
will be raised in the botanical gardens where skill is 
guided by scientific insight. 

The ethics of mankind has up to date been almost 
exclusively in the hands of the clergy, who in so far as 
they are imbued with the spirit of dogmatism, claim to 
be in possession of a nostrum which was by a divine 
revelation entrusted solely to their care, and maintain 
that nothing can be learned from science. The pres- 
ent age, however, no longer believes in nostrums and 
science penetrates everywhere. Humanity has found 
out that ethics forms no exception among the norma- 
tive disciplines and that it can be based upon science 
as much as hygiene and horticulture. 

The greatest demand of the time is not as the icon- 
oclast says the abolition of religion, it is not as the 
dogmatist says, a revival of the blind faith of ages gone 
by, the greatest demand of the time is a conciliation 



3196 



THE OPEN COURT. 



between religion and science, is the imbuement of the 
clergy with the holy spirit of research, not in their 
symbolic books only, not in the Bible only, but in the 
wider and more reliable revelation of God, in nature ; 
the greatest demand of the time is the maturing of 
dogmatic religion into a religion of science which will 
finally turn the cathedrals, temples, and synagogues 
of mankind into churches of science. 

The Christian catechisms distinguish between the 
visible churches and the Invisible Church, the latter 
being the ideal of the former. There is a great truth 
in this distinction. The Invisible Church is that church 
whose faith is the religion of science, who preaches 
the ethics based upon facts and stands upon the ground 
of demonstrable truth. The Invisible Church is an 
ideal ; but it is not an air castle. The Invisible Church 
is the aim toward which the development of all the 
visible churches tends. So long as the visible churches 
grow to be more and more like the Invisible Church, 
they will be and remain the moral leaders of mankind. 

If the churches refuse to progress with the spirit 
of the time, they will lose their influence upon society, 
and the kingdom will be taken from them and given 
to others. That which we want, that which we must 
have, and that which mankind will have after all, if 
not to-day or to-morrow, yet in some not too distant 
future is a church which preaches the religion of hu- 
manity, which has no creed, no dogmas, but avowing 
a faith in truth and in the provableness of truth, 
teaches an ethics based upon the facts of nature. 

When the Ethical Societies were founded many 
people hoped that a movement was started which 
would supply the demand of a religion of science and 
of scientific ethics applied to practical life. This hope 
was not fulfilled. The founder of the ethical societies is 
swayed by principles which are little short of an actual 
hostility toward science, and Mr. Salter is not as yet 
free from the belief that the ultimate basis of science 
rests upon some transcendental principle. Science in 
his opinion fails at the critical point. 

The Societies of Ethical Culture can be called pro- 
gressive in so far only as they discard rituals and cere- 
monies ; but they are actually a reactionary movement 
on the main point in question. And there are frequent 
instances of clergymen and rabbis who proclaim freely 
and boldly the advanced ideas of a scientific concep- 
tion of religion. Such views are not only not heard 
from the platforms of the Societies for Ethical Cul- 
ture, but they are stigmatised by their leader. 

It seems to me that in the present article Mr. Sal- 
ter has considerably approached our position. He 
objects to mysticism, which Professor Adler formerly 
regarded as an indispensable element of ethics and 
ethical culture, and we may hope that the barrier of 



his transcendentalism that separates us still may be 
broken down too. 

Mr. Salter says ; 

" Here then is the field for our inquiry — not nature, not man 
in general, not his actions, but the rules according to which he 
conceives he should act." 

But he exclaims with a tinge of hopeless despair, 
as if there were no answer to the question : 

" Where shall we turn for light as to this problem ? " 

He answers the question by a counter-question ; he 
asks : 

" Who does not see that everything depends upon the use to 
which we mean to put onr knowledge ? " 

"It seems to be taken for granted that everybody desires hap- 
piness or long life for himself and others." 

"But the fact is that is<e may desire* other things." 

Is Mr. Salter's question unanswerable ? We hope 
not; for if it were unanswerable, ethics could not ex- 
ist as a science. 

The ultimate question of ethics is not what WE 
desire, but on the contrary what IS desired of us. We, 
i. e. our personal likes and dislikes, our intentions to 
make or to mar, have nothing to do with the subject. 
Ethics does not in the least depend upon the use to 
which we mean to put our knowledge. The mere in- 
troduction of the we and what roe intend to use facts 
for, will produce confusion. This "we" of our per- 
sonal desires is the veil of Maya which deceives us 
and leads us so easily astray. 

The "is" that forms the basis of the "ought" in 
ethics consists in the nature of mankind and of the 
universe in which mankind exists. The laws of na- 
ture, especially of human nature and of the evolution 
of humanity, are the very same thing which the dog- 
matic religions call "the will of God." The will of 
God remains and will remain, for ever and aye, the ba- 
sis of ethics. 

Facts are such as they are, and the laws of nature 
will prevail. This is the basic truth of ethics and any 
question whether we shall recognise the will of God, 
whether we shall acknowledge the truth of nature's 
laws, whether we shall adopt the rules that are de- 
rived from the "is" into our will as the supreme rule 
of action, is another question of a personal nature, but 
it does neither invalidate the basis of ethics, nor does 
it stand in any connection with it. 

We might be dissatisfied with the laws of nature 
and might imagine that we, if we had created the 
world, should have arranged them better than they are. 
We might decline to respect the precepts of the moral 
ought. That would doom our souls to perdition, for 
O Man ! who art thou that repliest against God ? 
(Rom. ix, 20.) It is hard for thee to kick against the 
pricks. (Acts ix, 5.) 



THE OPENT COURT. 



3197 



The ought of ethics remains the same whether I, or 
you, or anybody else, deigns to follow, or refuses to fol- 
low, its behests ; for the ultimate basis of ethics is not 
founded upon any so-called immovable rock of our con- 
science, not upon our subjective likes or dislikes, not 
upon what we choose to do or to leave alone. The 
ultimate basis of ethics is of an objective nature. The 
criterion of ethics is one of fact and not of opinion. 
That which has to be the standard of moral action can 
be inquired into, and can be searched for by scientific 
methods ; it can be stated with as much exactness as 
the mathematical or logical rules or as any other pre- 
cepts of the normative sciences. 

Ethics is a normative science. It is as truly a science 
in every respect as are all the normative sciences. 
The ultimate principles of the normative sciences are 
not of a transcendental nature, they are founded upon 
the actual facts of life ; the "ought" derives its rules 
from the "is," the ideal is rooted and must be rooted 
in the real. p. c. 



CURRENT TOPICS. 

It is not the habit of Chicago citizens to go into hysterics be- 
cause rain falls in March, and yet they pretend to be worried and 
flurried because bribes have been accepted by members of the City 
Council, where bribery is as natural and easy as rain upon the 
lake. Public virtue comes in spasms, and seven aldermen were 
indicted yesterday, literally in a spasm ; the indictments against 
them being of that sudden, dangerous, and unconstitutional kind 
known at the Court House as "dummy " ; good enough says the 
apology for them, to hold the accused persons "until the State's 
Attorney can file indictments more specific." Better to endure 
bribery than "dummy" indictments, for bribery at the worst is 
only a species of larceny affecting the public pocket, while "dum- 
my " indictments threaten the liberty and the good name of every 
citizen in the land. In the present case the ethical distinction be- 
tween the bribery charged and the "dummy" indictment which 
charges it is this, that the bribery was wilfully felonious, while 
the State's attorney in drawing the "dummy" indictment was in- 
nocent of any intention to do wrong ; indeed he was only too hasty 
to do right ; but a judge should never hold a man to bail on such 
an indictment. It is too severe a strain upon the constitution and 
the law. A " dummy " indictment with the names of "dummy" 
witnesses upon the back of it is fraught with potentiality of mis- 
chief. The "dummy " indictment on which the accused aldermen 
have been held to bail, makes no fact averments of any kind. It 
contains nothing but a conclusion of law prefaced by an abstract 
accusation. The excuse that it was necessary to hurry lest the 
men should get away is not good, because they could have been 
arrested on a warrant issued by any Justice of the Peace, on a 
sworn information. 

* ' * 

The paroxysm of indignation at the swaggering rapparees 
in the City Council who for years have been plundering the citizens, 
and selling valuable bits of the city itself, while entirely natural 
and just, contains within it a good deal of affectation ; and in its 
present form of action, it makes another fierce attack upon the 
shadows, leaving the substance undisturbed. We imprison a knave 
or two, but cultivate the conditions out of which they grow. We 
provide all the facilities for public larceny, and then affect to be 
shocked by official theft. We submit to Saloon government ad- 
ministered by an aristocracy of the slums, and then wonder why 



corruption develops in the City Legislature. We put the control 
and disposal of millions into the hands of the beery elements, 
and then ask them to guard and protect the city honestly for 
nothing. We pay only nominal salaries to aldermen e.xpecting them 
to reward themselves by collateral gains, which they very liberally 
do. Judging from the clouds of tobacco smoke which perfume the 
Council Chamber when the Honorable Council is in session, the 
salary of an alderman can barely pay for his cigars. Every Dem- 
ocratic committee, and every Republican committee that makes 
an assessment on candidates for seats in the Council, must at least 
suspect that in many cases they are asking for a share of antici- 
pated spoil. The theory of our municipal constitution is that alder- 
men shall give to the public something for nothing, and the prac- 
tice of the aldermen is to reject that rule and give something for 
something to private corporations. The only wonder is that under 
a system of multiple temptations, there are now, and always have 
been men in the city Council, faithful, vigilant, and absolutely in- 
corruptible. This is the hope that lies at the bottom of this Pan- 
dora's box. " Tim wants to run for alderman again this year, and 
it's a shame for Tom to be trying to get the nomination away from 
him," said a partisan advocating his friend. "Tim ought to have 
another term, because this year there'll be something to be made." 
The aldermanic Tims and Toms, who aspire to the City Council 
because "this year there'll be something to be made," are the 
microbes born of a diseabe, and propagating a disease which "dum- 
my" indictments will not cure. 

Like the clatter of tin pans comes up a lot of delirious clamor 
for the indictment cf the bribers too ; and there are thoughtless 
critics who demand a double punishment for them. This is an 
erroneous view of justice, because in municipal bribery there is 
usually no equipoise of guilt between the bribers and the bribed. 
John Adams, in his old age, desired that it might be said of him 
hereafter, " Here is one who never seduced any woman, nor any 
man" ; and the glory of that praise will shine for ever about him 
like the aureola that the painters draw. Even a long career of pa- 
triotic statesmanship grows pale within its light ; but in the ordin- 
ary corruptions of a civic parliament the seduction of an honest 
man is rare. There is an important moral difference between the 
giving of a bribe, and the payment of a toll. Illegal money ex- 
torted by an alderman for the performance of a duty is a bribe 
in the hands of the man who takes it, but from the hands of a man 
who pays the money it may be only the tribute of blackmail. 
When legitimate business is blockaded by aldermanic tariffs, what 
can enterprise do but raise the blockade by payment of the toll. 
A man in the hands of brigands pays a ransom for his libeity, but 
he does not thereby become a brigand. There are citizens in Chi- 
cago of the highest character who have been compelled to remove 
municipal obstructions out of the way of their lawful business by 
paying money to men who live by City Hall brokerage, the buying 
and selling of aldermen. It is an inflamed and irrational anger 
that includes broker, aldermen, and victims in one moral indict- 
ment ; and by putting them all into one criminal indictment the 
law bafles its own ministers and defeats itself, because by making 
the victims criminal their testimony is lost, and the bribe taker is 
made secure. An instructive example of this folly is that part of 
the Inter-State Commerce Law, where it is made criminal for a 
railroad company to grant rebates, and equally criminal to accept 
them. This latter provision defeats the former, because the ship- 
per is protected by it from giving evidence. So, the law should 
make a distinction between the man who deliberately corrupts an 
alderman for purposes of public plunder, and the citizen who 
merely pays illegal tribute for permission to engage in a legal and 
beneficial business. If bribers were exempt from penalties and 
could be compelled to testify, the business of bribe taking would 
soon be at an end. 



3198 



THE OPEN COURT. 



Here is a bit of expressive news which I copy from a morning 
paper, "A committee of prominent members of the Jacksonian 
club of Omaha, arrived yesterday at the Sherman House to ar- 
range for 1000 enthusiastic democrats who will attend the Na- 
tional Convention. 'Nebraska will send an uninstructed delega- 
tion,' said Mr. Sternsdorf, 'Our club and the democracy of the 
whole state are divided on the Presidential question ; we shall 
however, stand by the nominee, whoever he may be.'" This 
piece of information and its animating sentiment exhibit a very 
fair sample of that self-abasement which goes by the name of 
party loyalty. Those "enthusiastic democrats" are not coming 
to the convention as delegates, but merely to make an enthusiastic 
noise. They are not players in the Presidential game ; they are only 
chips with which political shufflers gamble for the government. 
They are the morally inanimate counters with which the "states- 
men" play. As to the meaning of " democrat, " no two of them 
understand it alike, but they do know that the whole thousand of 
them are democrats, ready to "stand by the nominee, whoever he 
may be," even Mephistopheles himself. In their partisan blind- 
ness they swear by Saint Jefferson, who had such intellectual' 
scorn for them. Although they were not born in 1789, he knew 
they would be born, and he told them then that he never submitted 
his opinions to the creed of any body of men, in religion, in philos- 
ophy, in politics, or in anything else where he was capable of 
thinking for himself ; and he said, "Such an addiction is the last 
degradation of a free moral agent. If I could not go to heaven 
but with a party, I would not go to heaven at all." This doctrine 
is repudiated by his disciples, the "enthusiastic democrats" from 
Omaha. If they cannot go to heaven in a party procession they 
will prefer to stay out of it altogether, although there is not the 
slightest chance that a democratic procession would be allowed in- 
side the celestial gates. Jefferson was the founder of the mugwumps ; 
he would be free, or nothing. About the time the democrats meet in 
convention at Chicago, the republicans will meet in convention at 
Minneapolis, and Omaha will very likely send a thousand enthu- 
siastic republicans there, to howl for the winner, and yowl at the 
loser, and "stand by the nominee." 
* 

Although the democrats of Nebraska are prepared to "stand 
by the nominee," they are "divided on the Presidential question," 
and this marks an advance in the evolution of party morals, be- 
cause it shows that even political chips may have independent 
spirit enough to thinE for themselves before the convention, if not 
after it ; whereas, in former days, as I well remember, a true par- 
tisan had no soul of his own at either time. Early in i860, and 
long before the conventions of that year were held, I heard a man 
say to a friend, "Who is your first choice for the nomination ?" 
The answer was, " My first choice is the nominee." The enthu- 
siastic partisan had abdicated himself so effectually, and surren- 
dered himself so unconditionally to the caucus, that he had not 
manhood enough to form a choice or to express any opinion in 
advance of its decree. Lately I have read in a democratic paper 
of national importance that Senator Hill is quite unfit for the 
Presidency, by reason of much intrinsic and extrinsic moral weak- 
ness, and the editor finishes a high spirited and indignant protest 
against Mr. Hill's presumption, with this obsequious promise to 
obey the caucus, "Still, should Mr. Hill be nominated, he will re- 
ceive our hearty and enthusiastic support." All of which reminds 
me of Bill McBride, editor of The lifarliletown Independent, a re- 
publican organ in the days before the war. Quincy A. Bellows, 
editor of T/ie Free /-'lag, a rival republican journal, wanted to be 
a member of the legislature, and was laying pipe for the nomina- 
tion, when his pretensions were thus "laid bare" by McBride. 
' ' We understand that the recent importation who edits the Feeble 
Flieker in the alley, aspires to be a member of the General Assem- 
bly. This impudent ambition reveals a conscience made of leather. 



It is well known to the people of Marble county that he is in the 
daily practice of the seven deadly sins, and Quince has no more 
chance for the legislature than he has for heaven. Still, should 
he be nominated by the republican convention, he will receive our 
hearty and enthusiastic support." Mr. Bellows did get the nomi- 
nation, whereupon the Independent said, "The work of the con- 
vention was well done, and the people of Marble county will be 
represented in the next legislature by that vigorous writer, that 
eloquent orator, and staunch republican the Hon. Quincy Adams 
Bellows." M. M. Trumbull. 



NOTES. 

Tlie Conso-vator comments upon our last criticism of The So- 
cieties for Ethical Culture as follows ; " Mr. Cams thinks that we 
" need to square ethical statement with fact. So do I. So does 
"Mr. Salter." . . . . " It is astonishing that Mr. Carus resists all 
"explanation." 

We call The Consei-vator' s attention to Mr. Salter's article in 
the present number, which may be compared with the following 
passage quoted from Mr. Salter's book " Ethical Religion," p. 37 : 
"Base morality on facts ? Which facts ? There are innumerable 
"facts, an induction from which would only give us immorality. 
"The good facts, then ? But plainly, this is moving in a circle. 
" In truth, there is nothing on ivhich to base morality. We do not 
" so much find it, as demand it in the world." 

MR. C. S. PEIRCE has resumed his lessons by correspondence in the 
Art of Reasoning, taught in progressive exercises. A special course in logic 
has been prepared for correspondents interested in philosophy. Terms, S30 
for twenty-four lessons. Address: Mr. C. S. Peirce, "Avisbe," Milford, Pa. 

THE OPEN COURT. 

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All communications should be addressed to 

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P. O. DRAWER F. CHICAGO, ILL. 

CONTENTS OF NO. 240. 

FIRST PRINCIPLES IN ETHICS. William M. Salter. 3191 

THE "IS" AND THE "OUGHr." Editor 3194 

CURRENT TOPICS. Dummy Indictments. Municipal 
Corruption. The Moral Difference between the Briber 
and the Bribed. Party Discipline. Stand by the Nomi- 
nee. M. M. Trumbull 3097 

NOTES 3198 




The Open Court 



A Vi/KEKLY JOUEISTAL 



Devoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion Avith Science. 



No. 241. (Vol. VI.— 14. 



CHICAGO, APRIL 7, 1892. 



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WALT WHITMAN. 



MY LITTLE WREATH OF THOUGHTS AND MEMORIES. 



BY MONCURE D. CONWAY. 



The phenomenal poet had a phenomenal funeral. 
I went to the poor frame house in Camden with an old 
college chum who happens to be an eminent railway 
president in Philadelphia : we took our place at the 
end of a long row of people in the street, working men 
and women, children, who to the number of four thou- 
sand filed through the house to look upon the dead 
poet. There he lay in the familiar gray garb, his face 
in such sweet and beautiful repose that I shall always 
be more friendly with death for having seen it. None 
could look upon this face without reverence. Rem- 
brandt would have selected it from a million. The 
magnificent dome of head and forehead, and the glory 
of snowy white hair ; the brow, unfurrowed ; the del- 
icate mouth, not concealed by the thin moustache, 
the long flowing beard ; the finely cut features, the ex- 
pression of perfect peace and perfect kindliness : they 
were all a marvellous refrain to his own poem on 
"lonely and soothing Death," with which the funeral 
celebration in the woods presently opened. It is the 
face of an aged loving child. As I looked it was with 
the reflection that during an acquaintance of thirty-six 
years I never heard from those lips a word of irrita- 
tion, or depreciation of any being. I do not believe 
that Buddha, of whom he appeared an avatar, was 
more gentle to all men, women, children, and living 
things. There arose in my memory many thoughts 
that I have heard from him, in the spirit that wrote 
the closing lines of his " Leaves of Grass " : 



Dear friend, whoever you are, take this kiss. 
1 give it especially to you — Do not forget nie ; 
I feel like one who has done work for the day, I 



ve now aga 
vhile other: 



1 of r 



ubtle 



1 1 dr^ 



etire awhile ; 

I my avataras asce 



.An unknown sphere, more r 

ing rays about me — So lon^ f 
Remember my words — I may again return, 
1 love you — I depart from materials ; 
1 am as one disembodied, triumphant, dead." 



There were touching responses. From all parts of 
the world wreaths were sent ; myrtle from the grave of 
Key, author of the "Star Spangled Banner"; flowers 



from the poets Gilder and Stedipan ; and some lilies 
from old Mrs. Davis who nursed him to the last. Por- 
traits of his mother and father looked from the walls. 
Near by was the large bust of his spiritual father, 
Elias Hicks, founder of the Hicksite Quakers. Large 
histories found some connection with this little room 
where Walt Whitman lay. I remember hearing Car- 
lyle talk of the "Leaves of Grass," which Emerson 
had sent him. He recognised something of the mys- 
terious fire called genius, but was repelled by the dem- 
ocratic enthusiasm. "He seems to be saying, 'I am 
a big man because I live in such a big country.' I 
know of great men who have come from small and ob- 
scure corners of the world." Carlyle should have seen 
the poor little house, in poor little Mickle Street, 
which contented the man he supposed inflated. Whit- 
man combined a childlike humility with a childlike 
delight in all applause of his works. His pleasure in 
such tributes was mainly that he might transfer them 
to America. The inspiration of the New World was 
to him much the same as to a Quaker the moving 
Spirit, to which he ascribes whatever he utters. Walt 
Whitman's ambition would have been more than sat- 
isfied by recognition as a rude pioneer of a race of 
American bards who should exalt and transfigure the 
facts and features of their own country. This country 
he could never criticise; his feeling towards America 
was personal ; to criticise it would be to him like 
dwelling on the faults of his mother. The nearest 
thing to fault-finding I ever heard from him was when, 
in deprecating something said of the tendency of de- 
mocracy to commonplace, he said he thought it too 
soon to say that; that democracy was in its infancy; 
and an improvement would appear when women were 
enfranchised. 

It was a beautiful soft day when we bore Walt 
Whitman to his vault, — that great rough-hewn granite 
vault in the side of a wooded hill several miles out of 
Camden. There Col. Ingersoll spoke more impres- 
sively than I had before heard him speak ; Dr. Binton, 
Dr. Bucke, — one for Philadelphia, one for England, — 
spoke well ; and Thomas Harned, Whitman's neigh- 
bor, feelingly conveyed his old friend's farewell to his 
humble neighbors, and thanks for their kindnesses, as 



3200 



THE OPEN COURT 



he had been enjoined by the dying man. There were, 
however, comparatively few authors present, — I saw 
about seven. There have been several severe criti- 
cisms in the press showing animosity towards Whit- 
man. There has been some resentment, in certain 
literary quarters, that the authors of England, with 
Lord Tennyson at their head, should have singled out 
this particular man for their homage. But these 
critics would be wiser if they studied the fact instead 
of resenting it. The English love Walt Whitman be- 
cause he is totally un-English. This was what Emer- 
son felt when, after reading the " Leaves of Grass," 
he wrote the poet: "It meets the demand I am always 
making of what seemed the sterile and stingy nature, 
as if too much handiwork, or too much lymph in the 
temperament, were making our western wits fat and 
mean,." "I find it the most extraordinary piece of 
wit and wisdom that America has yet contributed." 
That was the secret : it was contributed by America. 
Well do I remember a day when, in the early sum- 
mer of 1855, as I entered Emerson's study he handed 
me the " Leaves of Grass," of which I had not heard, 
and which was just out. Emerson said : "Americans 
abroad may now come home : unto us a man is born." 
A month later I sought Walt Whitman out, in the 
farthest part of Brooklyn. His father (English) had 
died early in the year ; his mother (Dutch) I saw. She 
was a kindly old lady, and I thought she seemed a 
little frightened about her son's work. Whitman told 
me, as we roamed about that Sunday, that I was the 
first visitor whom his book had drawn. He had set 
it up in type himself, and gave me a copy which I now 
have. All of this he remembered four or five weeks 
ago when I visited him. His memory was bright for 
old times. He told me of persons he had known in 
Huntington, Long Island, where he was born (1819). 
Elias Hicks, who died in 1830, he heard preach. His 
tall slender figure and earnest manner made a strong 
impression on my childhood. Hicks resided in the 
neighborhood of William Cobbett, and the two, he 
thought, knew each other. He (Whitman) enjoyed the 
personal friendship of Col. John Fellows of New York. 
Fellows wrote several books (on Freemasonry, etc.) 
which are now forgotten, but his constant friendship 
for Thomas Paine is remembered. "Col. Fellows was 
a ruddy well-dressed gentleman, often seen about the 
courts. He told me that the pious legend of Paine's 
being a drunkard, and so forth, is quite false : Paine 
drank only as everybody else did. He said also that 
Paine had a very large following in New York, which 
increased after his death." While Whitman was 
talking I several times arose to leave, fearing he might 
suffer. But he never groaned or murmured ; he bade 
me farewell very cordially. Although nothing of the 
kind was said, we both felt that we were parting for- 



ever, — that is, in this life ; for Whitman never had a 
doubt of meeting all of his friends in some conscious 

Nirvana. 

That any one could find a trace of prurience in his 
pages was a thing Whitman could not conceive. Those 
who have censured him on this score cannot, on their 
side, conceive the completeness with which the popu- 
lar transcendentalism of the Hicksite movement revo- 
lutionised the minds trained in its atmosphere. It was 
a sort of mystical naturalism to which nothing in na- 
ture — literally nothing — was common or unclean ; and 
it was accompanied by an hereditary tendency to write 
with what Emerson used to call "biblical plainness." 
One of the most remarkable things about Walt Whit- 
man was his spontaneous orientalism. Let me quote 
from my "Sacred Anthology" a few passages which 
I know were not translated when Whitman wrote the 
"Leaves of Grass." Here are sentences from the 
" Arthava Veda " : 

" I praise the world, which is continually renewed. 
May clean waters flow for our body : I wash me thoroughly and am clean. 
All the range of thee, O earth, which I look over by the help of the sun- 
may the sight of my eye lose none of it till the latest years that are to 

May the peaceful earth, whose fragrance is excellent, whose breasts contain 
the heavenly drinlC bless me with her milk ! " 

Even more has Whitman the trick and accent of 
the Persian poets of the tenth century — who were 
partly Moslem and-partly Zoroastrian. The following 
is from Faizi : 



1 and 



" The companion of my loneliness is my genius. 

Did I bring forth what is in my mind, could llie age bear it ? 

In my regulated reason I see the system of the universe, and in 
earth my motion and my rest. 

My own blood is the basis of the wine of my enthusiasm. 

Although I liave buried my head in my hood, I can see both worlds; it may 
be that love has woven ray garment from the threads of my contem- 
plation. 

I have become dust, but from the odor of my grave people shall know that 
man rises from such dust." 

The Persian Urfi calls his own name in his poetry 
in the same manner as Whitman : 



closed do 



.vhich 



" Urfi has done well to stand quietly befo 

would open : he did not knock at another door. 
To pine for the arrival of young spring shows narrowness of mind ; him- 
dreds of beauties are on the heap of rubbish in the backyard which 
are not met with in the rose garden." 

Walt Whitman was not a reader of oriental books 
unless in later years ; but it will be seen that he had 
reproduced some characteristics of those ancient lit- 
eratures. The "Leaves of Grass" was certainly a 
sort of New York Vedas. The Western mind finds 
erotic element^ in the warm spiritual passion of the 
oriental writers ; they are tolerated only in the Bible. 
But Whitman has gone farther than the Bible lands, 
and sees life and nature with the eyes of an old der- 
vish. Strange, this correspondence between the colors 
of the world's sunrise and sunset ! 



THE Ol^BNT COURT. 



3201 



NATURE AND MORALITY. 



AN EXAMINATION OF THE ETHICAL VIEWS OF JOHN 
"' STUART MILL. 



[continued.] 
II. THE ETHICS TAUGHT BV NATURE. 

What can be the meaning of Mr. Mill's objection 
to basing morality upon nature, i. e. upon the entire 
system of things, of the universe, of which we are a 
part? I see only three possibilities: either it means 
(i) that there is no ethics at all, or (2) that ethics is 
imported somehow into the world from the outside, or 
(3) that ethics is a purely subjective invention, that it 
is an artificial product of man's fancy. 

If nature were a chaos, if there were no constancy of 
law in the universe, no regularity but only the sportive 
arbitrariness of an irregular play of chance, no world- 
order but a tohnvabhohu of general confusion, intelli- 
gent as well as moral action would be impossible, for 
no calculation of consequences would be reliable. Yet if 
there is a world-order, conformity to it will be possible. 
Upon the presence of law depends the intelligibility 
of the world ; the regularity of law is the basis of ra- 
tional action, of foresight, of responsibility, and of 
moral action. 

The view that ethics are imported into the world 
from the outside is the theological theory of revelation. 
It is based upon the dualistic world- conception that 
the world and God are two distinct entities. The 
world by itself is supposed to be a chaos, but God 
brings order into it by penetrating the chaos. Ac- 
cording to this view the regularity of law is not of the 
world but of God ; it is not an intrinsic feature of ex- 
istence, but it is imposed upon it by an extra-mundane 
Deity. 

The view that ethics is a purely subjective inven- 
tion, that it is human to the exclusion of the not hu- 
man in nature, we may fairly assume, is Mr. Mill's 
view. Mr. Mill would have objected to the idea of 
considering his view as a special case of the revelation 
theory in ethics, but such it is none the less. What 
is the human but a product of nature. Those forces 
and laws which shaped man are the very same agen- 
cies which shaped the rest of the things in the universe. 
If the human be something so radically different from 
and in essence so extraordinarily superior to the whole 
of nature as to justify the idea that the human can create 
a new world-order instead of using the world order 
that exists by accommodating itself to it, it must con- 
tain, at least in germ, a certain something that is not 
of this world. Man's existence in that case must be 
the revelation of an extra-mundane power which thus 
enables him to rise above nature so as to be her su- 
perior. 



Mr. Mill does not accept this view. There is no 
doubt about it that he regards man as the product of 
nature. His philosophical standpoint excludes the 
possibility of revelation. Accordingly, he can only 
mean that ethics is an artificial product of man's im- 
agination. Man shapes his moral ideals as the musi- 
cian composes a sonata or as the poet conceives a 
beautiful dream. 

There are men who believe that ethics cannot be 
based upon facts, i. e. upon nature, but that it must be 
based upon some principle. But what is the value of 
a principle if it is not derived from facts? Ideals are 
mere dreams unless they are realisable, and to be re- 
alisable they must be shaped out of the facts of expe- 
rience. Principles are rules to attain ideals. If ideals 
are in conflict with nature and nature's laws, what is 
their use? If they are not based upon a solid knowl- 
edge of facts, they are nothing but worthless vagaries 
of the human mind and it will be a positive waste of 
time to ponder over them or to give them a minute's 
serious thought. 

There is only one kind of ideal that is useful and 
worthy of man's attention. It is that ideal which aims 
at creating a better state of things upon the ground of 
the eternal order of things. Ideals must be based 
upon the terra firma of natural law, otherwise they are 
mere fancies. 

This world of ours in which we live is a world of 
law, and the irrefragibility of natural law renders in- 
telligent action possible. Intelligent action is such as 
foresees and predetermines the course of events. Intel- 
ligent action consists in fixing an aim and in adapting 
means to this aim as an end. Intelligent action is the 
condition of moral action. Intelligent action becomes 
moral through rationalising the aim of action. Man- 
kind in the child phase of its development obeys al 
most blindly its natural impulses, the general intent of 
which has been characterised as self-preservation. 
Self-preservation remains the ultimate aim of moral 
action. Yet with a modification, with an amplification 
and an increase of man's knowledge of the nature of 
himself, the ultimate aim of his actions must be mod- 
ified. 

The question arises. Can man at all preserve his 
self? Is not every individual doomed to die and is 
not self-preservation for any length of time absolutely 
impossible? Yes, it is impossible, if by "self" we un- 
derstand this particular body consisting of a definite 
quantity of living matter in a special form. This par- 
ticular self cannot be preserved for it is constantly 
changing ; through slight modifications it becomes 
another with every minute, with every second of its life. 

Yet man's self contains a something that is pre- 
served, that is transmitted to others. What is this 
part of his self? Every man has received it, or a^ 



3202 



1*HE OPEN COURT. 



least the greatest part of it, through heredity and edu- 
cation, from his ancestors. It is his organisation in- 
cluding the rationality of his speech, thoughts, and ac- 
tions — in one word it is his soul. His fellowman, too, 
has inherited it and in so far as two or several men 
recognise the sameness of their souls, they call each 
other brothers. In preserving his fellowmen's souls 
a man preserves his own soul. 

An advanced knowledge of self necessarily changes 
the original impulse of self-preservation into a preser- 
vation of the soul. 

Man, as a particular individual being mortal, can 
preserve his soul only in and through others. The 
nature of man's being is social and his life is ephem- 
eral. Thus self-knowledge will teach him that he is 
a part of a greater whole ; the most important elements 
of his soul originate out of his intercourse with his 
fellow-beings ; the essence of his life, of his speech, 
his thoughts, his aspirations and ideals, lies in his con- 
nections with them. At the same time he must learn 
that his particular life is only a phase in the fuller life 
of the soul which has come to him out of the past 
animating him now and sweeping onward into the dim 
future. Man's real self is not the materiality of which 
his body consists at a given moment, but his soul. 
The former cannot be preserved, the latter can. Any 
attempt at preserving the former is thwarted by na- 
ture. If we attempt to preserve anything of ourselves, 
we can preserve only our soul. No other choice is left. 

There is one strange fact about self-preservation. 
This world of ours is never at rest, there is no stand- 
still. Any attempt at preserving life exactly as it is 
leads to dissolution. Preservation is only possible in 
growth ; the preservation of life must be for its further 
development, it must include progress. 

Such is in broad outlines the injunction that nature 
teaches. Such is an ethics based upon the facts of 
life, it is the derivation of an ultimate aim of action 
from nature, i. e. from the nature of the being that 
acts and also from the nature of the world in which this 
being lives. When we thus base our ethics upon the 
facts of experience and the natural laws that have 
been derived therefrom ; in one word, when we base 
our ethics upon nature, we define those actions as 
moral which tend to preserve and further develop the 
human soul. 

III. INTELLIGENT ACTION AND MORAL ACTION. 

Mr. Mill says, " to make use of knowledge for guid- 
ance is a rule of prudence." But it is more ; it is also 
a rule of ethics. 

What is the difference between a prudent action 
and an ethical action ? A prudent action may have 
been performed from a selfish motive merely ; an eth- 
ical action is performed from a motive broader than 



self-interest, from a desire to be somehow of service 
to the development of humanity. Prudence is not 
morality ; but prudence will lead to morality, for all 
immorality will defeat itself in the end. Thus prudence 
teaches us to avoid immorality. 

Not every intelligent action is moral ; but every 
moral action is intelligent ; and it is an indispensable 
principle of morality to render all actions intelligent. 
Yet while all moral actions are intelligent, the intelli- 
gence or rationality of an action does not as yet make 
it moral. 

A man may act in the right way against his in- 
clinations from mere prudence. He may act in a cer- 
tain way not because he wants to do the act, but be- 
cause he knows that it is after all the best way ; he 
thus acts against his will ; he acts under a certain com- 
pulsion. His act in such a case may be called mere 
prudence. However as soon as the desire to act in the 
best way or to act as he knows that he should act, be- 
comes part of his character, as soon as he performs the 
act done in the right way, because he wills it, his ac- 
tion is truly ethical. 

All our actions — even those performed for our pri- 
vate interest, which are perfectly legitimate — should 
be guided by higher motives than by the impulse of 
a selfish self preservation ; all our proceedings, our 
omissions and our undertakings should be regulated by 
superindividual considerations ; they should be in strict 
harmony with what may fitly be called the moral law. 

The moral law has been taught us by our parents 
and teachers. We may accept their instruction simply 
on the ground of their authority, but we have a perfect 
right to ask. Why must we obey moral commands ? 
And the answer would be : Because the natural course 
of events demands it. Nature defeats all egoistic in- 
tentions ; and it sanctions the superindividual aspira- 
tions only — those which are commonly called moral 
principles. 

There is no right in this world but it is the coun- 
terpart of duty. We have a right to ask why egotism 
should be overruled by higher principles. What is the 
duty that corresponds to this right ? This duty is our 
obligation to inquire into the conditions of human life, 
so as to ascertain the principles by which our actions 
must be regulated. We must not rest satisfied with 
our moral sentiments ; we must understand our senti- 
ments, that we may be assured not by mystic intuition 
but by clear comprehension, that they are truly moral. 
We must be on our guard against ethical enthusiasm 
which is not based upon a clear comprehension of facts ; 
for there are many noble sentiments which, as can be 
demonstrated by scientific investigation, are anything 
but morality. For instance, eleemosynary philan- 
thropy, has been highly praised as the acme of moral- 
ity ; and yet, scientific investigation has stated with 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3203 



irrefutable conclusiveness that it is a wrong practice. 
All enthusiasm that has been wasted in this direction, 
can be called moral only if motives alone be considered. 
Objectively, they are as immoral as any criminal act 
committed under the influence of an erring conscience. 

[to be concluded.] 



ELECTING SENATORS BY THE PEOPLE 

BY M. M. TRUMBULL. 

A SHORT and easy lesson in American democracy is the speech 
made by Senator Palmer in the United States Senate on the propo- 
sition to elect senators by the direct vote o£ the people. Some of 
it is new, and some of it is not, but the speech is interesting and 
instructive both as history and as argument, for Senator Palmer is 
quite familiar with the evolution of the American constitution and 
the constitution of Illinois. The builder of a State, speaking to a 
new generation is worth hearing, and Senator Palmer was a mem- 
ber of the convection that made a constitution for Illinois forty- 
five years ago; a constitution which weakened the aristocratic apex 
and strengthened the democratic base of the political state. Of 
this he is rightfully proud. 

Senator Palmer, as a philosophic democrat, is jealous of a Na- 
tional aristocracy elected by State legislatures. He would have 
the Senate elected by a direct vote of the people, and he gives 
good reasons why, but this argument will carry thousands of his 
countrymen, if it does not carry him, far beyond the mild propo- 
sition to reform the Senate by a more democratic mode of electing 
senators. This will do for a beginning, but Senator Palmer can. 
not logically stop there. Having challenged one prerogative of 
the American peerage he must go on, and amend his amendment 
so as to reduce the senatorial term of office, and give States a rep- 
resentation in the Senate in proportion to their population. Sena- 
tor Palmer says he desires to make the Senate " what it never has 
been ; the popular branch of the American Congress." Truly a 
democratic purpose, but bow can he accomplish it so long as a 
member of the Senate is elected for six years, and a member of 
the House of Representatives for only two years ; and so long as 
Delaware has a representation in the Senate equal to that of Illi- 
nois ? 

When great abuses grew and flourished under the constitu- 
tion, men interested in the wrongs done, made an idol of it, and 
declared that whatever it permitted became thereby sanctified. In 
the ecumenical councils where party creeds were canonised, it was 
made the Holy Scripture of politics, and its Immaculate concep- 
tion became the superstition of a people. Senator Palmer is free 
from this idolatry, for he forcibly says, "It is not a sufficient an- 
swer to the popular dissatisfaction with the present mode of elect- 
ing senators to say that it is the method provided by the constitu- 
tion." Certainly not ; and that bit of common sense will apply to 
every part of the constitution. It is nothing but a code, adopted 
for the service of the people, and like every other law it may be 
amended. This attack upon the mode of electing senators is 
merely a continuation of the old struggle between the Lords and 
the Commons which in some shape or other has been agitating the 
English race for more than six hundred years. 

Speaking of the feeling that animated the delegates who framed 
the constitution. Senator Palmer says, " It is manifest that there 
prevailed in the convention the most profound distrust of popular 
elections." Yes, and the distrust was reflected in the constitution 
itself, for that instrument curtailed the political power of the peo- 
ple, and made them subject to a government which was jealously 
guarded in all its branches except one from their direct political 
interference. In the Judicial department of the National govern- 
ment the American people have no voice whatever ; all the judges 
being appointed by the President. In the Executive department 



they have a roundabout and qualified vote for President and Vice 
President ; but for cabinet ministers and the other executive offi- 
cers below the President they have no vote at all. As to the Legis- 
lative branch, the people have original jurisdiction by direct ballot 
over the House of Representatives only, the Senate being the profit- 
able perquisite of the State legislatures. 

Notwithstanding its contemptuous distrust of the people, they 
have become so mystified and overawed by the Divine claims made 
for the Constitution that they really believe the limited rights they 
do enjoy come to them by the grace and condescension of that in- 
strument. They do not think for a moment that the Constitution 
is inferior and subject to them, but religiously believe that they 
are inferior and subject to the Constitution. 

Senator Palmer says, " The fraraers of the Constitution found 
but little difficulty in the application of the principle, then, as 
now, so important, of distributing the powers of the government 
to three independent departments." The reason why they found 
no difficulty in that matter was that having lived under the Eng- 
lish monarchy, and being familiar with its forms, they adopted as 
nearly as possible what they understood, the English trinity of 
government. King, Lords, and Commons, merely changing the 
names, and making the King, and the House of Lords elective ; 
not by the people, however, but by a carefully sifted few. 

It is not easy to convince Americans that the Senate is their 
House of Lords, and that it was intended to be so. Senator 
Palmer has no doubt about it, for he quotes evidence to prove it, 
and says, " But it is probable that the general purpose of the con- 
vention in the organisation of the Senate and in the mode of elect- 
ing Senators was expressed by Mr. Dickinson, who said he wished 
' the Senate to consist of the most distinguished characters ; dis- 
tinguished for their rank in life and their weight of property, and 
bearing as strong a likeness to the English House of Lords as pos- 
sible,' and he thought 'such characters more likely to be selected 
by the State Legislature than by any other mode.' " All that is 
very interesting, and Senator Palmer might have added that Mr. 
Gouverneur Morris, a delegate from New York thought that the 
Senators ought to be elected for life. 

To prove that the Constitution is not sacred and above amend- 
ment. Senator Palmer shows that it has actually been amended 
fifteen times, and that the very first Congress that assembled after 
the adoption of the Constitution began the work of amending it by 
proposing to make the Bill of Rights a part of it ; and on that 
branch of the subject he says, " It may well excite surprise that 
the framers of the Constitution who were familiar with the long 
struggle in England to secure popular rights neglected to provide 
in the Constitution securities for freedom in the exercise of re- 
ligion, free speech, a free press, the right of the people peaceably 
to assemble," and so on to the end of the charter. There was 
nothing so very surprising in the omission, because the Conven- 
tion thought that as each individual State would include the Bill 
of Rights in its own Constitution, it would be superfluous to put 
it in the National, or as it was then, the "Federal " Constitution, 
but as Jefferson and the radical democrats complained of its omis 
sion, the Bill of Rights was put there by amendment. 

Jefferson was in Paris when the Convention was in session at 
Philadelphia, but he watched very anxiously from a distance the 
buildmg of the Constitution. As soon as it was finished he dis- 
approved of its conservative character ; and in a letter to James 
Madison written on the 20th of December, 1787, after telling what 
he approved in it he said, "I will tell you what I do not like. 
First, the omission of a bill of rights providing clearly and without 
the aid of sophism for freedom of religion, freedom of the press, 
protection against standing armies, restriction of monopolies, the 
eternal and unremitting force of the habeas corpus laws, and 
trials by jury in all matters of fact triable by the laws of the land." 
Jefferson thought also that the Judicial department was too fa 



3204 



THE OPEN COURT. 



away from popular control, and that the Constitution in some 
other features bore too close a resemblance to that of the ancient 
monarchy. 

It is historically interesting to learn from Senator Palmer that 
there was no opposition to a National Legislature consisting of 
two branches, and that it was agreed to without debate or dissent, 
except that of Pennsylvania, given probably from complaisance to 
Dr. Franklin, who was said to be partial to a single house of leg- 
islation." This does but feeble justice to Dr. Franklin, whose 
opposition was not so much to two houses as it was to a House of 
Lords ; for he saw as plainly in 1787, as Mr. Palmer does in 
1892, that the Senate was to be in all its essential attributes and 
character another House of Lords. He was the most far-sighted 
statesman in the Convention, and he would not accept a House of 
Lords at all until it was provided that it should have no power to 
tax the people, and that the right of raising revenue by taxation 
should be the sole prerogative of the House of Representatives. 

The greatness of Dr. Franklin as a statesman has never been 
acknowledged, but we are indebted to him for that provision of 
the Constitution which declares that " All bills for raising revenue 
shall originate in the House of Representatives." The courageous 
assertion and maintenance of that right by the Commons of Eng- 
land has reduced the King and the House of Lords to the position 
of subordinate auxiliaries in the legislation of that country ; and it 
will be so here, as Dr. Franklin was wise enough to see. 



INGERSOLL-BUCKLEY-i8g2. 

BY VIROE. 

O, right but rash 
Knight of the Word 

In Truth's great host. 
Be steadfast and beware : 
However you may dare. 
When two blades clash 
'Tis the sharp sword 

That suffers most. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE DOCTRINE OF NECESSITY. 

To lite Editor of The Open Court : 

In T!ie MonisI for April I noticed an article by Mr. Chas. S. 
Peirce, entitled "The Doctrine of Necessity Examined." In it 
he makes the following statement : "When I have asked thinking 
"men what reason they had to believe that every fact in the uni- 
" verse is precisely determined by law, the first answer has usually 
"been that the proposition is a presupposition or a postulate of 
"scientific reasoning." I would have answered him differently, 
by saying, that the reason why I know (not believe) " that every 
fact in the universe is precisely determined by law," is because it 
is impossible to name any fact that is not determined by law, or 
that any occurrence was not determined by something else that 
occurred. This doctrine of necessity is a stone which has been 
rejected by nearly all philosophical builders, but it will " yet be- 
come the head of the scientific corner." While it may be philo- 
.sophical as a means to an end — that end to spur mankind onward 
— to say that God is sovereign and man is free, or that determin- 
ism is wholly true and man is free, yet scientifically — truthfully — 
one or the other is false ; no sound reasoning can make both state- 
ments true, for it is as much as to say that a horse hauls a load, 
yet the load is free — it moves of itself. 

But, as you stated in T/ie Open Court, No. 238, monism is a 
starting point for a new departure, and if we are to take a new de- 
parture we must not take it from a cape bearing the antithetical 
name of yes and no. If we do, we will still be at sea without any 



compass, star, or guide. Evolution is monistic in character, and 
by its principle, and from its lofty and invulnerable cape, we must 
take our departure ; for its latitude and longitude are now well 
known ; no sophistical reasoning can change them ; evolution can- 
not exceed involution ; hence Mr. Peirce's argument does not re- 
main unrefuted. The doctrine of necessity is not based on chance, 
as he seems to suppose, but upon well ordered law and intelli- 
gence. If evolution is to begin, there must be power to begin it ; 
and if it is to go on every change in its onworking must be " pre- 
cisely determined by law " ; the thing evolving cannot get beyond 
the power of the evolver ; it is always subject to involution and 
the power of evolution, whether plant, rock, animal, or man. I 
respectfully beg to differ from that school of evolutionists which 
teaches that evolution comes by acquirement, because, on the con- 
trary, acquirement comes by evolution — there cannot be evolution 
without involution, and involution is as " precisely determined by 
law " as evolution in accretions for either brain or brawn. I re- 
spectfully request any reader of T/te Open Court to name any fact 
that is not "precisely determined by law." I have not found one 
yet. John Maddock. 

[Mr. Maddock alludes in his remarks to the controversy he 
had in our columns, but he is not free from misrepresenting his 
antagonist when speaking of the car load as being free. 

We do not at all agree with Mr. Peirce, but we think that it 
is the most formidable attack upon the doctrine of necessity that 
was ever made and believe that Mr. Peirce's article will be a pro- 
fitable reading to those who do not agree with him. An editorial 
article in reply to Mr. Peirce will appear in the next number of 
The A/onis/.—'ED.} 

BOOK REVIEWS. 

What is Reality ? An Inquiry as to the Reasonableness of Nat- 
ural Religion, and the Naturalness of Revealed Religion. 
By Francis Howe Jolmson. Boston and New York : Hough- 
ton, MifBin, & Company. 1891. 
The object of this work is to develop the idea that reality is 
the agreement of our thought with that which is external to our 
thought, and by inference to establish the existence in the universe 
of a self-conscious ego as the source of creation. Before consider- 
ing the arguments adduced in support of this inference let us see 
whether the definition given of reality is justifiable, and if so to 
what it leads. The author refers in the first place to the fact that 
any apparently external object may be an illusion, the proof of 
which is the absence of certain qualities which we supposed to be 
present. A thing is real only " when it is capable of fulfilling the 
promises it makes to us." Hence, although we have no direct 
knowledge of the whole nature of things, we may say that what we 
call things are groups of events, that is of sensations, since every 
sensation is an event. But the sensation of external objects is the 
effect they produce upon us and thus we know them in their 
qualities. It is of course assumed on the one hand that an external 
world exists, and on the other hand that the subjective world is 
equally real. There may be illusions of the internal world, just 
as of the external world, but both alike have their rise in realities. 
The starting point of subjective reality is our personal identity, 
the ego, which is "an ultimate datum of consciousness." This da- 
tum is the outcome of experience, and our belief in the continuity 
of the ego is referrible to memory, which, by the registration of 
the reactions of the ego, is the abiding certificate of its continuity 
and identity. So far our author's reasoning is correct, and it must 
be affirmed that, notwithstanding the ever changing conditions 
of consciousness, there is an element or substratum. on which all 
subjective reality depends. 

What has gone before forms the ground-work for the follow- 
ing propositions ; (i) I exist. (2) There exists in time and space a 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3205 



world external to myself. (3) I can produce changes in myself 
and in that external world. (4) Changes take place in me and in 
that world of which I am not the author. These propositions 
taken literally cannot be objected to, but it will be asked at the 
outset what is the personality that exists and acts ? The answer 
to this question requires a definition of the f^o, to illustrate the 
nature of which the author refers to the development of organic 
forms from the simple cell and the unity in multiplicity which 
marks every step. This unity is represented in the human being 
by the intelligent, self conscious, self-asserting t;!,'!), but we are told 
that there is no room for it in the organism, which is a multiplicity 
of cells. Hence, the mystery of the unity of being is not solved, 
although to the author it is the soul. It is surprising that so much 
mystery is made of the unity of being, seeing that it naturally fol- 
lows from the fact that "every animal, man included, is at the 
outset a single nucleated cell." This cell at first constitutes the 
whole organism, and therefore has a unity as perfect as that of the 
grown man, whose organism is only that of the primitive cell, 
which throughout all its multiplications and transformation retains 
its pristine unity. The unity of being is thus the organism itself, 
which is the seat of life and sensibility, although self-consciousness 
is relegated to the higher nerve-centres. Here we have the real 
basis of subjective reality, and the ultimate datum of conscious- 
ness, that in which our personal identity consists, is the organism 
itself. 

We may now consider the reasoning by which the author 
seeks to establish the existence in the universe of a self-conscious 
c-go as the source of creation. While admitting that we cannot 
know anything as it is in itself, which means only that we cannot 
attain to a perfect knowledge of things "in the unity of all their 
relations," the author maintains that it is not necessary to grasp 
n// the relations of a thing in order to know its essential being. 
Moreover, knowledge is not confined to relations, since the knowl- 
edge of self which accompanies the awareness of a relation existing 
between myself and something else is over and above a knowledge 
of the relation. The self-conscious soul is in fact a thing-in-itself, 
known directly as a peculiar and vital element of all experiences. 
This thing-in-itself is known to us as the unity of being, as intelli- 
gence, and as cause, and by analogy we may assume the existence 
in the universe of a self-conscious being who stands in the same 
relation to the world as the ego does to the physical organism. 

We have already referred to the importance attached by the 
author to the ' ' unity in multiplicity " which exists in the organism, 
where the fgo dominates a hierachy of beings. The ege as iiiinni- 
iwnt is not conscious of the separate individuality of the cells which 
are its subjects. It knows them directly only in organised groups, 
but as transcendent it knows them and ministers to them in the 
same way as Jehovah is represented as having dealt in primitive 
times with Israel. These ideas are by analogy applied to God, the 
thought of whom as immanent has, "all through the Christian 
ages .... lived alongside the thought of a God who is transcend- 
ent," as in the symbolism of the human person immanency and 
transcendency are united in a living and abiding reality. The fact 
that man knows himself as intelligently causative justifies us in 
postulating intelligent cause in the orderly adaptations of nature, 
but it is not necessary to refer all creation directly to the supreme 
mind. The adaptations of which nature is full may be regarded 
as the cumulative product of innumerable inferior minds, without 
excluding the divine agency from any point, and without limiting 
the knowledge of God. "whose consciousness is coextensive with 
the universe of which He is the centre." 

This very ingenious analogy is well worked out and is sup- 
ported by reference to various facts bearing on the theory of evo- 
lution. But there are many difficulties in the way of its being ac- 
cepted. Thus it is admitted that the microcosm does not accredit 



the idea of origination out of nothing, and as that which has al- 
ways existed is supposed to be modified by inferior intelligences, 
what room is there for a supreme intelligence ? Moreover, as the 
universe is governed by certain principles of activity which are 
evidently inseparable from it, may we not regard nature as the 
result of the orderly operation of those principles without calling 
in the aid of intelligence at all ? The chief difficulty those who 
regard nature as the outcome of intelligence have to contend with, 
is to show that the universe as a whole is conscious. This is in 
fact the central point of the author's argument, and, notwithstand- 
ing the acuteness of his criticism of the philosophy of the uncon- 
scious, he does not succeed in establishing it. Nor is it supported 
by the analogy between the universe and the human ego. This, as 
we have seen, is in reality the organism itself, the elements of 
which are essential not only to its unity but to its very existence, 
and which is sensitive throughout, and not merely at the chief 
nerve centre. In the lowest organisms there is no trace even of 
any nerve structure, which is the result of a process of evolution. 
All that analogy justifies us in assuming therefore is that the uni- 
verse as a whole is organic, and that it possesses a degree of sensi- 
tiveness which resembles as little the sensitiveness of the amceba 
as the latter resembles the feeling of the human organism ; while 
its elements stand towards the universe in the same relation as do 
the elements of the body towards the complete organism. 

We have dwelt so long on the fundamental thesis of the work 
before us, that we can say little with reference to " the naturalness 
of revelation." The author takes the view, which has now in the 
light of evolution become orthodox, that although revelation is 
superhuman it is in accord with the order of nature. By revelation 
the author means "the direct assistance and enlightenment of a 
human mind by a mind infinitely greater than its own, — a mind 
with which it is organically connected." Without such revelation 
there could be no formation of new germinal ideas Such a view, 
however, is equivalent to asserting that revelation is only a phase 
of evolution. This is going further than the author would allow, 
but it is the truth. What is called revelation is a reflection from 
the human mind itself, and it is the necessary accompaniment of 
man's progress towards natural enlightenment, which includes the 
evolution of conscience as well as the development of the idea of 
God. 

Able as this work is in many respects we are compelled for the 
reasons stated to reject its main conclusions. We agree, however, 
with the author that "the premises of religion are as real as any 
part of man's knowledge," although we must take exception to the 
explanation he gives of those premises. S2. 



The Only Good Thing in all the Worlds. By Prof. /. B . 
Turner. Chicago : The Open Court Publishing Co 1891. 

The present book is not cast in the form of thought in which 
we should have put it. The author has not availed himself of the 
modern Bible-criticism presented us by the theological scholars of 
Europe, as we should expect of a man who criticises the religious 
dogmas of Christianity and comes to the conclusion that they 
little agree with Christ's preachings. But the more interesting is 
the book in other respects. It is the product of an American pio- 
neer scholar, for he was one of the very first professors of the 
growing west who came and settled here when the red man had 
not yet retreated from the old home of the Illinois and most of the 
country was still virgin soil. He is a representative western 
thinker, showing all the strength and earnestness of our first set- 
tlers. Those who are interested in knowing the latest verdict of 
European scholars upon religious subjects will be disappointed in 
reading his book, but those who wish to know what impressions 
the doctrines of the Christian churches made upon an original but 
to a certain degree lonely thinker, upon a deeply religious and 



32o6 



THE OPEN COURT. 



truth loving man, will be richly repaid by a perusal of Professor 
Turner's book. 

Professor Turner is a faithful christian ; believing in Christ 
he yet opposes with great vigor, often with vehement impatience 
many most cherished dogmas of orthodox Christianity ; and his 
arguments are often well put. We quote his view of inspiration 
from p. 70-71 : 

"Bayard Taylor, on his return from Arabia, some years ago, 
"told me he found in those Idumean mountains, near where the 
"author of the book of Job is supposed to have lived, a tribe of 
"Arabian people who still retained all the old primitive modes 
"and habits of life, of speech, thought and action which they in- 
"herited from their old Abrahamic fathers, particularly with re. 
"gard to their modes of speech. They still thoroughly believed 
" in the Old Testament doctrine of inspiration, as defined by Job, 
"and as is expressed in some of our older creeds; viz. that God 
"Himself directly, spiritually inspired them to know, think, be- 
"lieve and do all the good and true things that they ever do be- 
"lieve, know, think or do, and they did not express this in any 
"abstract proposition, but in their hourly life and conduct, and 
"habits of speech, as did their fathers before them. Instead of 
"saying, 'I believe, I think, this that and the other,' they would 
' ' say, ' God has told me this, that and the other ; God met me 
"this morning, or yesterday, or in some day past, and said so-and- 
"30 to me, or He appeared to me in such-and-such a place, and 
" under such-and-such conditions, and told me or commanded me 
" to do this or that.' And this personified and dramatised mode of 
"speech meant no more to them, and seemed no more strange to 
" them than ours does to us, when we say, ' I sincerely believe or 
"think this, that or the other.' For they were in the habit of 
" using it daily about all sorts of affairs and interests of any im- 
" portance to them. 

"There may be a question as to which of the two modes of 
"speech, theirs or ours, is most profoundly philosophical and re- 
"ligious, but there can be no question that either party is bound 
"to accept the thoughts of the other, whether expressed abstractly 
"or dramatically, without a further examination, nor do they 
" hold it so. For each man still insists on revising what God has 
" said to his neighbors, by what God has said to himself, as Christ 
"rightly did in the case of Moses and of all the old Jews ; and it 
"has now turned out to us as clear as daylight that He was al- 
" ways philosophically in the right whenever they were philo- 
"sophically in the wrong, and their methods of dramatising their 
"speech makes not the slightest difference with its weight and im- 
" portance, and any pretended monopoly of the inspiration of the 
" world is worse than a pretended monopoly of its wealth." 

So far so good. We take the same view of inspiration. But 
Professor Turner applies the principle in a peculiar way. While 
modern bible criticism has proved that Matthew and John are 
rather late productions of the early Christian literature, certainly 
later than Mark, Professor Turner makes them the cornerstone of 
his "Christ word." He says p. 72-73 : 

" The only books in the Bible or now in the world, ' according 
"to scripture,' that even pretend to have any authority from 
"Christ himself are the two simple narratives of Matthew and 
"John, neither of which pretends to any other inspiration than 
" the simple fact that they had seen and heard the Lord, the sole, 
"true revealer of God, the Father of all, and of His kingdom of 
"the heavens, and Himself the sole /curios, curator, caretaker, 
"leader, and teacher of all His children here on earth, their 
"elder brother, /he only true and full-born Son of Man; and, 
" therefore, (/ true Son of God." 

It is the ethics of Christianity which inspire Professor Turner 
and he accepts the fourth gospel apparently because Christian 
ethics have found in it their purest and grandest expression. 

The book with all its rather ferocious denunciations of dog- 



mas and creeds and with all its other shortcomings deserves our 
attention as a typically American book characterising the aspira 
tions of liberal religious thought in a period of the history of our 
country that is fast disappearing now. p. c. 



NOTES. 

The publication is announced for the present month of a new 
' ' newspaper " called Thought Ne-os The aim of Tliought X.nos is 
to supply the want of a magazine ' ' which shall not go beyond fact, 
which shall report thought rather than dress it up in the garments 
of the past, which, instead of dwelling at length upon the merely 
individual processes that accompany the facts, shall set forth the 
facts themselves ; which shall note new contributions to thought, 
whether by book or magazine, from the standpoint of the news in 
them, and not from that of patron or censor. The immediate re- 
sponsibility for the conduct of the magazine will lie in the bands 
of Prof John Dewey, of Ann Arbor, Mich. Its cost will be $1.50 
per volume (12 numbers); it will appear irregularly, as often as 
the material warrants, but at least once a month. We wish the 
project all success. 

We are informed that Helen Gardener is about to publish a 
new work, entitled "Pushed by Unseen Hands." 

MR. C. S. PEIRCE has resumed his lessons by correspondence in the 
Art of Reasoning, taught in progressive exercises. A special course in logic 
has been prepared for correspondents interested in philosophy. Terras, S30 
for twenty-four lessons. Address : Mr. C. S. Peirce, "Avisbe," Milford, Pa. 

THE OPEN COURT. 

PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY BY 

THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING CO. 

EDWARD C, HEGELER, Pres. Dr. PAUL CARUS, Editor, 



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All communications should be addressed to 

(Nixon Building, 175 La Salle Street,) 
P. O. DRAWER F. CHICAGO, ILL. 

CONTENTS OF NO. 241. 

WALT WHITMAN. My Little Wreath of Thoughts and 

Memories. Moncure D. Conway 3199 

NATURE AND MORALITY. An Examination of the 

Ethical Views of John Stuart Mill (continued). Editor. 3201 

ELECTING SENATORS BY THE PEOPLE. M. M. 

Trumbull '3203 

POETRY. 

Ingersoll-Buckley-1892. ViROE 3204 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

The Doctrine of Necessity. (With editorial note.) John 

Maddock 3204 

BOOK REVIEWS 3204 

NOTES 3206 



-Y 



The Open Court 



A WEEKLY aOUEISTAL 



Devoted to the ^A/'ork of Conciliating Religion -with Science. 



No. 242. (Vol. VI.— 15. 



CHICAGO, APRIL 14, 1892. 



( Two Dollars per Year. 
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Copyright bv The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Antho 



THE RELATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL TO THE 
COMMUNITY.* 
by wilhelm wundt. 
[continued.] 
II. RATIONALISM AND UTILITARIANISM. THEIR CONCEP- 
TIONS OF RELIGION, ETHICS, LANGUAGE, AND 
STATE UNTENABLE. 

Hegel's ideas have left behind many traces in mod- 
ern political science. If the representatives of the so- 
called "organic-states-doctrine," (which holds that the 
state is an organism) do not merely apply the idea of 
the organism to the political whole, — against which 
no objection is to be made, — but are concerned also 
according to the example of Plato and the Platonic 
theories of earlier centuries, in searching out special 
relations between the organs of the individual organ- 
ism and the parts of the administration of states, 
these attempts at reviving the public interest in the 
community, produce exactly the opposite effect to that 
intended. Social organisms are deprived of their pe- 
culiar dignity, when they are made enlarged images of 
individuals. 

In a similar sense, the modern social theory has 
used the so-called "real analogies," with greater wis- 
dom, in that it seeks to explain social phenomena by 
means of well-known physiological processes. Such 
comparisons as e. g. those of economic intercourse 
with change of matter, may be permissible and useful 
so long, as one limits himself to illustrating compound 
by simple phenomena that are like them in certain 
qualities. But as soon as the analogy is used not 
merely as an appropriate representation, but transforms 
itself into a constant relation between the social and 
the corresponding physiological processes, the danger 
of false analogies might be greater than their didactic 
advantage. 

We can hardly censure juridical statesmen if many 
among them still continue to prefer to the phantastic 
constructions of the older organic states doctrine as 
well as to the physiological analogies of modern so- 
ciology, the contract theory, which if it be both psy- 

* This is the substance of a lecture delivered as an oration by Professor 
Wundt on the birthday festival of the King of Saxony. The oration was pub- 
lished in the Deutsche Rundschau. 



chologically impossible and historically untrue, is, at 
least, from a legal point of view, clearly conceived. 
Analogies are indeed generally of doubtful value. But 
if they are at all applicable, a comparison of the state 
and its magistrates to a business company and its em- 
ployes, will be more instructive than a renewal of the 
old Platonic opinion that the state is nothing but a 
man of vast proportions. 

I attempt no decision, as to how extensive a role 
those old philosophic antitheses, still play in the dif- 
ferences of opinion existing to-day between jurists and 
sociologists, between Romanists and Germanists. They 
are often less concerned about the great communities 
of nation and state than about such corporations as 
can arise voluntarily, within a national and political 
community at the call of special social purposes. Psy- 
chological contemplation, conformably to its general 
task will be necessarily limited to those social bonds 
that have arisen naturally and which therefore, in some 
form, everywhere determine the order of human life. 
But whatever other estimate may be placed upon its 
value, the psychological view of the subject has the 
one advantage over the concept developments of phi- 
losophy that it is secure from the danger of losing 
sight entirely of the relations between the individual 
and the whole or of explaining them away to mere 
analogies. For Psychology throughout has at com- 
mand only the attributes of individual consciousness 
as the ultimate principle of explanation and yet at the 
same time, she is everywhere referred by experience 
to the limits of the experience and the work of the in- 
dividual. In opposition to such standpoints, which 
are limited fundamentally like the juridical and the 
political to the phenomena of legal and political life, 
psychology is perhaps in the fortunate condition of 
being able to procure for comparison other products of 
the intellectual life of a significance of a similarly uni- 
versal validity and thus explain the more difficult by 
the more simple, although she must stand modestly in 
the rear when the solution of particular practical 
problems is in question. 

In fact, legal order and the state constitute only 
highly developed forms of a common life, that early 
expresses itself in the one language uniting a national 



32o8 



THE Ot^EN COURT. 



or race community, in its peculiar religious and myth- 
ological views, finally in ethical rules that have a bind- 
ing force for all. Although, according to the current 
-conception, these phenomena are of earlier origin than 
state and law, yet, they certainly belong with state and 
law to that same class of spiritual creations, for whose 
origin a multitude of individuals living together is in- 
dispensable ; and they are especially analogous in this 
that ethics includes rules, and rules can to some extent 
be regarded as the first steps of a legal order and a state 
organisation. 

Now it is a remarkable fact that the rationalism of 
the eighteenth century universally embraced notions 
concerning the origin of language, religion, and morals, 
that correspond perfectly to the theory of the social 
contract. Language was regarded as a system of signs, 
arbitrarily devised for the understanding and expres- 
sion of thought. Religions, they said, are founded by 
wise, moral teachers; or they are, according to the 
favorite reversal of this conception by the radical free- 
thinkers of the revolutionary age, the fraudulent in- 
ventions of cunning priests, who seek, by these means, 
to keep the people in darkness and dependence. Simi- 
larly myths and sagas are said to be poems which 
were intentionally invented sometimes for educational 
purposes, and sometimes for the propagation of fraud 
and deception. But from as many causes as the phe- 
nomena of the common life may be derived, all these 
explanations were one in this that those products of 
the national spirit were supposed to be thought out by 
individuals for the purposes for which they can be 
used at the present stage of civilisation ; and that the 
attributes of man, since time inconceivable, conform 
exactly to the mode of thinking of the enlightened 
philosopher of the eighteenth century. The utilitarian 
considerations of a philosophy whose faith in its own 
unsurpassability has scarcely ever been reattained, ap- 
peared to be a truth quite axiomatic and of universal 
validity; it was deemed hardly possible, that there 
ever could have been men who felt and thought' other- 
wise. 

To-day we readily surrender the assertion that lan- 
guage arose by agreement. But it easily escapes our 
observation, that the opinion that state and law rest 
upon a necessarily presupposed contract between in- 
dividuals, contains a circle of errors of a similar char 
acter. This distinction in the criticism of theories 
which are perfectly analogous to one another and which 
have issued from the same general conception of hu 
man relations, certainly has reasons that are good and 
not to h^ undervalued. 

If new forms of state arise to-day among civilised 
nations, such forms can win a universal legal sanction 
only by constitutional contracts. It is plain, there- 



fore, that this actual existence of state contracts, has 
a more real significance for the formation of the 
state, than perhaps the possibility of inventing a lan- 
guage like Volapiik has for the origin of language. 
But first those legal acts which lend to the existence 
of a state its legal sanction, do not, in the least, under 
present relations, embrace the conditions of their ori- 
gin, but that sanction itself is possible only upon the 
basis of conditions that cohere with the totality of 
qualities and historical events of a national commu- 
nity. Thus the New German Empire could not have 
arisen had not the community of will of the German 
races which strove after this unification, existed prior 
to the treaties between the states and the princes. In a 
civilised community, every new political creation needs 
a legal sanction .to insure it against attacks from 
within and without. But this sanction is the last not 
the first member in the circle of the factors of origin ; 
and among primitive relations it is wholly lacking. 
The natural race community, when the overtowering 
will of a single leader is added, is here sufficient to 
engender a political organisation. 

But what is the significance of speaking of a con- 
tract "tacitly concluded," where no contract whatever 
exists ? I suppose one could with the same right trace 
language back to a " tacit agreement. " In view of this 
actual development the old debated question whether 
law is of earlier origin than the state or vice versa pro- 
ceeds in about the same line as the famous zoolog- 
ical question, whether the egg was prior to the hen. 
Law and state arose, not" as new creations, suddenly 
and without preparation, but they issued from the 
rules of ethics and the primitive forms of the race- 
community. As soon as this latter received the char- 
acter of a state, definite rules of ethics became the 
fundamental essentials of a legal order,, and again as 
soon as ethics became condensed into law, the com- 
munity, which subjected itself to legal rules, developed 
at the same time from a mere horde of people into a 
politically organised national community. 

If national and state communities are not arbitrary 
creations, if they are not artificially compounded bod- 
ies, as Thomas Hobbes once called them, but evolu- 
tionary products of primitive forms of common life, 
the active powers of this life are to be sought else- 
where than upon the basis of those utilitarian consid- 
erations, to which, according to the rationalistic phi- 
losophy of the previous century, which is even yet 
influential, all the intellectual impulses of the human 
race are said to owe their origin. The fundamental 
conditions for the origin of the spiritual creations of a 
community, are nowhere so plainly visible as in lan- 
guage, not only in its dependence on the qualities of 
individuals, but also in its being different from that 
which the individual as such can produce. 



THK OPEN COURT. 



3209 



I 



Impulsive movements which have their source in 
the perceptions and affections of the individual con- 
sciousness are possible, indeed, without any relation 
to the environment and without stimulation by the 
same. They are the natural products of the spiritual 
and corporeal organisation of the individual man. But 
such movements of expression, can become language 
only when they arise in a community, where the mem- 
bers live amid the same external and internal condi- 
tions, so that the sensations and perceptions, which 
one member finds in himself, are also not lacking in the 
other, and so that the sound-movement, to which, per- 
ceptions and affections impel the first are an expression 
of common experience directly intelligible to the ear 
of the other. 

Thus language is a creation of individuals and yet 
infinitely more. For it can only arise when the in- 
tellectual life is common and directly experienced as 
such. Therefore language truly is a product of the 
collective mind, and as it is related to the impulsive 
expressions of individual sensations, which give them- 
selves vent in natural interjections and other involun- 
tary movements of expression, just so is the collective 
mind related to individual minds conceived as isolated. 

As language possesses no existence outside of those 
who speak it, so also the collective mind is no spiritual 
being, which lives and develops outside of individuals, 
but it is the intellectual association of individuals 
themselves. But for just this reason it is also infinitely 
more than a sum of individuals. As little as a lan- 
guage could arise from a mere collection of individual 
sounds of expression, just so little is an intellectual, 
associative life conceivable without that primitive 
equality of intellectual processes in the members of the 
community, by means of which through an exchange 
of sentiments and ideas the spiritual life of the indi- 
vidual is stimulated and strengthened by the life of its 
environment in ortler to retroact in its turn with sim- 
ilar power upon the collective spirit of the community. 

Therefore the common life is never a mere accumu- 
lation of individual effects. I would not even like to 
compare it to a multiplication, — if it were permissible 
to illustrate these things by mathematical symbols, — 
since multiplication always produces only magnitudes 
of the same character as the original. The spiritual 
creations of the community on the contrary are new 
creations, the cause of whose origin, it is true, lies in 
individuals, but they present qualitatively as well as 
quantitatively new values. This relation could perhaps 
be symbolised through that of complex numbers to in- 
tegrals, since complex numbers would not exist with- 
out integrals, in contrast to which they notwithstand- 
ing present a qualitatively new, conceptual domain, 
to which one would never obtain through mere opera- 
tions of quantitative multiplication. 



Language however is by no means such a function 
of common life, which must be presupposed as an in- 
dispensable medium for the production of common 
views and rules of action, so that it should be judged 
differently than the very spiritual life-content itself 
which it helps to beget. The contrast between form 
and content of our thought, from which such an ac- 
ceptation of a greater primitiveness of language is in- 
ferred, is an abstraction useful for certain purposes 
but it ought not to embarrass the insight into the real 
connection of phenomena. 

Language is possible as an intelligent form of ex- 
pression of ideas only because these ideas themselves 
and the feelings and impulses attached to them are 
common, so that the sound used by the individual is 
immediately comprehended as the fit representation of 
what all feel. The domain of a common language, 
therefore, includes in and for itself a common life with 
all that belongs to it. Religious views, customs, con- 
ceptions of right cannot, therefore, be regarded as a 
common life-content, which could only arise after a 
more perfect development of language and perhaps 
also in another way and with intellectual powers other 
than they, but all intellectual life is, so far as we are 
able to trace it back, one entirety inseparably united 
in all of its essentials ; and here as in other fields 
nothing can so seriously embarrass comprehension as 
the frequent mistake of transferring logical distinc- 
tions, which owe their origin to our conceptual method 
of representing things, to the things themselves. 

It is a vain task to imagine, what man was or could 
have been ere he possessed a language and common 
views of life finding expression in language, and in 
general ere he was a social being. We not only know 
nothing of such sn isolated existence of individuals, 
but besides we cannot even think of man with the at- 
tributes, which he actually possesses, as thus having 
ever existed. We may accept an animal existence of 
man prior to the possession of language, yet even here 
some kind of common life similar perhaps to such states 
as we know of among certain associations of animals, 
must have existed, if the anthropoid should develop 
into man. For as the life phenomena of the commu- 
nity everywhere depend upon the intellectual powers 
of individuals, so the latter need, none the less, a col- 
lective life by which every individual development is 
sustained and conditioned in its work. But the special 
national community to which the individual belongs is. 
also in its turn subject to the conditions of the historical 
development in which it arose, and which act upon it 
unceasingly during its continuance and decline. Thus 
the individual life is a passing wave upon the stream 
of national life, flowing along through the centuries, 
with which it finally mingles in the immeasurable ocean 
of the intellectual life-totality of humanity. 



32IO 



THE OF>EN COURT 



How worthless, contrasted with this view, which is 
everywhere stated so clearly by the facts of intellect- 
ual development, appear the conceptions of rational- 
ism and utilitarianism, with their theories of contract 
and invention according to which the individual man, 
unchangeable as the rock in the billowy sea, is supposed 
to withstand the influences assailing him from without, 
to be thrust hither and thither by them, to be united 
indeed with others of his like into conglomerates, but 
himself always only a whole, always without other aim 
than to maintain himself. To be sure the defenders of 
this doctrine have rarely acknowledged the practical 
consequences to which it leads. For it is, fortunately, 
peculiar to one-sided ethical theories that they are 
continually refuted by the practical life of their ad- 
herents. 

[to be concluded.] 



NATURE AND MORALITY. 



AN EXAMINATION OF THE ETHICAL VIEWS OF JOHN 
STUART MILL. 



[concluded.] 
IV. THE ANTHROPOMORPHIC STANDPOINT OF MR. MILL. 

Mr. Mill in opposing the conclusions drawn from 
an anthropomorphic conception of nature, impercept- 
ibly slips into the same erroneous position. He treats 
nature as if it were a person and arraigns nature for 
immorality. He looks upon every progress as a fur- 
ther aberration from nature and speaks of the lower 
stages of savage life as " the times when mankind were 
nearer to their natural state." Thus he easily proves 
that nature is chaos and that civilisation is a conquest 
of man over nature. As if man were not a part of na- 
ture ! " To dig, to plough, to build, to wear clothes," 
Mr. Mill declares, "are direct infringements of the 
injunctions to follow nature." 

If we accepted Mr. Mill's usage of the word nature, 
which deliberately excludes man's exertions from the 
sphere of the natural, we should have to declare that 
man's entire being is " supernatural." The adversaries 
of Mr. Mill may very well thank him for his method 
of attack, for he furnishes evidence in support of the 
very conception he so eagerly attempts to overthrow. 
It is, of course, allowable to use the concept nature in 
this restricted sense, as Mr. Mill does. We may de- 
fine our words as we please ; but if we were to limit 
the word nature always to the lower stages of natural 
evolution, we should recognise the truth that the "su- 
pernatural" naturally grows from the natural. The 
supernatural has been regarded as having come into 
nature from spheres beyond by some extra-mundane 
intercession; and we discard the idea of supernatural- 
ism simply and solely in order to avoid this miscon- 
ception. If by "supernatural" is understood that 



higher kind of nature which evolves from the lower 
stages of nature, we shall entertain no objection to the 
word. 

Nature is not a person and natural laws are not the 
decrees of a personal being. The order of nature is 
not a scheme designed for an end. Nevertheless nature 
has an aim. Every process of nature has an aim, 
every motion has a certain direction and if all the nat- 
ural processes are viewed as a whole, they possess in 
their entirety also an aim. Our scientists have form- 
ulated the general aim of nature and call it evolution. 
If we look upon nature as a person, we are led to ab- 
surdities, but if we look upon nature not only as pur- 
poseless but also as aimless, we sink into a bottomless 
pit of errors and confusion. 

Nature being no person, we cannot speak of nature 
as being moral or immoral. Nature is non-moral. 
Persons alone, individual beings, can be moral or im- 
moral ; and morality is nothing but the intentional con- 
formity to nature and to the order of nature. 

It has been said that God is moral. There is no 
sense in speaking of God as moral — unless it be in 
popular language where the usage of the phrase is to 
be regarded as an excusable and allowable poetic li- 
cense (within certain limits even quite legitimate). 
God can only be called the standard of morality. God 
is non-moral ; man only, if he conforms to the will of 
God, can be said to be moral. 

* * 

Mr. Mill in arraigning nature for being beset with 
all kinds of vices, disorder^ uncleanliness, and cowar- 
dice, is very emphatic in denouncing her injustice. 

He says : 

" It is one of Nature's general rules, and part of her habitual 
injustice, that ' to him that hath shall be given, but from him that 
hath not, shall be taken even that which he hath.' The ordinary 
and predominant tendency of good is towards more good. Health, 
strength, wealth, knowledge, virtue, are not only good in them- 
selves but facilitate and promote the acquisition of good, both of 
the same and of other kinds. The person who can learn easily, 
is he who already knows much ; it is the strong and not the sickly 
person who can do everything which most conduces to health ; 
those who find it easy to gain money are not the poor but the 
rich ; while health, strength, knowledge, talents, are all means of 
acquiring riches, and riches are often an indispensable means of 
acquiring these. Again, e converse, whatever may be said of evil 
turning into good, the general tendency of evil is towards further 
evil. Bodily illness renders the body more susceptible of disease ; 
it produces incapacity of exertion, sometimes debility of mind, 
and often the loss of means of subsistence. All severe pain, either 
bodily or mental, tends to increase the susceptibilities of pain for 
ever after. Poverty is the parent of a thousand mental and moral 
evils. What is still worse, to be injured or oppressed, when ha- 
bitual, lowers the whole tone of the character. One bad action 
leads to others, both in the agent himself, in the bystanders, and 
in the sufferers. All bad qualities are strengthened by habit, and 
all vices and follies'tend to spread. Intellectual defects generate 
moral, and moral, intellectual ; and every intellectual or moral 
defect generates others and so on without end. " 



THE OPEN COURT, 



3211 



It is certainly true that "to him that hath shall be 
given, but from him that hath not, shall be taken 
even that which he hath;" but it is perfectl)' useless to 
complain about it. It is neither justice nor injustice, 
but it is a law of nature or if you prefer the expression, 
it is the will of God ; and we have to mind it. 

To speak of the injustice of nature is just as an- 
thropomorphic as to speak of the morality of God. 
Mill's mistake is that he argues from an antiquated 
theological standpoint which is, even among theolo- 
gians, not at all the universally accepted view. 

Morality may be described as our attempts to im- 
prove the given state of nature, but it certainly can 
never improve the order of nature. All the improve- 
ments we can make upon the given state of nature, 
have to be based upon the unalterable order of nature, 
and he who attempts to formulate any rules of action, 
be it in the department of industrial enterprises, in 
social and political reform, or in the realm of moral 
aspirations, will have to do it after a careful study of 
facts. The irrefragable laws of nature form the im- 
movable basis upon which we have to take our stand. 
Whatever action we undertake, before we plan or de- 
vise, we must take heed of the laws to which we have 
to conform. The laws of nature and among them the 
moral laws, are not flexible, they are stern and im- 
mutable. If we cannot understand the nature of things 
in scientific abstractness, and if (in order to under- 
stand the earnest necessity that the moral law must be 
obeyed) we represent the order of nature as a personal 
being, it will be well to remember the parable of Christ 
in which he compares God to a hard man, reaping 
where he has not sown and gathering where he has 
not strewed. If we have received one talent only, 
there is but one way to keep that one talent ; we must 
go and trade with the same and make with it another 
talent. But if the very knowledge that we have to 
deal with a hard man, induces us to be afraid, so as to 
go and hide that one talent in the earth, then, that one 
talent will be taken from us. 

The parable of the talents is very instructive. Its 
doctrine seems severe on the poor, especially those 
who are poor in spirit ; but it is just as much severe 
on the rich. Christ spoke to the poor and his applica- 
tion was made so as to impress their minds, that he 
who has received little is no less responsible for that 
little, than he who has received much for the much he 
has received. "For unto whomsoever much is given, 
of him shall be much required, and to whom men have 
committed much, of him they will ask the more." If 
Christ had spoken to the rich, the learned, and the 
great, he might have made a different application of 
the parable and might have told them of the servant 
who having received five talents had not only buried 
but wasted the rich gift. There are perhaps more men 



ruined through having received too much than by 
having received too little. The temptations are greater 
in the former case, and the dire necessity of the latter 
case often exercises a wholesome and educating in- 
fluence. 

If justice means that every servant, whether he in- 
creases the talents he has received or buries them in 
the earth, should in the end receive an equal share, 
Mr. Mill would be justified in denouncing the course 
of nature as unjust. But it appears to me advisable 
that any one who thus indicts the very order of nature 
for injustice, imagining that the whole universe is 
wrong and he alone and perhaps also a few fellow be- 
ings of his with him are right, should first revise the 
logic of his conception of justice ; for it is in such a 
case most probable that on close scrutiny he will 
somewhere discover a flaw in his idea of justice. 

* * 

Mr. Mill's objection to basing ethics upon nature 
was made to oppose a theological conception of ethics. 
Our traditional religions, we must know, are in their 
intentions monistic, they are dualistic only if the al- 
legory of their symbols is taken as literal truth. In 
opposing the theology of traditional religions Mr. 
Mill attacked erroneously their very heart, the monistic 
meaning of their doctrines instead of striking at the 
dualistic interpretation of their mythology. Thus if 
Mr. Mill were right in his objection to basing ethics 
upon nature — i. e. upon the unalterable, the eternal 
in nature, upon the law of nature or to use the relig- 
ious and most pregnant term, upon God — if Mr. Mill 
were right, there would be two alternatives left : Either 
there is no ethics at all, which view Mr. Mill would 
not accept, or the dualistic interpretation of theology 
is correct, that ethics is an extramundane factor. 

When ethics and the conditions of ethical ideals 
are found and can be proved to be an immanent part 
of nature, the dualistic interpretation of the old re- 
ligions will have to be surrendered while their monis- 
tic meaning which is after all the core and living spirit 
of all religious aspirations will appear in a stronger 
light than ever. p. c. 

USE AND BEAUTY IN SCIENCE. 

BY S. V. CLEVENGER, M. D. 

In his " Essay on Beauty," Ralph Waldo Emerson 
says : 

'■ Astfology interested us for it tied man to the system. In- 
stead of an isolated beggar, the farthest star felt him, and he felt 
the star. However rash and however falsified by pretenders and 
traders in it, the hint was true and divine, the soul's avowal of its 
large relations, that climate, century, remote natures as well as 
near are part of its biography. Chemistry takes to pieces but it 
does not construct. Alchemy which sought to transmute our ele- 
ments into another, to prolong life, to arm with power, — that was 
in the right direction. All our sciences lack a human side. The 
tenant is more than the house. Bugs, and stamens, and spores on 



3212 



THE OPEN COURT. 



which we lavish so many years, are not finalities, and man, when 
his powers unfold in order, will take nature along with him and 
emit light into all her recesses. The human heart concerns us 
more than the peering into microscopes, and is larger than can be 
measured by the pompous figures of the astronomer." 

Had Emerson's broad intellect been engaged in 
scientific directions he would have been heartily 
ashamed of having written such stuff. Herbert Spen- 
cer writes that science opens up new beauties in the 
universe to which the uninstructed are blind. Hugh 
Miller, Herschel, Faraday, Tyndall, Huxley, could 
have made Emerson's heart leap for joy at their reve- 
lations, and his writings would have been enhanced 
in their power for good. 

The very reverse of Errierson's idea is true. 

Astrology and alchemy with other "philosophies" 
of the days of sorcery, the black art by which one 
creature hoped to be able to take foul advantage of 
another, were emanations of the night of time, when 
burnings at the stake were frequent alike for thinkers 
and witches. The horoscope is still cast by Indian 
fakirs, and astrology thrives there amidst appropriate 
surroundings. And doubtless Emerson would have 
opened his eyes in surprise if asked whether he pre- 
ferred to live in the land of jungles and the suttee 
rather than among spectacles and baked beans. 

Looking back over the evolution of the sciences, it 
is plain that in astrology and alchemy, it was not the 
love of science that actuated these studies ; the object 
primarily was puerile. The philosopher's stone, which 
would transmute all metals into gold ; the elixir vitae, 
which was to confer everlasting youth, were the ab- 
surd things sought for, and so in the search, expedi- 
tions throughout the world were actuated by greed 
and love of power. The march of Coronado hunting 
for the seven golden cities. Ponce de Leon's childish 
rambles through Florida looking for the fountain of 
youth, are instances in point. 

It is quite probable that among the ancient Roman, 
Greek, and Egyptian priests many physical laws were 
understood, but the only use they made of them was 
to deceive the people and enrich themselves. Among 
the vast multitude of to-day such a thing as cultivating 
a science for its own sake or to benefit the public 
would seem absurd, and so the medical student of 
lesser calibre would complain upon being compelled 
to learn chemistry and botany, and especially bacte- 
riology, when in many instances all these bear directly 
upon general medicine. 

Chemistry sprang from alchemy, and astronomy 
from astrology. At first the facts that were discov- 
ered could not be used and so they were mainly re- 
garded as curiosities. Eventually these neglected dis- 
coveries were found to be of great use. Had it been 
possible for the childish ancient philosophers to have 



developed the sciences to their present status, most 
of them would have certainly made selfish and op- 
pressive uses of their knowledge. As knowledge is 
slow of growth, so it broadens the intellect of its vo- 
taries, making them more merciful and considerate, 
particularly nowadays when scientific fakirism is not 
so possible as in olden times ; and so it would seem 
that as fast as the world deserves the comforts afforded 
by science it receives them, and no faster. 

Probably even in the future if the elixir vitae were 
compounded and immortality were thus placed in the 
grasp of everyone, no one would be so foolish as to use 
it, for all would realise that perpetual life would be 
perpetual suffering. 

Franklin was asked once, what was the good of 
the discovery of the galvanic spark. He asked, "What 
is the good of a baby ?" That baby has since grown 
to giant size. The vast accumulation of scientific 
facts by which the world is to-day beautified and made 
more comfortable have been piled up amid sneers and 
opposition. The olden searcher for knowledge wanted 
to make a short cut to power over his fellow men ; the 
student of to-day learns to spread his knowledge as a 
means of helping himself through helping others. So 
as intellects broaden, men find that by all working for 
the common good, the individual good would be best 
conserved. 

Imagine Nero or Cleopatra with all our present 
scientific knowledge and resources at command, would 
they not have made the earth a pitiable planet? But 
this knowledge cannot be owned by any single mind, 
and hence working in unison for the common good is 
the result of the existence of that knowledge. 

As science gradually inculcated altruism, perforce, 
the teleologist idea would be that as fast as the world 
deserved good things it received them, but the more 
rational view would be that the comforts and conve- 
niences of the peaceful arts and sciences were the pro- 
duct of mental broadening, and that egoism developed 
into an altruism through selfish realisation that indi-- 
vidual interests are best secured through individuals 
seeking the general good. 



CURRENT TOPICS. 

The Australian voting system was again tested in Chicago at 
the recent City election, and was condemned as a ruinous failure 
by the curbstone patriots who formerly taught the citizen how to 
vote, and chastised him when he voted wrong. Sadly, the story 
goes, as I copy it from the papers, that " Even in the gth and 6th 
wards only a few eyes were bunged up, and a few hats smashed, 
while the policemen looked the other way." And the 5th ward, 
which, — I quote again the plaintive wail of ihe papers — " the sun- 
set of an election day formerly found suffused with blood and 
arnica, was peaceful and stagnant as the south branch of the Chi- 
cago river." The dramatic appearance of an imaginary Good Sa- 
maritan with a bottle of arnica at " the sunset of an election day '' 
is well managed by the reporter, as it relieves the sombre gloom 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3213 



of the story, and antithetically presents to us the bane and the an- 
tidote, the sore and the salve together. There is a legend of that 
same 5th ward, fabulous I think, although said to be well authen- 
ticated, that a man once got his head broke there on election day 
for voting wrong, and died under the correction. It was shown 
at the inquest by a surgeon that the skull of the deceased was no 
thicker than an egg shell, whereupon the jury brought in a verdict 
of "temporary insanity, and sarved him right," on the ground 
that a man with a skull no thicker than an egg shell had no busi- 
ness trying to vote in the 5th ward. In kindly tribute to the days 
of "auld lang syne " the reporter gives a word of sympathy to the 
policemen ' ' who leaned up against the doorways and grumbled 
because the good old days were gone. They did not know whom 
to club. Under the uncertainties of the Australian system they 
might have injured some of their own friends." I am sorry for 
the policemen thus embarrassed, but in the midst of the gloom I 
sing with Charles Mackay, "Who mourns for the days that are 
gone ? I' faith, good friend, not I." 

The subject of debate before the Milwaukee Ministers' Asso- 
ciation at its recent meeting, was the smooth and easy marriage 
laws of Wisconsin, whereby all the runaway couples from other 
states are invited to cross the border and get married without 
banns, or leave, or license. By reason of this liberality the mar- 
rying trade has grown to be a thriving industry in Milwaukee, 
greatly to the profit of clergymen, who it has been irreverently 
said were sometimes overzealous in duty, and " tied the hymeneal 
knot" for lovesick boys and girls without asking any embarrassing 
questions, provided the fees were paid. Hundreds of elopers from 
Chicago get married in Milwaukee, and our people rightfully com- 
plain of this, not as a matter of morals, but as a species of unfair 
competition very injurious to the Chicago marrying trade. The 
Milwaukee ministers, in answering the accusation, threw the 
blame upon the lax marriage laws of Wisconsin, which caused the 
wicked hackmen of Milwaukee to tempt the clergy by hauling run- 
away couples to the "parsonage," and helping the minister to 
unite them in " the holy bonds of matrimony " for a share of the 
marriage fee. The Rev. Mr. Parkhurst thus exposed the deprav- 
ity of the hackmen ; "The hackman," he said, " first located min- 
isters as near the railway station as possible, and ascertained what 
hours they could usually be found in, next he found out whether 
the minister asked too many searching questions of the runaway 
couples, and lastly he made sure that the minister would make a 
division of the marriage fees. If that was satisfactory the hackman 
then became a regular runner for that minister and took all his 
trade to him." The conference was very properly shocked at the 
conduct of the hackmen, and a committee was appointed to pre- 
pare an address to the public explaining the attitude of the minis- 
ters on the runaway marriage question. 

The Milwaukee hackmen, being wiser than the clergymen, 
have not had any meeting to complain of the Wisconsin marriage 
laws. They think it better to say nothing, lest the legislature in- 
terfere with the runaway couple business, an important "home 
industry," very profitable to the hackmen, the clergymen, and 
the hotel keepers of Milwaukee. One of them, a metaphorical 
sort of man, treated the good resolutions of the Milwaukee Min- 
isters' Association as of no more honesty than a party platform, 
and he said, "There's nothing in 'em. We know our business. 
We do the hauling, say nothing, and saw wood. There's plenty 
of ministers that want our trade, and we know it. All they want 
is for us fellows to say nothing." Another, equally cunning, but 
broader in mental scope, and more profound in learning, said 
"There's a good bit in it for the hackmen and the ministers too. 
More Chicago people come up here to get spliced than anybody 
knows of. They come in on one train, get tied, and away they go 



back on the next train. Now I claim that's a good thing for the 
town ; it's foreign capital coming in and nothing going out." That 
sentiment is worthy of Adam Smith or Stuart Mill, and it reveals 
to us in homely grammar a political economist and statesman. 
That the man who uttered it should waste himself in hack driving 
is wonderful. Why he is not a member of Congress I cannot un- 
derstand. And look at the skill by which he dispenses with the 
middleman, and brings the producer and the consumer closer to- 
gether. " We used to take these ' moonshine' couples to the ho- 
tels," he said, "but now we deliver the goods direct." In the tone 
of a moralist and with the sneer of a cynic he finished his remarks 
by saying, "I guess the ministers won't hurt themselves by trying 
to have a new marriage law passed." 

I desire to add by way of postscript, and as a hint to the Mil- 
waukee ministers in case they have not heard of it, that the Rev. 
S. F. Butts, deacon of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Cum- 
berland, Maryland, has been suspended by the Presiding elder of 
the district, for practices like those charged upon the ministers of 
Milwaukee, except that in the case of Mr. Butts, he obtained a 
monopoly of the marrying trade, by means of a secret agreement 
with hackdrivers for a division of the marriage fees, thus exclud- 
ing his reverend brethren from a fair share of the business. Ac- 
cording to the dispatches, which I quote lileraiiiii, "Mr. Butts 
stood in with the hackdrivers and cornered the marriage market. 
The other ministers could not understand how it was that their 
colleague did all the business while they were left out in the cold. " 
It was six months before they found him out, during the whole of 
which time "Butts had all the marriages he could attend to," and 
was rolling in wealth, or according to the pathetic story which de- 
scribes his rise and fall, "He alone married more than half the 
out-of-town couples and was making money handily, when the 
other preachers got on to his methods and preferred charges with 
the Presiding elder. Butt's suspension followed." 

Did you ever think about the vast quantity of genius annually 
wasted on the newspapers by merely local reporters who are not 
paid for originality or style, but merely to "write it up." Probably 
not, but I have, and I tell you there is enough of it if saved in 
book form to make literary fame for a hundred men. And let me 
tell you another thing, there are men of literary fame who steal a 
good deal of it and sell it for money as their own. When a friend 
shows me a bit of good work, either in prose or poetr)', and tells 
me that he just " threw it off" last night, I praise him openly to 
his face, while secretly I doubt his word ; and if the composition 
is extremely good, I suspect that it is due to the oil and the toil of 
many nights, and the thought of many days. But when there is 
only one evening between the deed and the printed story of it, then 
I know that the writer of the story " threw it off last night," and I 
give him credit accordingly ; as, for instance, the account of ye.s- 
terday's election which I find in this morning's paper ; and which 
I thank the reporter for presenting to me in a well-fitting dress, 
with flowers of humor and fancy in the button hole, and embroid- 
ery of rhetoric where such adornment ought to be. Like a dash 
of Worcestershire sauce on a tender steak, is the sarcasm, pungent 
and refined, which excites my appetite when I read that the voters 
of a certain ward, " objected to Cooper because he wore a silk hat 
and went into good society." What further description of that 
ward is necessary ? I see its alleys and courts, and beer saloons 
as in a photograph, and I know without looking at the returns 
what became of Cooper. So, there is equal pictorial strength, and 
saving of words too, mind you, for which economy I am told 
the reporter gets no pay, in the description of a winning candi- 
date, who, "proud and victorious, tramped down Ashland avenue, 
with his big red face divided by a triumphant smile." There is 
high art in that, for I know without looking that the victorious 



3214 



THE OPEN COURT. 



candidate is a saloon keeper, and I see him laughing clear across 
his face from ear to ear. " His face divided by a smile " is humor- 
ous poetry, worthy of Butler, and I maintain there is no more ex- 
pressive line in Hudibras. 

I was engaged in showing some of the pearls cast before swine 
by nameless and undistinguished reporters, when I was interrupted 
by a call to lunch, and I will now continue the subject with a few 
"additional instances from that same election story. "Peaceful as 
a tramp in a haystack," said of the 23rd ward, is a picturesque de- 
scription that saves a multitude of words. I cannot imagine any- 
thing more sleepy, quiet, and careless than a tramp in a haystack ; 
and the comparison is poetical too. Of a certain candidate, no- 
torious for his expansive liberality on election days, I learn that 
"About 2 o'clock he went to his house on 20th street and laid in a 
new stock of campaign arguments in small denominations." I put 
in the italics because I think them well deserved. No coarse and 
ugly dead wall statement there, but a delicate and genteel euphem- 
ism which tells it all in a vivid and effective way. It is the bright 
rapier instead of the dull club. The munificence of that candidate 
is made visible in the same artistic style, so delightful to read, and 
so easy to understand, thus : " Then he went to the saloon of Jan 
Novak and put up for a new freshet of beer, which soon had the 
neighborhood in a sloppy condition." Not kegs of beer, nor bar- 
rels of beer as a commonplace reporter would have had it, but a 
"freshet" of beer; and the poetical exaggeration is ingeniously 
corroborated by the further testimony that the neighborhood was 
made "sloppy" with beer, and by this evidence the fact of the 
freshet proved. I have read, in another paper, another account of 
that same election. It contains just as much information as the one 
I have spoken of in these comments ; but there is no yeast of witty 
imagination in it, to " raise " it, and make it light, and easy of di- 
gestion. It is dull, soggy, inelastic dough, and altogether too much 
of it. M. M. Trumbull. 



CORRESPONDENCE. , 

THE PROBLEM OF NECESSITY. 

To the Editor of The Open Court : 

Replying to the request of Mr. John Maddock to name a fact 
"not precisely determined by law," permit me to suggest the 
Asymptote, the ratio of diameter and circumference ; and gener- 
ally any fact for whose accurate finding intellect is baffled. Action 
and reaction are as equal, contrary, and simultaneous in mentality 
as in mechanics. Man is unquestionably the resultant of all the 
countless influences which have focused the past in his being. Is 
it inconceivable that he possesses a volition, — utterly unprovable 
though it be, — resident in his nature, and yet of a different order, 
of an order as infinite and eternal (and paradoxical) as the insol- 
uble subtlety of the antinomy ? Hudor Genone. 

[The instances of Hudor Genone for proving the existence of 
something "not precisely determined by law" are not well se- 
lected, for the ratio of diameter to circumference and also the 
asymptote are most unequivocally determined by law. We cannot 
arithmetically express the ratio of diameter to circumference in 
all its actual determinedness. All the calculations made of ir, al- 
though they are more than sufficiently exact for any practical pur- 
poses, are theoretically considered mere approximations. But ;r 
itself is nevertheless precisely determined by law. 

Mr. Maddock, it seems to me, denies that man has volition. 
We should not say so. It is a fact that man has volition. This 
is not unprovable as says Hudor Genone ; on the contrary, it is 
provable, and this volition, being ' ' resident in his nature " or rather 
"his nature itself " is exactly that which determines man's actions. 
We do not see why man's volition should be of a different order, 



why it alone should be eternal and the rest of nature not, why it 
alone should be branded as paradoxical while the rest of nature 
is regarded as intelligible. — Ed.] 

NOTES. 

A very welcome letter comes to us from Mr. George Julian 
Harney, of England, whose " Notes on Books," and other things 
in The Newcastle Chronicle are such delightful reading. Mr. Harney 
has made some valuable contributions to The Open Court and 
would have made more were it not that for several months he has 
been seriously ill. We rejoice to learn from his letter that the 
opening spring has tempered Mr. Harney's pains, and that his 
health is much improved. There is yet some good work remaining 
for him to do 

George Julian Harney is an historic personage, and was 
a conspicuous figure in England fifty years ago. He bas a 
strong memory and if he would write or dictate his reminis- 
cences they would be an interesting and valuable contribution 
to the political history of England. Harney, seventy-five, and 
Thomas Cooper eighty-eight, are the last surviving leaders of 
the Chartist movement, the precursor of all the political, and 
many of the social reforms which have been achieved in Eng- 
land during the reign of Queen Victoria. They got imprisonment 
for blazing the way, while the Gladstones and the Russells, and 
the Palmerston's, who followed, got the glory. Harney, Hether- 
ington, Holyoake, Richard Carlisle, and a few others gave Eng- 
land a free press. They sold unstamped newspapers, went to 
prison for the deed, but won their battle after all. We trust that 
Mr. Harney will find renewed health and vigor in the sunshine of 
spring. 

MR. C. S. PEIRCE has resumed his lessons by correspondence in the 
Art of Reasoning, taught in progressive exercises. A special course in logic 
has been prepared for correspondents interested in philosophy. Terms, 830 
for twenty-tour lessons. ) Address: Mr. C. S. Peirce, " Avisbe," Milford, Pa. 

THE OPEN COURT. 

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CONTENTS OF NO. 242. 

THE RELATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL TO THE 

COMMUNITY. (Continued). Wilhelm Wundt 3207 

NATURE AND MORALITY. (Concluded.) Editor 3210 

USE AND BEAUTY IN SCIENCE. S V. Clevenger. . 3211 
CURRENT TOPICS. Peace at the Polls. The Marrying 

Trade in Wisconsin. Genius Wasted in the Newspapers. 

M. M. Trumbull 3212 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

The Problem of Necessity. (With Editorial Note.) 

Hudor Genone 3214 

NOTES 3214 



The Open Court 



A ^s^EEK:LY jouena.l 



Devoted to the "Work of Conciliating Religion AA^ith Science. 



No. 243. (Vol. VI.— 16.) 



CHICAGO, APRIL 21, 1892. 



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THE NEW COURSE OF GERMAN POLITICS AND THE 
PURPORT OF ITS WORLD-CONCEPTION. 

BY ERNST HAECKEL. 

During the past two months the civilised world 
has watched with increasing astonishment the memor- 
able events which have taken place in the German 
empire. Although we have become accustomed dur- 
ing the two years which have passed since the resigna- 
tion of Prince Bismarck to political surprises of all 
kinds, yet the vaunted and marvellous results which 
were to come from the new course do not appear in 
spite of many grand and imposing programmes of re- 
form, in spite of many attractive speeches and fine 
promises. On the contrary, many abnormal variations 
of the needle were noticeable. Instead of pointing 
North it points alarmingly South. How much we 
have lost through this reversal of the course is proved 
by the rejoicings of our English cousins over our co- 
lonial resignation and modesty, by the satisfaction of 
the French at the dismissal of the hated old Chancel- 
lor, by the growing internal perturbations of the em- 
pire, by the dismal amiability of the Vatican, and by 
the triumph of social democracy over the middle 
classes. These facts necessarily awaken the well- 
founded fears of many German patriots, and yet they 
are nothing in comparison with the astounding events 
of the past two months. 

We do not refer here to the speeches of Emperor 
William II., which aroused in the widest circles, and 
especially among conservatives, a high degree of ex- 
citement. Although they challenge public opinion 
yet we do not intend to reply to them, the more so as 
it is impossible to reproduce the opinions of the most 
moderate journals of foreign countries without being 
exposed to a charge of felony. We can only regret 
these conditions in the interest of the monarchy itself, 
but we cannot alter them. Fortunately we do not 
stand here before the bacteriological question of in- 
vestigating the many causes which led to the rapid 
origin and epidemic spreading of what the people hu- 
morously called the "excitement bacillus." When 
Count Caprivi a few months ago, before he tendered 
his resignation, made his brilliant speeches against the 



excitement bacillus he apparently had no idea that his 
own cabinet was engaged in producing it wholesale in 
mischievous perfection — real Reinkultur. It would not 
be fair to measure the successes of the second Chan- 
cellor by the mightier triumphs of the first, for aside 
from the special labors and energies which Prince Bis- 
marck united in his own personality, he has through 
his rare knowledge of the world and of men, through 
his historical experience during fifty eventful years of 
work, and especially through his own merit in found- 
ing the independent empire of the German nation, 
accumulated an immense capital of political power and 
insight. That any successor of the iron Chancellor, 
whatever be his name, could inherit only the smaller 
half of that capital was self-evident, but that his in- 
heritance would be so meagre as it now appears could 
not be expected. 

Every impartial observer must see clearly that the 
much praised new course is not a continuance of our 
old course, but means the opposite direction. Up to 
Canossa is the watchwor-d at Berlin. The first step 
taken by the Prussian government in ushering in the 
new counter reformation is the plan of the new public 
school bill which the cabinet of Caprivi proposed in 
January, 1892, to the Prussian parliament. As gener- 
ally known now its vital point lies in this, that the 
public school which is the basis of national education 
shall be withdrawn from the control of science and be 
surrendered to the Papistic hierarchy. Objections 
might be made that Prussia is a state in which Cath- 
olics and Protestants enjoy equal rights, and that they 
will both exercise their separate authority over the 
schools, but Protestantism of whatever color it may 
be lacks entirely, and necessarily must lack, that great 
hierarchic organisation which has given power to the 
Roman Catholic church for more than a millennium, 
and which gives her an unparalleled power in our civili- 
sation at the present day. Therefore Roman Catholi- 
cism, or briefly. Papism will conquer in the struggle 
for dominion any other church that stands with it on 
equal rights, and as it pretends to be the only saving 
church, will also claim absolute control over the state. 
We need only compare the triumphant rejoicings of 
ultramontane journals with the heavy anxiety of all in- 



32i6 



THE OPEN COURT. 



dependent papers in order to know what grave mean- 
ing has the new pubHc school bill. 

"Christianity or Atheism," that is the surprising 
alternative which the new world-conception proposes. 
What Christianity was meant to be can be learned 
from the explanation subsequently made. The new 
Prussian Christianity which it is hoped will save her 
present civilisation and protect her from the dangers 
of social democracy is not that purified morality which 
has greatly developed in the course of nineteen cen- 
turies from the simple doctrines of original Christian- 
ity. On the contrary it is the naked belief in miracles, 
its stubborn dogmatism, and its blind faith in tradi- 
tional legends and in supernatural events of so-called 
Holy history, the historical reality of which has been 
long disproved by an impartial scientific criticism. 

The remarkable progress of natural philosophy has 
led the intellectual and spiritual life of civilised nations 
into entirely new paths. Shall now the fanaticism of 
different colliding dogmas be reintroduced into our 
public schools. It almost appears as though the cru- 
sades and the Thirty Years war were to reappear in a 
new Prussian edition. But among all these confusions 
there is a widely separate opinion propounded with note- 
worthy ingenuousness that Christian faith will be the 
best weapon against social democracy. The pure orig- 
inal and unadulterated Christianity however is most 
ominously interwoven with socialistic doctrines, and 
its first congregations cultivated pure communism. 
Tlie fathers have developed those communistic ideas 
so clearly, that we are only astonished that the social 
democracy of to- day does not claim the authority and 
sanction of those primitive Christian institutions. The 
true and really useful weapons in the struggle against 
the errors of social democracy are not found in Chris- 
tian dogmas but in rational science, and especially its 
latest and most promising offspring, the modern doc- 
trine of evolution. If the socialistic leaders attempt 
to base their Utopian theories upon the doctrine of 
evolution, and especially upon Darwinism, the theory 
of selection appears in the light of impartial criti- 
cism as an aristocratic principle. It is based upon the 
selection of the best. The division of labor upon which 
more than upon anything else the progressive develop- 
ment of the organised world rests, necessarily produces 
a constantly increasing diversity of character, a con- 
stantly increasing inequality of the individuals, of their 
education, their activities, and their conditions. Hu- 
man civilisation the higher it rises makes the various 
classes of workers which cooperate in the complex ma- 
chinery of society appear the more different and diver- 
sified. Communism and that equality of conditions 
and of work which is aimed at by social democracy 
would be equivalent to a return to barbarism and the 
brutal primordial state of rude savages. The strange 



views which Caprivi's cabinet have propounded stand 
in decided opposition to the results of modern science, 
they found their strongest expression in the surprising 
alternative of Christianity or Atheism. The late Chan- 
cellor confesses in child-like simplicity to embrace the 
"Christian " world-conception of the Papistic leaders 
of the centre with whom "he feels to be in perfect 
agreement." He has the conviction that religion can- 
not be taught without dogma, even more, he says, we 
can have no other dogmas than those which exist. 

What shall philosophy, the queen among the sci- 
ences, say concerning this confession of faith ! Ac- 
cording to the theory of the new course all the serious 
labor performed by the greatest minds of three thou- 
sand j'ears has been done in vain. According to that 
all the philosophy which ought to be studied and which 
ought to be allowed to be taught is that of the Chris- 
tian fathers, yet it will be difficult for the government 
to say which of the many conflicting and irrational 
opinions shall in the future be considered as the only 
canon of philosophy. 

All the great results of modern science are there- 
with doomed. Doomed are also all the miserable men 
who attempted to solve the great problems of exist- 
ence, not through blind faith but with the assistance 
of that divine goddess, reason. We should feel dis- 
consolate over the loss of our temporal and eternal sal- 
vation if we had not fortunately come into good com- 
pany. Goethe, Lessing, Kant, Spinoza, Shakespeare, 
Newton, Humboldt, Darwin, Frederick the Second of 
the Hohenzollerns, and Frederick the Second of the 
Hohenstauffens, they all roast eternally in the hell of 
hopeless atheism. And here we pass over in silence 
all those non-Christian philosophers and scientists of 
other civilised nations to whom we look up with rev- 
erence as stars of the first magnitude. But more still, 
even Moses and the prophets, and also Buddha, Con- 
fucius, Zoroaster, Mohammed, in brief all the God- 
inspired founders of non-Christian religions, they also 
are all miserable atheists for the historical phrase of 
Caprivi "Either Christian or Atheists" applies to them 
also. 

The public school bill has been withdrawn. But the 
danger that threatened our educational system is not 
yet passed, and uncertainty prevails as to what the 
future will bring, and our souls are still full of anxiety 
and expectation. 

Whatever may happen in Prussia, should the in- 
fluential party of Conservatives blindly combine with 
the ultramontane centre, and similar bills be proposed 
which may be carried with the assistance of those 
parties who are hostile to the Federal Union of Im- 
perial Germany, we do not believe that the counter 
revolution will ever sweep over the whole of the fa- 
therland. Prussia is not German}'. We have still in 



XHE OPEN COURT. 



3217 



the German empire many independent princes who 
are mindful of their duty, their ancestors, and their 
history, and who understand their mission in the civ- 
ilisation of our country. There are still the descend- 
ants living and ruling in the small state of Thuringia, in 
the true heart of Germany, the descendants of those 
glorious princes who were the protectors and pro- 
moters of the reformation, and who have been during 
the period of our greatest literary renown immortal 
names in the history of our nation. 

In the face of a great political mistake, and of the 
grievous errors which in the last two years have been 
committed in Berlin we are inclined to undervalue the 
merit of the second chancellor of the empire. Three 
great benefits have come unwittingly from his admin- 
istration. 

First. He has reminded the German people to be 
themselves vigilant in guarding for their own welfare, 
to comprehend that the nation can preserve its im- 
portant position in the world, its political freedom, 
and its national unity only on condition that the people 
themselves are constantly engaged in preserving their 
rights. 

Secondly. His action has warned us that whatever 
high value for the preservation of our noblest ideals 
the German federalism possesses, the independent de- 
velopment of the various states and their individual- 
ity must not be sacrificed to Centralism. 

Thirdly. By means of his policy the intelligent part 
of the German nation have again 'fully recognised the 
great danger by which our freedom of thought and our 
civilisation are constantly threatened by ultramontane 
hierarchies, and by that dark power of the extreme 
Anti-National party which is called the Centre. 

The German Liberal party have often given aid to 
the Centre, and we cannot spare them the reproach 
of having strengthened its dangerous position. How 
much more clear-sighted on this important question 
was our venerable old emperor, William the First, 
whose wise, considerate, and strong rule is now so 
grievously missed ! In the beginning of the Kultur- 
kampf in February, 1874, he wrote these memorable 
words : 

"It is now my duty to be the leader of my people 
in a combat which has been fought by the German 
emperors of former times against the power whose 
rule has never been compatible in any country with 
the liberty and welfare of the people — a power which 
if it could be victorious in Germany at this time would 
annihilate all the blessings of the Reformation, and 
would endanger our freedom of conscience and the au- 
thority of our laws." 

Those are the words of the experienced, mild, and 
truly pious emperor who had succeeded in solving the 
old Sphinx riddle of German unity, and in fulfilling 



the old dream of the German nation. And shall we 
now surrender our independence which has been gained 
by great sacrifices? 

Let us hope that the Prussian Government will still 
remain conscious of its Protestant mission, and even 
should it admit the threatening ecclesiastical reaction 
in the domain of educational institutions we still have 
the consolation of believing that the rest of Germany 
would powerfully resist such measures. We have 
recognised the great merit of the second Chancellor, 
that he unconsciously antagonised the increasing cen- 
tralism and that he has revived the right of each state 
to individuality. Now our German smaller states have 
again a decisive opportunity to show once more their 
often proved importance for the spiritual life of our 
nation's ideals. We expect from the majority of Ger- 
man princes with great confidence that they will not 
follow the dangerous reaction inaugurated by Prussia, 
and that liberty of conscience will find an inviolate 
refuge in their territories. 

The high flourishing condition of German civilisation 
and science has rested for many centuries upon the great 
number of radiating centres which were sustained by 
the smaller German princes. The universities of Hei- 
delberg and Freiburg in Baden, of Tubingen in Wiirt- 
temberg, of Munich, Wiirzburg, and Erlangen in Ba- 
varia, Leipsic in Saxony, Jena in Thuringia, etc., etc., 
are so many independent workshops of German intel- 
lectuality which have preserved their individual charac- 
ter and independence. That which those non-Prussian 
universities have done for the spiritual life of our na- 
tion, sometimes under the most difficult conditions and 
with small means, is certainly no less than that which 
the numerous and well endowed Prussian universities 
of a later growth have accomplished. Therefore even 
if the ecclesiastical reaction should prevail, even if 
"the science of dogmatism" should pursue its long 
proposed retrogressive course, the brighter will shine 
in the rest of Germany from the altars of the highest 
ideals of humanitarianism the holj' fires of free science 
and free investigation. 



THE RELATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL TO THE 
COMMUNITY.* 

BY WILHELM WUNDT. 
PERSONALITY AND SPIRITUAL ORGANISMS. 

It is a frequent custom to-day to claim ex.pcrience 
in favor of an individualistic and atomistic conception 
of the relations of life, while people call the opposite 
view "transcendental or metaphysical," — expressions 
which unjustified as they may be in this case, do not 
easily lose their effect in our antimetaphysical time. 

* This is the substance of a lecture delivered as an oration by Professor 
Wundt on the birthday festival of the King of Saxony. The oration was pub- 
lished in the Dcutscke Ruiu/schati. 



32i8 



THE OPEN COURT. 



Naturally, the impossibility of our observing the primi- 
tive origin of human life-communities is readily granted. 
On the other hand it is extolled as the only justifiable 
empirical procedure, that we criticise the products of 
a distant prehistoric past according to the experiences 
which human life furnishes us to-day. And yet it is 
an undeniable result of historical and psychological 
experience, that we are not allowed to judge absolutely, 
according to our own thought and action, the thought 
and action in a remote stage of human development. 
And yet it is the principal doctrine, which history can 
impart to the psychologist, that in order to learn to 
understand a primitive intellectual life, he must at- 
tempt to think himself back into an intellectual world 
entirely different from the present, although built upon 
the same elementary, fundamental processes ! 

The history of mythological th'eories from the days 
of the famous Greek mythologist Euphemeros to the 
present, furnishes many astonishing as well as enter- 
taining examples of the consequences of conceiving 
man as immutable. 

In general, it is a fundamental error to think that 
the individualistic theory of the community, is free 
from metaphysical presuppositions. On the contrary, 
it becomes an irredeemable victim of metaphysics, be- 
cause it cannot decide to apprehend facts as they pre- 
sent themselves. Thus the strange fate devolved upon 
the natural philosophy of the seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth century, that where it expected to support itself 
with most certainty upon facts of experience, it was 
entangled most inextricably in metaphysical presup- 
positions. 

When Thomas Hobbes declared that only the sen- 
sible perceptible bodies were real substance ; that 
everything else of peculiar content which the world 
offers us was to be derived from affections of the body : 
our perception and will from mechanical movements 
of the brain, the artificial unions of sentient and voli- 
tional bodies, such as states, from the endeavor of 
those living bodies to maintain themselves, it was ob- 
viously not experience but firm faith in a system of 
materialistic metaphysics, that begot these doctrines. 

The spiritualism attaching itself to Descartes, being 
in opposition to this view, saw in the individual soul 
a supersensuous substance, that lives its true life only 
in its separation from the body, and for this reason 
also, in complete separation from communal life in 
which it only finds its sensuous existence ; yet this 
view attained the same results, in its conception of the 
ethical significance of the community, because, accord- 
ing to its historical origin, it was nothing but an adap- 
tation of the natural philosophy demanded by the spirit 
of the time to dogmatic traditions. 

Modern Psychology since Kant defined it course 
seeks the essence of the soul as did Aristotle in the 



very facts of the spiritual life, not in an unknowable 
' ' Ding an sich " that produces the spiritual phenomena 
as a transient sham, by means of its ephemeral inter- 
actions on other things, and not in a nominally simple 
and yet infinitely complex monad, which in conse- 
quence of wonderful predetermination, creates a sub- 
jective and confused picture of a world entirely dif- 
ferent. 

Psychology as an empirical science knows nothing 
of a spiritual life content that stands out of all relation 
to the content of our real thoughts, feelings and ac- 
tions. But it may as I think for just this reason be 
well adapted to the ethical demands, which the real life 
imposes. Without surrendering the value of the in- 
dividual existence, and fully recognising the fact that 
the spiritual powers of the whole originate only in in- 
dividuals and that a spiritual collective life can be 
created only when these factors retroact upon individ- 
uals, it must be admitted none the less, that this col- 
lective life is equally real as individual existence. It 
possesses a reality even superior to it wherever the 
actions of individuals are directed to the most import- 
ant life purposes of the community. 

The creative energy of language also with which 
every valuable activity of the individual is connected, 
forms a concrete testimony for this superior signifi- 
cance of the community. It seems to me that, practi- 
cally, the most important proof lies in the fact that the 
rules' of law, can only create that obligatory power, by 
means of which they assert their unconditional sov- 
ereignty over the individual will, from a real collec- 
tive will. Where else could the penal power of the 
state, which decides concerning the most important 
goods of individuals and indeed concerning life itself, 
acquire its legal title if not from the unconditional su- 
periority of the collective will which springs from the 
legal consciousness of the community over the indi- 
vidual will? 

How inadequate, how contradictory to every natu- 
•ral conception of right appear those rationalistic arti- 
fices which would fain justify this enormous power of 
the law merely from egoistic considerations in the in- 
terest of the security of individuals ! 

If in the last mentioned case, it is not the national 
community as such, but the political community united 
by a certain legal order, which becomes the basis of a 
collective will of regulative power, the capacity for the 
formation of a political collective will, lies on the other 
hand, chiefly in the primitive unity of a nation, — a 
unity of language, customs, and harmonious views of 
life. If therefore states may originate in other ways 
in consequence of the multiform influences of histor- 
ical conditions, if the normal causal relations may oc- 
casionally be reversed so that the nation does not pro- 
duce the state but the state the nation, yet the first 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3219 



mode of development seems to us to be the natural 
mode, not merely because it is the more primitive, 
but because here alone the formation of the state as 
the last member takes its place among those creations 
of the national spirit which find their expression in the 
language community. 

A nation deprived of these different domains of com- 
mon activity, of which the collective life consists, is a 
perfectly empty concept. When people in spite of all 
expressions of their intellectual activity declare the na- 
tion itself to be the author of these expressions, the 
question, of course, is about a mere ideal distinction. 
Under the term nation, therefore, we understand the 
community as such without .regard to the particular 
intellectual creations in whose production the commu- 
nity acts as a whole. 

Harmony need not necessarily prevail in all the 
tendencies of life in order to insure to a body of peo- 
ple the character of a nation. Thus the Germans 
formed a nation, even during times when they lacked 
a true political union. Thus the Swiss form a nation 
although they lack the unity of language. In the nat- 
ural development of collective life, a common lan- 
guage is always the basis of all other common struc- 
tures. Common conceptions and customs immediately 
adhere to it, as if necessarily dependent, though cap- 
able of greater differentiations. Finally appears the 
subordination to a political order developed from eth- 
ical rules and then determined by historical events. 

If one considers, as is indeed conceivable, although 
not historically permissible, that the nation is the au- 
thor of all these creations, then the nation is that body 
which while yet unorganised, possesses the capacity for 
producing all those creations through an indwelling 
organising faculty. Yet all products of the national 
community, language, morals, religious views and the 
state are true spiritual organisms. 

If it pertains to the idea of an organism, that it is 
a complex life unity of natural origin, and that this 
unity consists of parts that are themselves unities of 
similar qualities, and besides ministering members or 
organs of the whole, who can deny to a language, be it 
the rudest and most imperfect, the quality of being a 
spiritual organism created according to fixed laws ? 
Or who can fail to see that the mythological concep- 
tions of a nation, although removed perhaps in a 
greater degree than language, from external influences 
and therefore from mixture with foreign conceptions, 
who I say can fail to see that these, and likewise eth- 
ics and ethical conceptions possess a unitary connec- 
tion, which lends to them the qualities of spiritual or- 
ganisms capable of further development ? Only a ma- 
terialism that generally ascribes no reality to spiritual 
productions could deny that the question here con- 
cerns true organic creations. 



Among all spiritual creations, the state, however, 
takes a peculiar position. It is that product of the na- 
tional community, through which all the latter are 
united into an organic whole. The creation of the 
state is, therefore, not merely a production of a spirit- 
ual organism as perhaps the creation of language is, but 
it is an act of the self-organisation of the community, 
and thereby the community from a substratum which 
produces spiritual organisms, becomes itself an organ- 
ism. While this organism subjects itself to a unity of 
will, that regulates the actions of the whole body of 
citizens as well as of the individuals according to cer- 
tain binding norms, it obtains at the same time the 
character of a collective personality. 

The ideas of the spiritual organism and of person- 
ality are, therefore, by no means obscure. The lan- 
guage, customs, and life-views of a community are or- 
ganic creations; biit only by a phantastic mythological 
consideration could one expect to see personality in 
them. Therefore, people have believed at times that 
they ought to ascribe to the state the character of an 
organism but not that of personality. 

Now the application of an idea, naturally depends 
upon the definition given it. If the essence of per- 
sonality be defined to be that direct unity of psychical 
processes being regulated by an individual will, which 
is peculiar to self-consciousness, the condition is thereby 
at once established, that only an individual being can 
be a person. But if one only demands a harmonious 
willing and acting according to freely chosen motives 
as the essential qualities of personality, there can be 
no doubt that the significance of such belongs to the 
state. And this is so not merely allegorically as the 
term "person" is applied to certain corporations and 
unions, formed for more or less limited social pur- 
poses, such as are designated as juridical persons in 
order to signify their legal capacity. The collective 
will of the state on the contrary embraces all tendencies 
of the common life, just as the single will of the indi- 
vidual personality regulates the entire spiritual life of 
the individual being. In opposition to those legal per- 
sons so-called which for certain limited purposes, ob- 
tain a significance analogous to those of real persons, 
the state is the only real collective personality, and its 
distinguishing characteristic, upon which at the same 
time its peculiar value depends, consists in just this 
that in the state self- consciousness and will, although 
as free and as many-sided as in the individual person, 
are yet not a unity directly attached to a single phys- 
ical substratum, but emanate only from the alternating 
relations of a great number of independent individual 
beings. 

Where divergent conceptions of facts that have de- 
veloped historically are at strife with one another, the 
practical consequences resulting therefrom, form a last 



3220 



THE OPEN COURT. 



instance of decision. Since the contract theory re- 
garded the state as the arbitrary product of individuals, 
it became inextricably involved in a fate, that speaks 
an audible language in the revolutionary state-theories 
of the previous century ajid in the frightful applica- 
tions which they found in history. Whatever the sud- 
den and arbitrary act of individuals creates, can be 
destroyed again just as suddenly and arbitrarily by in- 
dividuals. The best form of state, therefore, according 
to this theory, is not that which has developed by 
historical necessity, from the organising power of a 
national community, but it is that which seems to corre- 
spond best to the immediate accommodation of all its 
members or since this is impossible at least to the ac- 
commodation of the prevailing majority. 

How strongly knitted together appears the organ- 
ically developed state which is rooted in the views of 
life and customs of a national community, in compari- 
son to the transient state-construction of Utilitarian- 
ism, for the latter aspires in vain for the greatest hap- 
piness of the greatest number which aim can, in this 
way, not be secured in the national development with 
any permanence or certainty. 



A MOMENT OF MY LIFE. 

1796. EY JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART. 

[In glancing over the works of the well-known philosopher 
and psychologist J. F. Herbart, I struck (in Vol. XII, p. 7S2, Ed. 
Hartenstein) the following passage which I suppose is little known, 
while it ought to be known. It characterises the agonies of an 
untiring seeker after truth in a moment of weakness, to overcome 
which it takes all the vigorous efforts of the strong mind he was. 
Every life has its moments of darkness in which our burdens seem 
heavier than we can bear, and we must learn to struggle with and 
to conquer our pessimistic moods. 

This disconnected passage in the works of a philosopher, 
might be called a poem in prose. It is a poem : it is a character- 
istic image of a certain moment in the soul-life of a thinker. Yet 
it is more than an artistic picture ; it is a photograph, it is true to 
life, it is life itself ; and we can feel that Herbart wrote these lines 
with his very heart's blood. 

So let this little sketch be an exhortation, not to yield to des- 
pair, not to be despondent when the struggle of life and thought 
threatens to overwhelm us, but to be up and doing, to fight bravely 
and never leave out of sight the ideals of our life. Says Longfellow ; 

" Lives of great men all remind us 
We can make our lives sublime. 
And, departing, leave behind us 
Footprints on the sands of time ; — 

Footprints, that perhaps another, 

Sailing o'er life's solemn main, 
A forlorn and shipwrecked brother, 

Seeing, shall take heart again." 

Here we see the footprints of a brother surrounded with the 
dangers of shipwreck. He felt forlorn and was full of despair. 
Yet he took heart again and made his life sublime by earnest 
struggle and fruitful work.] 

Full of gloomy thoughts I walked alone by the 
river. Although nature offered me her friendliest 
morning-greetings, the green fields smiled upon me in 



vain, and in vain the delicate mist of the early day 
glittered for me in the soft rays of the sun ; I stood 
there ashamed of myself, for I could not possibly re- 
turn these friendly greetings. 

Upon the high bluff I stopped and looked down 
into the depth. It is only two paces down, I said to 
myself, only two paces down to the flood ! The river 
is turbid as thy mind ! The bright sunlight is not thine 
element ! What means the image of pure humanity in 
thy breast ? Enwrapped in the gloom of night is this 
image, unadmired, scarcely thought of. If the sun of 
the truth within cannot break through the night and 
brighten it with luminous rays, then, let it be shattered 
upon this rock and let the river carry the fragments 
along in its wild turmoil, then let it carry down into 
the wide sea of oblivion and eternal sleep the specu- 
lating questions of the mind, the troublesome doubts 
of the heart ! 

My glance passed aimlessly from wave to wave. 
To the middle the river was shaded by the bank. Be- 
yond that I saw my own shadow hanging in uncertain 
shape, it mocked my unsteady movements. So it is 
right ! Thou, my shadow, wilt vacillate here in my 
place, wilt mark the spot where I ended, wilt repeat 
my last sigh unto my friends, wilt stammer unto them 
my farewell and my wishes, in groaning sounds, wilt 
tell them how I felt and what became of me ; dreadful 
will be thy sounds and dismal, but willingly they shall 
listen unto thy warning and heed it ; they will not in- 
quire into the infinite, they will not seek untrodden 
paths for themselves, nor be their own guides ; they 
will remain upon the broad highway, they will enjoy 
themselves like children with child-like spirits, they 
will not be desirous of exchanging the gifts of nature 
for self won trophies, not simplicity for wisdom, nor 
innocence for virtue. O ! all ye dear ones, ye parents, 
relatives, friends, all ye beloved, ye dear ones, near 
and far ! If ye knew — 

Whilst I was thus addressing myself and the 
mind, I had walked on without noticing I had climbed 
higher, for the bank rose more and more. I turned 
around to look for my shadow, and behold it was 
walking along on the opposite shore upon flowery 
meadows and the sparkling dew drops upon the near 
shrub were frolicking with it. I had followed my 
path, the eminence had been reached and therefore 
the sunbeams had carried it across the waves. It was 
a beautiful moment ! The fullness of joy and courage 
and hope returned to me. 

"I will strive higher and higher then, will rest- 
lessly struggle with fiery zeal until the tomb shall 
open ; Phoebus will then send a beam of his light after 
me ; not in the frail bark, no, in the light of truth I 
shall soar along over the sacred waters and hail the 
borders of Elysium." 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3221 



SPRINGTIDE. 

FROM THE GERMAN OF FALLERSLEBEN BY JEAN W. WYLIE. 

In a rosebush love lay sleeping, 

Springtide came and whispered : "Greeting!" 
Love heard, awaked, laughed out in glee. 
Peeped from the rosebuds cheerily, 

Then mused : " 'Tis early yet, I ween — " 

And hied her back to sleep and dream. 

But Spring resolved to have his way, 

Awaked her with a kiss each day 

And moved her with such cunning art 
She ope'd at last to him her heart, 

And thus his longing so intense 

Repaid with love's best recompense. 



I 



CURRENT TOPICS. 

In The Cfiituiy magazine for April is a glowing picture in 
words of Mary the mother of Washington. The story of her life 
is radiant with domestic beauty, and therein is every American 
matron crowned and glorified. The mother of Washington was 
worthy of her son, as the son was worthy of his mother. The fra- 
grance of a life so dutiful will make the social air more wholesome 
in this land so long as the memory of that life continues in the 
world. Therefore it is that in my sentimental mood I honor the 
Virginia court that put sentiment above the law, and forbade the 
owner of her burial place to sell the grave of Mary Washington. 
I do not think there is in all the thrifty north a real estate con- 
science so far gone in mercantile petrifaction as to give or take an 
" option" on the dust of Mary Washington. It is not easy to be- 
lieve the charge that such business-like and enterprising souls 
flourish in Virginia, although the news from Richmond makes and 
proves the accusation. It appears by the record that Kirtley and 
Kolbert, dealers in real estate at Fredericksburg, thought they 
could buy and sell the national sentiment that hallows the grave' 
of Washington's mother, so they got an "option" on it from one 
Shepherd, the owner of the lot on which it was. Mr. Shepherd 
also stimulated the bargain by generously throwing in a monu- 
ment which some reverent and patriotic citizen of New York had 
placed upon the grave. The price of the bones within the grave 
and the monument upon it was $2,500, and on the payment of that 
sum by a certain day Kirtley and Kolbert were to get a deed for 
the venerated lot. Having got their "option," those enterprising 
speculators looked for a customer to whom they could sell out at a 
profit, and they found him in Mr. G H. Huntingdon of Baltimore 
who offered them $20,000 for the grave, probably for the purpose 
of preserving it from buyers and sellers and from the Goths and 
Vandals in all coming time. Then they foreclosed their " option," 
tendered the $2,500 to Mr. Shepherd and demanded a deed, which 
he refused to make, perhaps because he had heard of the $20,000 
sale. Then they sued him for a deed in the Circuit Court of Fred- 
ericksburg, and that court ruled against them for the purely emo- 
tional but very laudable reason that the grave of Washington's 
mother could not be the subject of a sale. The case is now pend- 
ing on appeal before the Supreme Court at Richmond, where the 
judgment of the lower court will most likely be affirmed, 
^f ■ * 

Whatever may be the decision of the Supreme Court at Rich- 
mond as to the owner's right to sell the grave of Washington's 
mother, there can be no doubt that patriotic and pious opinion 
everywhere will sustain the judgment of the Circuit Court at 
Fredericks'ourg declaring the sale of it invalid. Still, it will take 
some skill in judicial casuistry to affirm the judgment of the Circuit 
Court on legal grounds. Speaking by the law, if Mr. Shepherd 
has the right to own the grave, he certainly has the right to trans- 
fer that ownership to another, and the fact that he does it for 



money can hardly affect his right. Can Virginia by judicial force 
or otherwise compel him to own that hallowed grave against his 
will ? And if the sale of it be a scandal schocking to the moral 
sense, let Virginia acquire a title to it on payment of just compen- 
sation. Then let her preserve it in honor as an heir-loom in the 
family of her people for all time. 

The Emperor William, taking God into partnership with him 
whirls the political elements of Germany into a social cyclone 
which he is not able to control. The irreverence is the emperor's, 
not mine, for in his speech to the Brandenburg Diet he spoke of 
the Deity as "our ally at Rossbacb and Dennewitz, who will not 
leave me in the lurch." He went further and advised his hearers 
to "put their trust in God, and their heieditaiy xyiX&x." He de- 
clared at the same time that God had taken such "infinite pains" 
to support and sustain the Hohenzollerns that "we cannot suppose 
he has done this for no purpose." Animatetf by this feudal senti- 
ment, he tells his minister Caprivi to put the clock of German 
freedom back. The national and political unity of Germany hav- 
ing been achieved by Bismarck, Caprivi agrees to bring her intel- 
lectual genius down to the level of provincial mediocrity. The 
free spirit of Germany is too big now to be put back into the an- 
cient cage, It will expand with every additional conquest made 
by the Germans in art, science, philosophy, and statesmanship. 
The efforts of the emperor to airest the brain of Germany and im- 
prison it in the cloisters of a church will fail, as the like attempt of 
King James the Second failed in England more than two hundred 
years ago. A scheme to deprive the people of education, ironically 
called the " School Bill " was proposed by Caprivi, the second and 
smaller chancellor ; and this bill put the schoolmaster under the 
direction and correction of the priest. In order to pass the bill, 
Caprivi bore aloft into the senate two metaphorical dragons, 
breathing imaginary fire and smoke. One of these he called So- 
cialism, the other Atheism, and with these effigies he tried to 
frighten the parliament and the people of Germany. "The School 
Bill," said Caprivi, "is only intended to counteract Atheism ; and 
Christian denominationalism alone can pull down socialism." It 
would avail Caprivi nothing to lock up all the German uni- 
versities tomorrow unless he can also catch and put back within 
them all the mighty thoughts they have sent out in the centuries 
gone by. These wander free and invisible over every road in 
Germany, and they are the inspiration of the German people, not 
only in the Fatherland, but in the United States and wherever 
they may be. 

* * 

It is to Americans a very provoking puzzle that we can hardly 
ever tell whether affairs apparently most potent, grave, and rev- 
erend, are being carried on in earnest or in fun ; because having 
lifted hypocrisy to a pl&ce among the fine arts we have added so 
much to the piquancy of American humor that even when we are 
sentenced to be hanged we doubt the reality of it, and think that 
the whole ceremonial is a joke played by the sheriff and the judge. 
In religion, in politics, and in trade, we laugh at Sincerity as a 
fool. For instance, I am at this moment enjoying that ironical bit 
of comedy now being played at Washington, where as the curtain 
rises we see a Committee of Congress sitting on the Commissioner 
of Pensions, grave and solemn as five owls trying a mouse by Court 
Martial. What signify the scandals exposed by this investigation ? 
says the accused. I am not a public officer ; I am a party agent, 
and in that capacity I have done my duty. Here is an innocent 
question put by the owls to the mouse, "If you found that ex- 
aminers in the field were using their places to aid the Democratic 
party, what would you do ? " And here is the answer of the mouse, 
" Call them in. I always give preference in every possible way to 
Republicans, because this is a Republican Administration. I am 
in my position because I am a Republican. I never assign men to 



3222 



THE OPEN COURT. 



the field without knowing their politics. I want Republicans only. " 
Now the humorous hypocrisy of all this trial is that the owls pre- 
tend to be shocked at such a candid avowal of depravity, and they 
blink judicial reprobation at the delinquent in the dock ; whereas 
every owl of them will expect and require their own Commissioner 
of Pensions to act in the very same way when the Democrats come 
into power. M. M. Trumbuli.. 

BOOK REVIEWS. 

Humanity in its Origin and Early Growth. By E. Colbert, 
M. A. 392 pages. Chicago : The Open Court Publishing 
Company. 1892. 

This work is the result of long and patient scientific investiga- 
tion, and there is a good deal of scientific imagination in it also. 
The author was formerly Superintendent of the Dearborn Observ- 
atory, and Professor of Astronomy in the University of Chicago. 
His opportunities have been great, and he has made good use of 
them. A practical astronomer he has discarded the revelations of 
inspired legends for the more divine revelations of the telescope ; 
and he confidently claims that the theologies of the present have 
sprung from the astrologies of old, and that " the star lore of the 
remote past forms the root and trunk of the great religious tree of 
our own day." Further, he shows by abundant evidence that 
" astrology and magic are the twin parents of ancient worship,'' 
and that ' ' to those two sources the Christian world is indebted for 
much of the material that is incorporated in the creeds of the 
present generation," 

Professor Colbert affirms that all animated nature is the pro- 
duct of an evolutionary process working unceasingly for millions 
of years ; and he condenses the proof of it into a few chapters at 
the beginning of his book tracing the slow development of man 
through the various ages, epochs, and periods of geologic time, 
from the mere animal to the savage, and from him to the semi- 
civilised, and rather conceited citizen of this overruled nineteenth 
century. The evolution of the physical man is merely the foun- 
dation on which Professor Colbert builds his larger theory of the 
evolution of "Humanity," the intellectual, moral, and spiritual 
man. 

Much of the evidence which Professor Colbert offers in support 
of his argument appears to be conclusive, while some of it, though 
always probable, is of a speculative character ; and herein he 
shows how a scientific imagination may make a learned book en- 
tertaining, and stimulate the appetite for knowledge. It may not 
be literally true that man's habits and principles sprang from ac- 
cident or special necessity just in the way supposed by Professor 
Colbert, as for instance, the supposed fortuitous manner in which 
the remote man came to add a ration of roast meat to his acorn 
diet, but it is not unlikely ; and at all events, Professor Colbert is 
never so weak in reasons as to call in the aid of miracle to keep an 
illogical Noah's ark from sinking. 

The childish fables which pass for "Sacred History" and 
" Holy Writ," Professor Colbert covers with comic ridicule. He 
will hardly condescend to give them serious denial, any more than 
the stories of Jack and the Beanstalk, St. George and the Dragon, 
or Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp. He is content to show their 
origin, and "there an end." He has a sort of scornful pity for 
the men who having outthought and outgrown belief in theologic 
myths and magic give them negative support by silence, as if it 
was not their business to enlighten fools. " Few scientific investi- 
gators," remarks Profes^r Colbert, "have taken a position of Ac- 
tive dissent. Their attitude in the matter is simply that of with- 
holding assent from dogmas they cannot indorse." But in another 
place he says, "It is difficult to see why a reputedly conscientious 
man in all else should feel it his duty to wink at a monstrous 
falsehood for fear that other people should be spoiled by being 
told the truth." 



Professor Colbert says that " part of the material of his work 
is to be found in the encyclopedias and other books." This is 
true, and the same thing might be said of any other book built 
upon a scientific and historical foundation, but the value of Pro- 
fessor Colbert's book consists in this, that it is not merely raw 
material but the finished article wherein we get in one volume 
what we could not make for ourselves out of the raw material con- 
tained in a hundred encyclopedias. For that reason, and for many 
others it is in spite of some ingenious guesswork as to the origin 
of many creeds and dogmas, one of the most useful books of the 
year. m. m- t. 

NOTES. 

Mr. Morris Phillips, editor of the Home Journal, New York, 
has published a little book entitled "Abroad and at Home : Prac- 
tical Hints for Tourists." It describes London, Paris, and several 
cities of the United States. 

We are in receipt of ' ' King's Handbook of the United States " 
which is a stately volume full of information concerning the his- 
tory and conditions of our country. Its text is explained and illus- 
trated by 51 pages of colored maps and 2,639 illustrations of the 
great features of this country, all made expressly for it. The book 
is accompanied by good recommendations of high authorities, 
among whom are the Professors Andrew D. White, W. D. Whit- 
ney, Dr. Wm. T.Harris, and many others. (Buffalo; The Matthews- 
Northrup Co.) 

MR. C. S. PEIRCE has resumed his lessons by correspondence in the 
Art of Reasoning, taught in progressive exercises. A special course in logic 
has been prepared for correspondents interested in philosophy. Terms, 830 
for twenty-four lessons. Address : Mr. C. S. Peirce, "Avisbe," Milford, Pa. 

THE OPEN COURT. 

THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING CO. 

EDWARD C. HEGELER, Pees. Dr. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 

TERMS THROUGHOUT THE POSTAL UNION : 
$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Open Court will 
be supplied on order. Price 75 cents each. 

All coramunications should be addressed to 

THE Or'Elsr COTTIR.'X, 

(Nixon Building, 175 La Salle Street,) 

P. O. DRAWER F. CHICAGO, ILL. 

CONTENTS OF NO. 243. 

THE NEW COURSE OF GERMAN POLITICS AND 
THE PURPORT OF ITS WORLD-CONCEPTION. 
Ernst Haeckel 3215 

THE RELATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL TO THE 

COMMUNITY. (Concluded). Wilhelm Wundt 3217 

A MOMENT OF MY LIFE. Johann Friedrich Herbart 3220 

POETRY. 

Springtide. Jean W. Wylie 3221 

CURRENT TOPICS. Putting Sentiment above the Law. 
The School Question in Germany. Public Officers as 
Party Agents. M. M. Trumbull 3221 

BOOK REVIEWS 3222 

NOTES 3222 



L ^ CHICAGO I 



The Open Court. 



A VSrEEKLY JOUENAL 



Devoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion ^Arith Science. 



No. 244, (Vol. VI.— 17.) 



CHICAGO, APRIL 28, 1892. 



Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



REFORM ON SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES. 

BY F. M. HOLLAND. 

It is following these principles which makes a man 
really a reformer and not merely a crank. Cranks 
whirl round and round, each in his own little orbit, 
which is changing its shape incessantly. The real re- 
former presses steadily forward in the direct line of 
social progress, preferring to advance slowly rather 
than wander astray. All motion takes place according 
to fixed laws ; and those by which our race has ad- 
vanced thus far are not likely to be repealed. To 
know how to improve the present, we must remember 
how we have improved on the past. Look back to the 
state of things a thousand years ago ; and we see that 
men differed much less among themselves in beliefs, 
occupations, and habits generally than is the case in 
civilised countries to-day. In these countries there 
has been great progress during the last two or three 
centuries ; it has been accompanied by a growing di- 
versity in ways of living and thinking ; and the lowest 
savages continue to live alike and think alike, as the 
first men did in all probability. Men become more 
dissimilar as they advance in civilisation ; and it is 
well known that the change to ever higher and higher 
forms of vegetable and animal life has been marked 
by ever-growing dissimilarity. These and many other 
facts establish the truth of Herbert Spencer's famous 
law of differentiation, according to which social pro- 
gress must involve an ever-growing diversity of occu- 
pations and opinions. To enable the diversities in 
society to increase, it is, of course, necessary to let 
people think and act as they choose. The recent 
period of rapid progress is also one of decrease of gov- 
ernmental interference with religion, literature, wages, 
amusements, food, and dress. No State in our Union 
would think of passing such laws on these points as 
were obeyed without opposition in Massachusetts two 
hundred and fifty years ago. The law of progress is 
also the law of liberty. Loss of individual freedom 
would take us back towards barbarism ; and increase 
of the power of government means loss of liberty. 
Herbert Spencer is perfectly right when he speaks of 
"Conservatism, which stands for the restraints of so- 
ciety over the individual, and reform, which stands for 



the liberty of the individual against society," and again 
when he tells us that, " The progressive extension of 
the liberty of citizens, and the reciprocal removal of 
political restrictions are the steps by which we ad- 
vance." ("First Principles," pp. 512 and 513. Am. 
ed.). Mill took substantially the same ground in his 
great book " On Liberty"; and I do not know of any 
student of social problems by the scientific method who 
thinks otherwise ; but I claim for Mill and Spencer only 
such authority as is justified by the fidelity with which 
they state plain facts of history. 

To call Spencer's definition of reform worthless, 
would compel us to say that Garrison, Phillips, Doug- 
lass, Sumner, and the other abolitionists were not re- 
formers. Those who would imitate them will find 
quite enough still to do in extending the liberty of our 
citizens, and diminishing the power of society over the 
individual. There for instance are those laws against 
Sunday amusements, due, as stated in the "Study of 
Sociology" (p. 17), to "ascetic fanaticism in genera- 
tions long past." To the Puritan, pleasure meant sin ; 
but we know that it means health, and to that extent 
duty, as is shown in the chapter on "Pleasures and 
Pains" in Spencer's "Psychology." Neither church 
nor State has any right to forbid dancing or base-ball 
on the only day when active amusements are possible 
to the majority of our citizens. To tell people they 
must not have any work on Sunday, nor any amuse- 
ment either, is simply trying to reduce them to the 
condition of criminals in the worst of jails. Rest must 
include amusement for healthy people who are wide- 
awake. When our citizens do awake to full knowledge 
of their rights, the laws against Sunday amusements 
will go where those for burning heretics went. One 
reason this tyranny is borne so tamely is that it presses 
most heavily on the poor. The rich man gets amuse- 
ment enough on Sunday in his carriage, yacht, or par- 
lor. To the poor man no place is open in many of our 
cities, except the saloon. No wonder that the brewers 
seem as anxious as the clergymen to have the World's 
Fair next year kept shut on the day it is needed most. 
Fortunately Chicago is already liberal enough to open 
her theatres ; and I have no fear that she will suffer 
either her guests or her own poor citizens to be op- 



3224 



THE OPEN COURT. 



pressed. One thing worth remembering about Sunday 
laws is that they are being repealed as fast as they be- 
come dead letters. The best way to reform them is 
to violate them. 

Spencer has much to say about the need of making 
"the administration of justice prompt, complete, and 
economical," and giving better protection for property 
and reputation to the poor against the rich, as well as 
to the individual against the government. This re- 
form is not so much needed here as in England ; but 
the Chicago anarchists are said to have been maddened 
by failures to obtain justice peaceably. Another re- 
form which Spencer strongly favors is likely to be the 
main issue in this year's presidential campaign. A 
prominent protectionist, Ex-Governor Ames, said at 
the recent celebration of Lincoln's birthday in Boston : 

' ' In the last campaign we Republicans claimed that we wanted 
to revise the tariff on the lines of protection, that we Republicans 
intended to reduce the tariff all along the line : but instead of that, 
we raised the duty on manufactured goods, and it didn't need any 
prayers that fall for rain. We were completely flooded and swept 
away on account of the McKinley bill." 

This law has raised the duty on women's and chil- 
drens dress goods, with woolen woof and cotton warp, 
to 128 p. c, so that a piece of 53 yards, which was 
sold at the English factory for $14.31, costs $18.15 
more than it would if we had free trade. This and 
similar taxes compel every buyer of woolen goods to 
pay much more than the real value ; and a large part 
of the extra price goes into the pockets of wealthy 
manufacturers. Give individual liberty to buy goods 
for what they are worth, without interference from the 
government ; and you give the poor protection against 
the rich. 

No reform of recent date has done so much as the 
Australian ballot to establish the poor man's right to 
vote according to his own convictions, without risk of 
being thrown out of work. This law of liberty is al- 
ready in force in thirty-three states, according to 77/1? 
Forum for last January : but the forms adopted irt 
seven of the thirty-three are shown to have serious de- 
fects. Of the two methods in use in twenty-six states, 
that preferred in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, where a 
man need not make more than one mark in order to 
vote for his party's entire ticket, has the advantage of 
greatly shortening the time needed not only for cast- 
ing but for counting ballots. 

The best men in both parties support this reform, 
and also one for which there is such an opportunity 
of working at present as will not come again until 
four years hence. The Russian government gives all 
the offices to its most faithful partisans, with little 
heed to what they are otherwise ; and thus the admin- 
istration has become so inefficient for all good ends 
that the people starve. We expect this of a despot- 



ism ; but a republican government should not be per- 
mitted to rob the citizens of their right to have the 
money they pay into the public treasury used solely 
for the public good. My liberty to use my money as 
I choose is violated, when it is taken from me in order 
to keep in power men whom I want to have turned 
out. This will not, perhaps, be an issue at the next 
election, and certainly not the leading one. The best 
time to work for it is before the nominations. Every 
Democrat ought to do his utmost to prevent his party 
from choosing any candidate who has sinned against 
civil service reform as deeply as Hill and Gorman ; 
and it will be no sign of fidelity to it for the Republi- 
cans to renominate Harrison. 

These reforms in politics deserve a party pledged 
to carry them out ; and we should have one if the Dem- 
ocrats were true to the Jeffersonian platform. Their 
original principle, that of maintaining individual 
rights against interference by the central government, 
has been sacrificed again and again to catch votes. It 
is difficult even now to say how the party stands in re- 
gard to civil service reform ; and there is some danger 
that the golden opportunity to reduce the tariff next 
year will be thrown away in order to propitiate fanat- 
ics for a wild scheme which is advocated as a way to 
improve business by governmental interference, but 
is denounced by leading Democrats as certain to de- 
base the value of the many millions of hard-earned 
money, deposited in savings banks by industrious cit- 
izens. This party seems likely, however, in spite of 
its inconsistencies, to do more than its opponents for 
reform, as may be judged from the fact that the lead- 
ing organisation of New England reformers was once 
composed almost entirely of Republicans, but has now 
an overwhelming majority of Democrats, though the 
same men still fill the seats. It is hard to say which 
party is most likely to increase personal liberty in a 
way strongly favored by Mill, and also by Spencer in 
his first book but not at all in his last. Women are 
said to be all born smugglers ; and I do not see why they 
should not have a chance to say at the polls, how they 
like having the price of dry-goods and table-ware 
raised, in many cases to two or three times the free- 
trade value, by the tariff. 

Spencer's definition of reform need not be taken so 
narrowly as to forbid promoting the welfare of society 
in ways which do not restrict liberty, though they do 
not enlarge it. Every school, for instance, ought to 
give a prominent place to manual training, if only be- 
cause this enables the child's brain to develop by the 
same process which has made the brains of our race 
so much larger and mightier than they were originally, 
I mean working over things instead of names, and 
using tools much more than books. Much needs still 
to be done for the protection of children in factories; 



THE Ot^EN COURT. 



3225 



but I think it has been proved by Atkinson and Cabot, 
in The Popular Science Monthly for February, 1892, 
that men and women ought to be allowed "to work 
according to their own will, and to control their own 
time according to their own judgment." Prohibition- 
ists should not be permitted to invade our liberty on a 
bare chance of gaining ends which are actually reached 
without any tyranny in Norway and Sweden, by a 
plan described in The Nineteenth Century for Decem- 
ber", 1 891. As regards socialism and its cheap edition, 
nationalism, I have only space enough left to refer to 
D. G. Thompson's lecture on "Evolution and Social 
Reform," (published by James H. West, 196 Summer 
St., Boston), in addition to many well-known essays 
and chapters by Herbert Spencer, whose last book, 
that on "Justice," ends thus, "What can be a more 
extreme absurdity than that of proposing to improve 
social life by breaking the fundamental law of society ?" 



FAITH AND REASON. 



A REVIEW OF FECHNER'S METHOD OF CONCILIATING RELIGION 
WITH SCIENCE. 

GusTAv Theodor Fechner is the founder of psy- 
cho-physics, i. e., the science which determines the 
relation between sense-stimuli and sensations, thus ex- 
plaining the interdependence between bodily functions 
and psychical phenomena. Prof. E. H. Weber had 
set up the law that the increase of a stimulus to be 
appreciable must always bear some fixed and definite 
proportion to the intensity of the stimulus with which 
it is compared. For instance if we can just distinguish 
between 16 ounces and 17 ounces, we shall be able to 
distinguish between 32 and 34 ounces, not between 
33 and 34. The fraction y*^ must be the same. This 
fraction, the smallest noticeable difference, which is 
to be found out by experiment, is called the "differ- 
ence threshold " of muscular sense. 

Fechner took up Weber's investigations and stated 
Weber's law with greater precision in a mathematical 
form thus : " The sensation increases as the logarithm 
of the stimulus." He made this law of the relation 
that obtains between body and soul the basis of a new 
branch of science which he called "psycho-physics." 

We must add that the law is approximately true in 
the case of sight, hearing, pressure, and the muscular 
sense, it is most exactly true of sound, but it is un- 
certain for the chemical senses of smell and taste. 
It is most exact in the middle regions of the sensory 
scale but becomes unreliable when we approach either 
the lower or upper limit of sensibility. 

Fechner called attention to the duality of sensation 
and motion ; yet he proposed to conceive this duality 
as two aspects only of one and the same thing. Fech- 
ner's philosophical ideal was monism, yet we must add 



that, in our opinion, he has not fully realised his mo- 
nistic ideal. His imaginative powers were those of a 
poet and we find that his views of God and soul and 
immortality are sometimes bordering on or even en- 
tering into that kind of fanciful spiritualism which is 
generally called supernaturalism. 

* 
* * 

This is a short description of Fechner's position 
and importance as a psychologist. At present we do 
not intend to give any further explanation of his meta- 
physical, or psychological, or philosophical views, but 
to describe his attitude toward religion. No one per- 
haps could feel more deeply and earnestly the demand 
of the soul to have science and religion conciliated. 
He was a man of science ; his life was devoted to most 
intricate investigations and experiments, but he never 
lost sight on the one hand of the religious importance 
of scientific work and on the other hand of the indis- 
pensability of religion to science. 

Fechner argues : 

Knowledge and faith are intimately interconnected. 
Science cannot live without faith. I know that I have 
a sensation of red or green or yellow, I also know that 
the sum of the angles in a plane triangle are equal to 
180 degrees. But I do not know in the strictest sense 
of knowledge that another man has the same color- 
sensation when he looks at the same objects. I do 
not even know that space is tri-dimensional, I may 
have (and we cannot say that we do not have) good 
reasons for believing the one and the other, but this 
behef, certain though it may be, rests upon our faith in 
the regularity and cosmic order of the universe, which 
is the result of an inference but not an object of direct 
knowledge. Fechner starting from such considera- 
tions, says, it is the duty of the man of science not to 
abolish faith but to replace it so far as possible by ex- 
act knowledge. 

Faith originates because we need it, we are in want 
of it, it is a necessity of life. We cannot extend our 
knowledge without faith, we cannot act without it, 
and that faith an essential feature of which is the as- 
piration to extend knowledge is superior to the self- 
sufficient faith of the Moslem who burns the books and 
spurns science. 

The basis of religion lies deeply buried in the na- 
ture of man and human society, so deeply that many 
cannot detect it. Many propose the principles of hu- 
manity or pure ethics as a surrogate in the place of 
religion. But they forget that these principles of hu- 
manity are a product of religion and would not exist 
without it. Humanity and religiosity rise and sink 
together. We may imagine the stones in the founda- 
tion of the building useless, because they are hidden 
from sight, but if we should take them away the house 
must fall. 



3226 



THE OPEN COURT. 



Religion holds and keeps human society, and hu- 
man society is such an immediate presence as the air 
we breathe. To discard religion and keep humanity 
or ethics is about the same as to propose that we can 
dispense with the air so long as and because we have 
breath. 

Fechner maintains that there are three essential 
elements in religion and no religion is perfect unless 
it proposes a belief in all three. These three elements 
are the belief in (i) God, (2) an immortal soul, and (3) 
spirits. God is to him not only the ground of all exist- 
ence but also the soul-tie of all spirits among whom 
Christ is our ideal as the foremost revealer of God. 

* 
* * 

We do not intend to give further explanations of 
Fechner's views and are satisfied in having outlined 
his religious standpoint. We shall now attempt to con- 
strue his views satisfactorily to our world-conception. 

Fechner's conceptions of God, the soul, and the 
spirit-world are not without fantastic notions, and we 
cannot accept the arguments he proposes, especially 
for the last and most favorite of his three religious 
ideas. We do not deny the spirituality of the world, 
for we ourselves are spirits, not pure spirits but spirits 
after all, and our innermost nature is spiritual. But we 
deny Fechner's peculiar conception of a spirit-world 
above the spirituality of nature. 

Let us see whether we can give to Fechner's views 
an interpretation that will stand the test of scientific 
critique. 

The idea of a spirit-world is strange, but if inter- 
preted allegorically it has a deep significance. Among 
Christians it finds its expression in the mythology of an- 
gels, saints, and devils. Yet this idea of a spirit-world, 
although it is mythology, contains (as all mythology 
does) a great and important truth. If we decipher the 
mythological meaning of the belief in saints and trans- 
late it into a statement of facts, we should say that 
the soul-life of all humanity is one great stream ; all 
sentient creatures that lived on earth since organised 
life began form one great empire, one large republic 
of interdependent citizens. A man's life does not be- 
gin with birth, nor does it end with death. There are 
no individuals in the strict sense of the word. The 
soul-life of past generations flows through the present 
generation into future generations. Our ancestors' 
souls are not lost ; our dead are not dissolved into 
nothing ; they continue ; so long as we speak their 
language, think their ideas, and act according to 
their maxims ; they are with us all the time and will 
be with us even unto the end of the world. In so 
far as their presence is effective of evil, they are de- 
mons, in so far as it is effective of good, as their in- 
fluence leads the race onward and upward, they corre- 
spond to the saints of the church. 



Is there also a truth in the belief in angels ? Cer- 
tainly there is ! If those features of nature's all-being 
which produce and uphold the spiritual world of man's 
soul-life, are called in their harmonious totality God, 
we should say that the single powers of nature tend- 
ing to advance God's work in the world, are, mytho- 
logically expressed, his messengers and servants. If 
we conceive the sun merely in his physical effects, we 
are overwhelmed with his grandeur, his awfulness and 
beneficence. Through him we receive directly and 
indirectly most of the boons that produce and sustain 
life. The sun is not a mind, yet we stand in a relation 
to the sun that is, on our part, of a personal nature. 
We can and often do regard him with gratitude, and 
to represent him as an archangel of God is by no 
means an inappropriate allegory. It is mythology, but 
the mythology has a meaning. 

Our consciousness is the effect of the subconscious 
spirituality of our organisation. This subconscious 
spirituality is, as it were, our attending angel, our fa- 
miliar, the spirit that nourishes and bears our mental- 
ity, it is the pedestal upon which our conscious life 
rests. 

It is a wrong conception of nature to think of na- 
ture as a dead machine regulated by the law of inertia. 
Nature is life, nature is spontaneity, nature is spirit- 
uality. 

If we weigh the materialistic conception, (which 
considers solel}' and exclusively what we define as the 
objectivity of nature i. e. matter in motion, dropping 
that source of psychical life which we call the subjec- 
tivity of nature), if we compare materialism with the 
mythology of ancient and modern religions, we should 
say that the former is radically wrong and the latter, 
the modern and even the ancient religions, are right 
in the face of the former. The latter are wrong only 
in so far as the truth is symbolically expressed and not 
in exact scientific formulas. But the truth is there 
nevertheless. 

* * 

Fechner concludes a little volume which he has 
written on the subject, with a peculiar confession. He 
says in his "Drei Motive und Griinde des Glaubens": 

"As free as the position is which I advocate in this work and 
have advocated in former writings, yet the orthodox position 
where I have met it elsewhere, has on the whole, though not in 
every case, pleased me better than the free. . . . 

"To this firmness of faith is attached a wonderful blessing. 
When I observe that many enjoy this blessing even now and 
apply it in their principles and actions, in as far as it is possible 
in this time of imperfection, relying partly on the need of such 
blessing and partly upon the truth and goodness of the principal 
tenets of the Christian religion, I am thereby filled with a secret 
admiration and joy. I see in this on the one hand an e5(pression 
and on the other hand an acceptation of the meaning and fact of 
a perfect religion, an acceptation, which can only take place in so 
far as the respective religion is looked upon as that which accord- 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3227 



:ng to its idea it intends to be in completion, and in so far as its 
historic sources are considered entirely reliable. . . . 

"Religion should furnish to reason the highest, safest, and 
surest points of view ; and now it is left to the function of the in- 
dividual reason to govern, to improve, to iudge and'to sift these 
views; that is to reverse the whole subject, and in the place of 
the unity settling all things which we must expect from religion, 
we now get in addition to the other causes of dissent we already 
have, also the confusion and contention about religion itself, so 
that we easily lose all religion." 

Let us pause here for a moment and ask, What is 
"the individual reason"? Reason is reason in so far only 
as it agrees with that feature of reality which makes 
of the world a cosmos. Objectivity accordingly is the 
nature of reason; and "individual reason," denoting 
a subjective kind of reason is a contradictory term. 

The individual reason (supposing that the term 
means subjective rationality, a rational taste or fancy) 
is not and cannot be an absolute criterion of truth. That 
is not true which pleases the taste of a rational being 
best, but that which agrees with reality ; not that which 
satisfies one's conception of rationality, but that which 
is in conformity with actual facts. There are some 
people who believe that that is right which their con- 
science tells them to be right, and that that is true 
which pleases their peculiar sense of rationality best. 
But their position is false. The standards of truth and 
error, and of right and wrong, are objective not sub- 
jective ; and the very instrument of reasoning, man's 
organ of arranging the facts of experience in proper 
relations, his mechanism of formal thought is but a 
copy of the world-order, an imitation of the ways of 
nature, and a systematised recognition of the forms of 
existence. Through reason the scientist can formu- 
late the regularities of the universe in laws and through 
reason alone living beings are enabled to set them- 
selves purposes for their actions. 

Religion is the recognition of authority, ft stands 
on the recognition of something that is independent of 
our wishes and tastes ; of something that is as it is 
whatever we think of it ; it stands on the recognition 
of reality. But religion is not based alone on the rec- 
ognition of reality, it implies also the demand of find- 
ing out the nature of reality. Religion demands cog- 
nition, and so the proper employment of reason is an 
essential part of religion. 

* * 

Fechner proposes three principles which lead to 
faith, (i) the historical principle, (2) the practical 
principle, and (3) the theoretical principle. The first 
and second are the main stays of orthodox religion for 
they lead to religion whatever it may be, the third 
principle, however, which includes critique an.d sci- 
ence, is that which purifies religion and leads on to 
that ideal religion of which the mythological concep- 
tions are dim prophecies. Fechner continues : 



" And why then do I not place myself upon the ground of un- 
conditional faith in what has become historical ? I cannot, and 
hundreds and thousands cannot. The theoretical principle asserts 
itself, too, and must assert itself. And if implicit faith in what has 
generally been accepted, for those who have such faith, has its 
advantages which nothing could replace, yet with the impossibil- 
ity that all have it and that reason be sacrificed to faith under all 
circumstances, another task of history comes into play, that is the 
task to make the advantages, which those believers alone can have 
almost exceptionally and yet not in a perfect degree, because they 
look upon the yet imperfect religion as already perfect, the com- 
mon property of all, by really advancing religion to its perfection 
and thus making it possible for it to reach its culminating point. 

"It must finally arrive where reason will be fully satisfied and 
will be a pillar of the faith it now constantly shakes, instead of 
demanding impossible sacrifices of reason in behalf of faith. And 
for this end indeed the introduction of new positions in history is 
needed ; the efforts of a reason no longer tied to rigid dogmas and 
its attempts to overthrow what is destined to fall at some time, re- 
quire the greatest diversity of aspirations, a ceaseless fight from all 
sides and the failure of most of these efforts, so that, after all the 
false courses are exhausted and done away with, the right course 
may at least surely and safely remain." 

There is much truth in what Fechner says and we 
sympathise with the position he takes ; yet we pro- 
pose to go further : 

Fechner's third principle is the most important one 
of all. Without it the other two principles cannot 
produce religion. Without it, religion would be dog- 
matism, and would cease to be religion. 

Fechner concludes his book "Die drei Motive und 
Griinde des Glaubens" with a poem which may be re- 
garded as his confession of faith. Some verses ex- 
press the author's sentiment in the words of Christian 
mythology and we must know his scientific faith in God 
as the all-and-one in order to avoid misconstruction. 
We here present a translation (made by Mr. E. F. 
L. Gauss, of Chicago, for this special purpose) which 
faithfully preserves the rhythm and the character of 
the original even in most of its details. 



' In God my soul is resting ; 

He lives and therefore I ; 
Life is in and about Him, 
I cannot live without Him, 

He cannot let me die. 

' In God my soul is resting ; 
Say that it ends who lists : 
I have no-care, for surely 
For aye rests there securely 
What now in Him exists. 

' In God my soul is resting ; 

My lite with all its trim 
In Him is bound and hidden. 
And when He shall have bidden 

My soul returns to Him. 

' In God my soul is resting ; 

Though hid He from its sight. 
The witnesses descending 
Reveal Him without ending. 

Foremost the Christ, the Light. 

' In God my soul is resting ; 

The angels' host I see 
In His pure heights of Heaven 
In glory move, and even 

One of them doth bear me. 



" In God my soul is resting; 

The tie of souls is He, 
Faith, Love, and Hope forever 
Will shun the soul's endeavor 

Till this we fully see. 

' In God my soul is resting ; 

In Him are ever rife 
The truth, goodness, and beauty 
That purpose be in duty 

And harmony in life. 

' In God ray soul is resting ; 

What could the parcel be ? 
Far what I'd fain be grasping ! 
Fear not, soul, in thy gasping 

Salvation comes to thee. 

' In God my soul is resting ; 
He is its very source. 
His will my acts commandeth. 
And though my will withstandeth 
He holds His steady course. 

' In God my soul is resting ; 

Although He never sins, 
Yet with His children's aihngs 
He also bears their failings 

And them to duty wins. 



3228 



THE OPEN COURT. 



" In God my soul is resting ; 
Comfort in grief, sublime ! 
He's love and must unfold it, 
And never can withhold it, 
I still abide my time. 



" In God my sou! is restin[> ; 
This be my final word. 
Though storms my bark encumber. 
Yet peace attends my slumber : 
He's my eternal port I" 



We regard' Fechner's method of conciliating Re- 
ligion with Science as an attempt in the right direc- 
tion, but we cannot say that we are fully satisfied with 
the conclusion at which he arrives. His expositions 
do not clearly show the boundary line between Faith 
and Reason, and thus his Faith actually interferes 
with his Reason. 

There is one way that will hopelessly confound the 
issues between religion and science, which is, when 
faith performs the function of science. There is an- 
other way that will take out of life purpose, charity, 
and comfort, which is when cold and unimpressible 
reason performs the function of faith, i. e. when the 
sentiment and enthusiasm of the heart is chilled or en- 
tirely replaced by the figures of dry calculations. 
There is but one way that will reconcile science and 
religion and that is when science and faith harmoni- 
ously work together, each of the two in their coopera- 
tion performing its own function. 

Faith when it performs the function of reason is 
called creed. Creed is injurious, but faith is whole- 
some. He only who is faithful will conquer. 

Reason when it performs the function of faith is 
craftiness and guile. Craftiness is a vice but ration- 
ality is the human in man. 

Faith is not knowledge, but an attitude of the soul. 
Faith is a moral not a mental quality. Faith is char- 
acter, strength of will, loyalty to truth. There is no 
religion in a man unless he be faithful. 

Reason is the arranging and systematising of 
knowledge so as to represent facts correctly, or in one 
word, so as to construct truth. Reason must be the 
torch in the hand of faith, so that faith may walk on 
the right path. 

Reason without faith makes of man a machine 
without sympathy, without tenderness, without en- 
thusiasm for his ideals. Reason in the soul without 
good-will, constancy and moral stamina, is a torch in 
the hand of a vicious man, and the mischief it works 
is great. 

Faith without reason is superstition. It is like 
unto a man that is groping in the dark. He has eyes 
but either they are blind or he shuts them to the light. 
There is light and he might use the light to illumine 
his path, but he scorns the light. He rather relies 
upon what he imagines to be an inner light which is 
in reality luminous hallucinations that appear to him 
when he runs his head against the objects of his sur- 
roundings. 

To sum up : Irrational faith is as much irreligious 
as faithless reason. p. c. 



CURRENT TOPICS. 

Mr. Stewart, of California, owns a half-interest in the far 
away colony of Nevada, and by right of eminent domain he rep- 
resents in the Senate his half of that argentiferous province. Mr. 
Stewart raises crops of silver on his plantations and therefore 
advocates that silvery device which by legislative miracle is to 
give him a dollar for every sixty-six cents worth of his crop. 
He does not think, however, that it would be good politics to 
give the producers of wheat, or cotton, or tobacco a similar ad- 
vantage in the national market. Senator Stewart is gifted in the 
art of speech, and it is an "intellectual treat" to hear him pour 
invective hot as boiling water on the "gold bugs " of the East, 
who wickedly discriminate against the people's money, the white 
metal of the West. A layer of comedy has been pasted on to Mr. 
Stewart's indignation by a prowling resurrectionist who has dug 
up from the archives of California no less than twenty-five mort- 
gages given to Senator Stewart wherein it is required that the in- 
terest and principal of the debt secured shall be paid him in go/d 
coin. A brother senator ' ' on the other side " of the question, 
solemnly rose in his place a few days ago and asked the senator 
from Nevada how it was that believing publicly in silver, he 
should privately believe in gold. And why require his own 
debtors to put a golden stipulation in their bonds ? The senator 
answered, "Because I am not a fool." These were not his very 
words, but when translated from the senate idiom into common 
sense, they meant exactly that. The senator on the other side 
feebly thought that he had exposed the inconsistency of the sena- 
tor from Nevada but in this opinion he was wrong. Senator 
Stewart was entirely consistent according to the " double stand- 
ard " of ethics which our statesmen use. In advocating the "sil- 
ver bill " he was consistent with his own interest, as he was when 
stipulating with his debtors for payment in gold coin. The incon- 
sistency is in the people, who hire law-makers " to promote the 
public welfare," and then permit them to legislate for the private 
welfare of themselves. 

The election in Rhode Island confounds the political fortune- 
tellers who read the horoscopes of candidates, and give us " tips " 
upon the winners. For instance, my favorite soothsayer, an " in- 
dependent" paper, — for I trust not any of the party organs, has 
been assuring me for several weeks that Rhode Island was going 
Democratic, because it went that way last year, and the year be- 
fore, and the year before that ; and for the stronger reason that 
the property qualification was now abolished, so that thousands 
of working men, heretofore disfranchised, had been added to the 
voting classes, and as these were mostly democrats, they would 
largely increase the majority for the democratic ticket ; and more- 
over, because the secret ballot law would prevent the republicans 
from corrupting the voters and thus " defeating the popular will " 
as the custom formerly was. Well ! Rhode Island went repub- 
lican, and then the journalistic prophet impudently told me that 
such a result was to be expected, "because Rhode Island always 
does go republican in the gubernatorial election of a Presidential 
year, " and also because "Rhode Island has long been the most 
corrupt state in the union in the matter of elections." What I 
complain of is that the seer in whom I trusted did not tell me any- 
thing of that before the election, for he knew it then as well as 
he knows it now. I do not place any reliance at all in the addi- 
tional reason that it was revealed in the campaign that the demo- 
cratic candidate "blacked his own boots," whereby the shoe-black 
vote was lost. 

What is the use of worrying about the election when I can go 
any day in the week down to the Palmer House or the Grand Pa- 
cific Hotel and find men there who can tell me just what the re- 
sult is going to be. They do it by some psychological means mys- 



THK OPEN OOURT. 



3229 



terious to me. Not only that, but they can tell the exact majority 
stated in thousands that any state will give, Sir, if somebody is 
nominated. Sir, and the number of thousands that state will throw 
the other way Sir, i£ somebody else is named. They predict and 
contradict with equal confidence. Lately I dined at the Iroquois 
club with a couple of democratic friends who were both ready and 
willing to give me pointers enough to win a fortune by betting on 
the election if I were a betting man. " If Cleveland is nominated," 
said one, "he will sweep the country"; and the other, equally 
well informed, replied, " He cannot sweep one side of it." I think 
it must be from those political magicians that the newspapers 
get the information on which they prophesy with so much 
bluffing power. Out of a multitude of discordant prophecies I 
select by way of sample only two. The Memphis Appeal — 
Avnlamhc, a paper whose ponderous name gives it great polit- 
ical weight, remarks, "With Mr. Cleveland at the head of the 
column victory is certain." This is positive, and it ought to be 
convincing, but a little further down the river the Vicksburg Co/i/- 
mercial Hfrald, retorts in this fashion. "Cleveland has had his 
two innings, and has demonstrated his weakness. Let us look for 
a winner." This is excellent advice but weakened a little by the 
obstinate theory that we never can pick out the winner until after 

the election. 

* 

About a year ago I referred in The Open Court to the Nizam 
of Hyderabad, who out of gratitude to the English for sending 
Christian missionaries to convert his people, had returned the fa- 
vor by sending a few Mohammedan missionaries to convert the 
English people. By The AllahahaJ Revietu for February, I learn 
the progress made by the Nizam and his missionaries down to No- 
vember, 1891. The figures are for Liverpool only, so that I know 
nothing of what has been done in London, Manchester, Canter- 
bury and other places. According to the roster published in the 
Allahabad Review it appears that the Mohammedan church in Liv- 
erpool numbers seventy-one members, forty adult converts, sixteen 
children, and fifteen born Moslems. Of the adult converts there 
are one Catholic priest, and three other Catholics, thirteen mem- 
bers of the church of England, two Spiritualists, one Jewess, one 
Atheist, and the rest "scattering." Their names and professions 
are given, and they have all signed the following very brief and 
very candid confession. "We the undersigned hereby acknowl- 
edge our belief in the Moslem Faith and that we hold the same 
and none other to be the true religion, and that we believe (i) 
That there is only one God. (2) That Mohammed is his prophet. 
(3) That the Koran is the inspired book and word of God." There 
is one Unitarian among the adult converts, but as the Moham- 
medans are Unitarians also, I do not place much value on his con- 
version, especially as he is described as "Clerk in the Ottoman 
Consulate," which as the learned Sergeant Buzfuz remarked in 
the famous trial of Bardell vs. Pickwick, " is in itself suspicious." 
* * 

Taking the seventy-one Moslems out of the census, there still 
remamed in Liverpool about five hundred thousand Christians ; 
and these were jealous of the insignificant share of the population 
which had been given to Mohammed ; so they proceeded according 
to their ideas of religious duty to "stamp out" the eastern heresy 
which had struck root into the soil of England. With the zeal of 
Peter the Hermit and the rage of the old crusaders they raised 
the banner of the Cross, and charged upon the Crescent as their 
forefathers did upon the field of Askalon, and again was heard the 
song of the Red Cross Knights, triumphant as that of Miriam. 
" Oh ! 'twas a glorious sight to see 
The charge of the Christian chivalry." 

The battle is thus described : On the 15th of November, in the 
evening, the Moslems of Liverpool were at their devotions in their 
mosque, and engaged in performing the " Afaghral) A'imaz" what- 



ever that is, when several hundred Christians, chanting their bat- 
tle hymn, "I do believe, I will believe that Jesus died for me, " 
broke down the doors of the mosque, and pouring stones and 
lighted fireworks upon the kneeling worshippers, they scattered 
the astonished Moslems like stubble in the blast. Many of the 
Mohammedans were seriously injured, and one little boy narrowly 
escaped a violent death, as a "arf a brick" struck within a few 
inches of his head as he kneeled ill prayer. There is a deep hu- 
miliation in all this, not only to those who believe in the Christian 
religion, but also to all of us who belong to the Christian race. 
The Nizam of Hyderabad protects the Christian missionaries in 
his dominions ; he allows them liberty of worship, and freedom to 
proselyte his people if they can, while his missionaries and their 
converts are driven from their humble prayer house and pelted 
with stones in England. Oh, Nizam of Hyderabad! Send more 
missionaries to England, and especially to Liverpool. 
* * 

Probably the most impressive Easter Sunday services were 
the devotions dramatically exhibited by the Knights Templars of 
Chicago, at the Episcopal Cathedral of Saint Peter and Saint 
Paul. The newspaper description of them has a martial sound, 
that reminds us very much of tinselled war as we see it repre- 
sented on the stage. The Knights Templars are the heirs of the 
old Crusaders, and, although nobody outside the order knows their 
secret, it is generally believed that they are sworn to rescue the 
Holy Sepulchre from the hands of the Saracens. They will start 
for that purpose to Jerusalem, not as their forefathers did in the 
old crusades, but with first class tickets, and at excursion rates. 
As it had been announced in the Saturday papers that the knights 
would worship at 4 o'clock sharp on Sunday. "A large con- 
course of people," says the paper, "lined the sidewalk," and 
crowded the cathedral to see them do it. Those new crusaders 
made a gallant show as they marched along the boulevard with 
belts and swords, and helmets and plumes, and gauntlets and 
gonfalons, and red crosses here and there. "They filed into the 
cathedral," says the paper, "to the notes of a stirring martial 
strain," which is a great improvement on the ostentatious worship 
of the Pharisees, who never had the advantage of a brass band 
advertisement when they went up to the synagogue. Inside the 
cathedral the services were theatrical and to some religious minds 
irreverent. The knights were welcomed by a priest and forty 
choir-boys who marched up and down the aisle singing the harsh 
and fiery hymn, " The Son of God goes forth to war." When the 
singing was done, the captain gave this dress parade order, "To 
your devotions. Sir Knights," as if worship were tactics, and then 
the Knights went through the form of kneeling down to pray. It 
looked almost like profanation, when the Knights, as the priest 
began to read the Apostles Creed, all drew their swords and 
held them naked in the air until the saying of the creed was done. 
This bit of pantomime was applauded by many of the congre- 
gation as it really deserved to be. All this in the cathedral of St. 
Peter, to whom Christ said, "Put up thy sword." There are 
some people who do not believe in the Apostles creed, and I won- 
der if it was the intention of the Knights to flash their sanguine 
swords at them. Or was the menace intended only for the Sara- 
cens ? I know that all this crusading show is intended for harm- 
less play, and the adoration of helmets and plumes, but it sanc- 
tifies wrongs like those done to the Mohammedans in Liverpool. 

M. M. Trumbull. 



NOTES. 

Professor Turner's book " The Only Good Thing in AH the 
World " has received several reviews favorable, unfavorable, and 
intermediate. Among them are some which express their disap- 
proval of the author's hurling of invectives against all the creeds 
of Christendom. That this is a feature of the book cannot be de- 



3230 



THE OF-EN COURT 



nied and if the author is to be censured for that he is justly cen- 
sured. But exactly this feature makes the book interesting. Con- 
sider that the author is a pious Christian. He is of an advanced 
age and means to leave to posterity the quintessence of his life's 
experience. The knowledge displayed in the book does not demand 
our attention. It is the man that speaks. Those who are interested 
in knowing the spiritual wants of religious men ought to read the 
book. Professor Turner's inveptives are of a peculiar kind. They 
are not the invectives of the intidel, yet they are perhaps for that 
very reason no less severe. A few days ago we received a letter 
from Professor Turner, an extract from which will characterise 
him better than we can do : 

" I have myself been to church almost every Sunday for eighty 
' years, and to as many camp-meetings and week-day meetings as I 
' could. I have been into and through all sorts of schools, both 
' as pupil and teacher, from the gymnasium to the university, ex- 
' cept the theological, which I have never stepped foot into and 
' never intend to. I have read all the current criticism, higher 
' and lower, German, Scotch, and English, theological and scien- 
' tific, theories about the beginning and end of the world, the ori- 
' gin and destiny of being, God's mode of existence, the mode of 
' existence and action of the human soul or spirit, of life and of 
' force. Of course you will readily perceive that I have heard 
' and read more lies about the Bible on both sides, for and against 
' it, than there probably are words in it. Now the only reason 
' that I do not advert to any of this stuff in my little book is sim- 
' ply this : Scientifically they have nothing at all to do with my 
' subject ; and having thrown overboard all the books and dog- 
' mas' on which they are based, I have nothing more to do with 
' them than I have about speculations about the man in the moon. 
' I never propose to thrash this pile of rubbish over again, or to 
' write an encyclopedia of the devil-hood of the old apostate 
' church, or of methods by which it substituted its shameless 
' dogmas for the simple truth of the Christ-word : the greatest 
' fraud and crime ever committed on earth against our common 
'humanity since the crucifixion of Christ. I turn rather to the 
'simple Christ-word as it speaks to the conscious spirit in every 
' human soul and only about that spirit ; rising upward toward 
' the ever-present spirit of the God and father of all spirits, and 
' descending again only to shield and defend the equal rights of 
' every man that walks the earth ; beginning where he begins, and 
' stopping where he stops ; leaving each and all men free to be- 
' lieve, think, and do as they please outside of these few necessary 
' things ; accepting all that is in accord with them and repelling 
' all that is at discord, whether in the Bibles or books or outside 
' of them all. I should have said of Paul that, if he had been 
' reasoning about the North American Indians or any other ueo- 
' pie, instead of the Jews, he would have come to exactly the same 
'Christ-word for his conclusion. For to 'cease to do evil and 
' learn to do well ' is the only possible remedy for all human ills, 
' whether of Jews or of Gentiles, bound or free. 

" If you had read my last paper on ' Universal Law and Its 
' Opposites,' I think it would have made this subject plainer, as I 
' wrote it for that special purpose. 

"But after all, I have to confess to you, that since writing 
' that, I have myself fallen from grace. For the first time, in the 
' eighty-seventh year of my life, I have myself signed a creed, 
' which I never expected to do, as I have always been in the church 
' protesting openly against all its creeds. I not only signed it, but 
' I sent it down to our picture-framer, requesting him to put it 
' into the finest possible frame, and return it to me. It now hangs 
' in my library right before me, in the centre of my choicest book- 
' case of American and universal law and science literature. So 
' that righteousness and truth can kiss each other whenever they 
' please. I did not hang it on my theological book-case ; for I 



" knew there would be a row at once, and I want a little peace in 
" my old age, at least in my own library. It reads thus ; 

" ' I hereby agree to accept the creed promulgated by the 
" Founder of Christianity — love to God and love to man — as the 
"rule of my life.' 

' ' Now if you will sign it too, I will count you as good a Chris- 
" tian brother as walks the earth, and you may think and write out- 
"side of it and about it just as you please ; yea, a much better 
"Christian brother than any. Pope of Rome ever was or ever 
"could have been or even any subscriber to an apostate church 
"creed. The way this happened was thus: An article in the 
"February number of the Review of RniUnvs on the 'Laymen's 
" Movement' was read to me; I said at once, that is the trump 
"for the resurrection of the dead — our dead churches and ortho- 
" doxies, and especially, our dead laymen — dead and buried fif- 
' ' teen hundred years ago under the piles of wood, hay, and stubble 
' ' heaped upon them by the old apostate church, so deeply that 
"they cannot move hand or foot, unless some sectarian priest 
"pulls them out by the heels and thereafter leads them about by 
" the nose as one of his peculiar show-case saints. I said I must 
"inquire into this, so I wrote to all the gentlemen mentioned as 
" interested in this country and in England, and soon came back an 
"answer from Mr. T. F. Seward, East Orange, N. J., with a pair 
"of creeds to be signed, one to keep, and the other to return. 
" Men and ministers from all denominations and from outside 
"all denominations in this country are freely joining it. So you 
' ' see I was at last caught by my own petard, and obliged to con- 
"fess. Yours truly, 

J. B. Turner." 



MR. C. S. PEIRCE has resumed his lessons by correspondence in the 
Art of Reasoning, taught in progressive exercises. A special course in logic 
has been prepared for correspondents interested in philosophy. Terms, 830 
for twenty-four lessons. Address : Mr. C. S. Peirce, "Avisbe," Milford, Pa. 



THE OPEN COURT. 

PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY BY 

THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING CO. 

EDWARD C. HEGELER, Pres. Dr. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 



TERMS THROUGHOUT THE POSTAL UNION : 
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CONTENTS OF NO. 244. 

REFORM ON SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES. F. M. Hol- 
land 3223 

FAITH AND REASON. A Review of Fechner's Method of 

Conciliating Religion with Science. Editor 3225 

CURRENT TOPICS. Silver Statesmen Demanding Gold. 
The Rhode Island Election. Party Soothsayers. Mo- 
hammedan Missionaries in England. Easter Worship by 
Knights Templars. M. M. Trumbull 3228 

NOTES 3229 



The Open Court 



A YSTEEKLY JOURNAL 



Devoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion ^^/"ith Science. 



No. 245. (Vol. VI.— iS 



CHICAGO, MAY 5, 1892. 



T BY The Open Court P 



[NG Co. — Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



THE SAINT OF NEW YORK. 

BY MONCURE D. CONWAY. 

The United States may fairly regard as an event 
of national interest the inauguration of the City Club 
of New York. Nearly four hundred gentlemen, of both 
political parties, mostly of high position, wealth and 
ability, organised a society for the purpose of securing 
for their city real and honest municipal government, 
which it has never had. The evil the}' confront is the 
long subordination of the welfare of the city to national 
partizanship, its offices being regarded as part of the 
spoils with which party services are rewarded. These 
eminent republicans and democrats have pledged 
themselves to exclude national politics from municipal 
affairs and to oppose candidates proposed by Tam- 
many Hall on the one hand or the republican machine 
on the other. The real struggle is against Tammany 
Hall which holds New York in the hollow of its hand. 
In so holding this city, Tammany holds also the State, 
and, in holding the State whose electors are the most 
numerous, that organisation largely controls the na- 
tion. But Tammany itself, these gentlemen declare, 
is held in the hand of its president, called its " Boss " 
— just now a personage named Croker. It is probable 
that the majority of Americans never heard of Mr. 
Croker, yet is he the most powerful individual political 
factor in the United States. When any election is 
drawing near the Tammany regiment gather in their 
Hall; the "Boss" sticks up before them on a Bulle- 
tin-Board the names of the Mayor and Alderman, or 
the Governor and State officers, or the President and 
electors, for whom they are to fight. No one dreams 
of asking how or why those names are selected. They 
all go out and work in primary meetings, when those 
names are always nominated. The nominees are cer- 
tain of election if municipal, nearly certain if for the 
State, and have, if national, the only chance of carry- 
ing the State electors their party can give. No demo- 
crat opposed by Tammany can carry the State. 

The origin and evolution of St. Tammany form 
the most extraordinary chapter incur national history. * 

* I am permitted to use in this form researches made for the second vol- 
ume of the Memorial History of the City o/ New York, edited by General Grant 



Tammany was the name of an ancient chieftain of the 
Delaware tribes, an aboriginal Charlemagne, invested 
from the early colonial time with a large mythology, 
in which he figures as the mightiest of warriors and 
most virtuous of rulers. Early in the American Rev- 
olution some officers and soldiers conciliated the abo- 
rigines by calling themselves " Sons of Tammany." 
Among such soldiers was one John Pintard of New 
York City, the virtual founder of the organisation, 
which dates from the period of Washington's first in- 
auguration. 

There is a tradition that when the first president 
was about to be sworn into office at Federal Hall, New 
York, no Bible was found in the building, and Chan- 
cellor Livingston sent for one to the masonic lodge in 
John Street. The Bible (edition of 1767, containing a 
portrait of George II.) is preserved in that Lodge, 
adorned with inscriptions. The masonic legend is that 
Washington kissed the open book, and the very page 
is shown ; a page showing the picture of Issachar as 
"a strong ass couching down between two burdens." 
The legend sounds like the invention of some polit- 
ical philosopher who saw Washington between the 
two burdens of his time, — a radical democracy, and 
an obstinate devotion to the pomp and circumstance 
of royalty. The first month of Congress was given up 
to an acrimonious dispute between Representatives 
and the Senators about titles. Among the titles pro- 
posed for the President were " His Majesty," "His 
Elective Majesty," "High Mightiness." A committee 
of the Senate reported in favor of "His Highness the 
President of the United States, and Protector of their 
Liberties." " The Lower House," as some heady Sen- 
ators called it, overruled all this, and compelled the 
Vice President, John Adams, to address the chief 
magistrate merely as "The President." It also struck 
out the phrase in which he proposed to thank the 
president, — " for his most gracious speech." Adams 
declared that he would never have "drawn sword" 
(purely metaphorical, in his case) if he had foreseen 
such a result. This aristocratic feeling found its centre 
in a powerful organisation known as the "Order of 
the Cincinnati," which preserved the hereditary fea 
ure, membership being confined to revolutionary of- 



3232 



THE OF'EN COURT. 



ficers and their descendants, in primogeniture. Wash- 
ington was its first president, but had resigned because 
of the hereditary feature. He was retained on promise 
that this feature should be abolished, a promise unful- 
filled to this day, when, however, the society of the Cin- 
cinnati has become so unimportant that few know or 
care anything about its regulations. Nevertheless, a 
hundred years ago, led by General Hamilton, Baron 
Steuben, and other powerful politicians, it filled the 
democracy with alarm. Tammany was the American 
answer to the Cincinnati. Its first public appearance 
was on old May Day (May 12th) 1789 when its mem- 
bers masqueraded as Indian chiefs, in paint and feath- 
ers, through the streets of New York. They called 
themselves " The Sons of St. Tammany, or the Co- 
lumbian Order." The "Saint" was adopted in com- 
petition with the foreign Saints of other societies in 
New York — Patrick, Andrew, George. The new so- 
ciety included then people of different parties, like 
that which was last night organised to resist it, in its 
turn, as it once resisted the Cincinnati. The society 
called its place of meeting the "Wigwam," its officers 
Grand Sachem, Sachems, Sagamore, Wikinskie. Cu- 
riously enough it anticipated the French revolutionists 
in their wish to alter the names of the seasons, which 
Tammany distinguished as Blossoms, Fruits, Snows, 
Hunting. The months were "Moons." An old Tam- 
manyite letter might be dated: "Manhattan, season 
of Fruits, I 7th day of the 7th Moon, year of Discovery 
300th, of Independence i6th, of the Institution 3rd.'' 
Of the grotesque aboriginal features the chief relics 
now are two large Indian figures kept in Tammany 
Hall. When the great "Boss," Tweed, was plunder- 
ing the city he regarded these figures apparently as 
his "mascots" or "pals," and transferred them to his 
private rooms. (From which they were recovered by 
Mayor Abram Hewitt.) But in early times the abo- 
riginal features of St. Tammany were of national im- 
portance. In 1790, while New York was still the 
Federal Capital, the Indians of the far South gave the 
whites much trouble (perhaps not so much as they re- 
ceived,) and an officer was sent by the president to 
negotiate with them. The tidings presently came that 
the chief of the Creeks and twenty-eight warriors were 
on their way to New York to form a treaty. The Sons 
of St. Tammany, in full paint and feathers, went out 
to meet the red men, introduced them to the presi- 
dent and ministers, showed them the sights of New 
York, gave them a banquet and speeches, and stood 
around them in the Federal Hall when the treaty was 
signed. The President's last visit to Federal Hall, 
New York, was to sign that treaty. He went in his 
New English coach-and-six, with all pomp, even the 
horses' hoofs painted. Addresses were interchanged, 
the President gave the Chief wampum and a paper of 



tobacco (substitute for the Calumet), and all, including 
Washington, joined in singing a chorus of peace. The 
costumed Sons of St. Tammany managed this busi- 
ness, and made their mark on the nation. The Cin- 
cinnati began to court them. 

The leading Tammanyite at this time was the be- 
fore mentioned John Pintard. Most- of them were 
tradesmen and mechanics, but Pintard was a Univer- 
sity man and in fashionable society. He was editor 
of the leading republican paper, in which he published 
the whole of Paine's " Rights of Man." He was also, 
and at the same time, a member of the City Council, 
and of the State Legislature, which then sat in New 
York city. The foundation of the Historical Societies 
of both Massachusetts and New York (1791), was due 
to Pintard. The City Council gave Tammany a room 
in its Hall to show American antiquities. The St. 
Tammany Society made its next great impression by 
a stupendous banquet in celebration of the third cen- 
tenary of the discovery of America by Columbus. 
There was set up in its Hall an illuminated obelisk. 
At the base a globe, emerging from chaos, presented 
America as a wilderness. At the top History, drawing 
a curtain, revealed a commercial port, and Columbus 
instructed by Science, who presented him with a com- 
pass and pointed to setting sun. Other figures were 
Columbus at Court, next in chains, where Liberty 
points him to the gratitude of posterity represented 
in the obelisk and the Sons of Tammany or the Co- 
lumbian Order. Near the chained Columbus was the 
prone eagle and the inscription, "The Ingratitude of 
Kings ; " elsewhere the eagle was seen soaring with a 
scroll inscribed "The Rights of Man." For some 
years after the transparency was exhibited in a mu- 
seum with living tableaux. 

So Tammany took root in New York. As the con- 
flict between the Hamiltonians and the Jeffersonians — 
the Federalists and Republicans — waxed hot, Tam- 
many called Jefferson its Great Grand Sachem. It 
was denounced as a "Jacobin" club. It was imitated 
by other clubs throughout the country. Gradually the 
earlier society developed what is now called "Tam- 
many Hall." The two now co-exist, as wheel within 
a wheel. The old society preserves its character as a 
sort of charitable institution. A Tammanyite is not 
seen forsaken, nor his seed begging bread. The 
"Hall" was sixty or seventy years ago a place where 
politicians used to assemble and drink hot flagons, 
toddy and rum punch. Although they are not distin- 
guished now for hard drinking, a good deal of their 
power lies in the fact that they are understood to be 
steadfastly against all the efforts of prohibitionists to 
break up the saloons. At the organisation of our new 
' ' City Club " most of those present were smoking their 
cigar-calumets, and on the tables were decanters of 



XHK OPEN COURT. 



3233 



whiskey. Few drank any, but I have a notion that 
the chief promoters wished to forestall any charge of 
prohibitionism. They mean to fight Tammany, no 
doubt ; with some of its own political fire. Such then 
is the archaeological history of St. Tammany, prob- 
ably little known to most members of that society. It 
will be seen that the society is to be credited with hav- 
ing checked a monarchical tendency in the beginning 
of our government. In the relative importance to-day 
of the two burdens between which our governmental 
Issachar couched, and which found their respective 
labels in the "Cincinnati" and "St. Tammany," the 
political history of the United States may be pondered. 
But Tammany, while it has lost its aboriginal cos- 
tume, has developed a tendency to revert to the abo- 
riginal mental condition to which Sir Henry Maine 
traces all partisanship. The Australian who travels 
hundreds of miles to join one tribe against another, 
merely because that tribe has the same "totem" with 
itself, reappears in the Tammanyite who fights for a 
candidate with his own badge, or "totem," without 
particularly caring whether the said nominee is an 
embezzler or a competent man. The comparison is 
borrowed from an eminent democrat who spoke at the 
City Club. The Hon. Abraham Hewitt, who once re- 
signed his seat in Congress to become Mayor of New 
York, declared that he had owed both of those offices 
to Tammany, but had discovered by his former con- 
nection with that society that their reign was the pure 
autocracy of a "Boss," and entirely subversive of self- 
government. Such it has turned out to be. New York 
is practically without self-government. But although 
I have joined the new club I do not take an optimist 
view of its prospects as a municipal reformer. The 
moral forces of New York are largely mingled with 
pious fanaticism, and whenever they are aroused spend 
their thunder and lightning on private vices with which 
law has nothing to do, or on suppressing Sunday beer, 
with which it ought to have nothing to do. We sadly 
need some political school to teach such men as Com- 
stock, Parkhurst and Co. the meaning of personal lib- 
erty, and the baseness of prurient espionage. 



SCIENCE AND COMMON SCHOOLS. 

E. P. POWEL. • 

There is no subject that can be of importance su- 
perior to our common schools. The marvellous fact 
is, that with all the progress made in all other direc- 
tions, in higher education as well, the curriculum of 
our common schools remains substantially as it was 
one hundred years ago. Nor do our prominent edu- 
cators seem to consider this a matter of importance. 
I have looked over the recently issued volumes of re- 
ports made by W. T. Harris, Commissioner of Educa- 
tion, and while the courses of study for city schools. 



and colored schools, and normal schools are carefully 
compiled, there is nothing said about the courses pur- 
sued in the common schools. But the character of the 
people, and the shifting of population, and maladjust- 
ment of production to traffic, all depend, as we may 
quickly see, on the kind of education given to the 
children in the country schools. It cannot have es- 
caped the attention of all students that the deepest 
political problem of England and Germany, as well as 
of America, is how to reverse the drift toward urban 
residence. In this country one hundred years ago 
our agricultural population was over go per cent. ; it 
is now less than 60 per cent, and dwindling. That is, 
the individualising tendency is giving way to the mass- 
ing tendency. Our cities are filled largely with hordes 
of helpless creatures steadily degenerating, and always 
dependent. Has it occurred to our economists to look 
for the cause of this drift of population to education 
imparted in our general schools ? Evidently if we are 
to have farmers we must create farmers. But the 
courses of study universally pursued in all our States 
eliminates every element that specifically tends to in- 
form a child of matters pertaining to farm life and 
farming. That is biology, both as concerns plant-life 
and animal-life, — with the rare exception of physiol- 
ogy, is overlooked. Geology or the study of soils, 
rocks, water-courses, minerals is equally ignored. 
Chemistry or the analysis of soils and of waters ; and 
the synthesis of manures, and whatever else pertains 
to prosperity and sanitation, is never thought of. On 
the contrary precisely those studies are pursued which 
naturally point toward trade and town life. Geogra- 
phy, beyond the merest elements, is properly a very 
advanced study ; and should so be placed. As it is 
now used it possesses some value in the way of train- 
ing the memory; and little else. If it wakens the in- 
terest of the pupil at all, it is in town matters, and not 
in agriculture. It needs no argument to show the 
need of botany and geology and zoology in order to 
any intelligent cultivation of land and domestic ani- 
mals. These sciences deal with those things underfoot 
and all about the land holder. They make land, and 
things on the land pre-eminently interesting. They 
should of course compose the burden of early educa- 
tion in our common schools. But even worse is it that 
no provision is made for developing the powers of ob- 
servation in younger pupils. From three or four till 
nine or ten the children are set down to learn to read 
and write. Nine out of ten are mentally dulled during 
this process ; some of them are intellectually paralysed 
for any future bright mentality. It has not occurred 
to our legislators that these years should be devoted 
to the development of innate powers of seeing, hear- 
ing, feeling, and even smelling. The senses are the 
avenues through which the outer world must reach 



3234 



THE OPEN COURT. 



the inner ; and if negleted at this period are blocked, 
if not forever closed. Few children are taught to 
use their senses as well as they should. Not one of 
our senses but in civilisation is losing more or less of 
power in valuable directions. The Australian wild 
boys are able, on all fours, to track marauders by scent, 
as dogs, everywhere. But the nose is not our only 
neglected sense organ. Humboldt tells us that while 
on the Andes a portion of his party was detailed to 
follow another spur of the mountains. The time had 
come when they should be in sight. He had long 
watched for them, but could not discover any sign that 
they were within the range of vision. Expressing his 
anxiety to his Indian guides, they replied "Why there 
they are ; and have been." Humboldt could yet see 
nothing ; but pointing a powerful field glass in the di- 
rection indicated by the Indians, he could see his 
friends as mere specks moving. I do not care to enter 
into any extended^ demonstration of the possibilities of 
sense-development. But clearly it is for the advantage 
of the farmer to have senses quickly responsive to na- 
ture. Our common schools must follow the initiative, 
already taken in Germany, and to some extent in Eng- 
land, of comprising school gardens. Here the pupils 
have practical studies, not only in observation but in 
cultivation. 

I purposely omitted the mention of entomology in 
the list of sciences needful, because I wish it as a de- 
cisive illustration of the Advantage possessed by a 
properly educated farmer in the matter of profits. 
Our special fight in production is with insects. Yet 
very few of our agriculturists can successfully cope 
with those minute foes. They do not indeed know 
which are friends and which are enemies. The loss 
to our crops is at least one fourth of the whole ; that 
from one enemy of the wheat was estimated at forty 
millions in one year in a single state. The damage 
from the codlin moth to the apple crop is still many 
millions each year to every state in the so-called 
"apple belt"; although horticulturists educated to 
some knowledge of entomology, have learned how to 
prevent this loss by spraying with arsenites. The real 
contest of agriculturists is with insects. These mi- 
nute creatures have so far waged a successful warfare 
with us. To make farming pay, to say nothing of 
making it a delightful pursuit, entomology is an ab- 
solute requisite. But our schools do not refer to the 
subject. You would not so much as find out by the 
curriculum of our common schools that there was such 
a science; or that land- culture depended on it so 
largely for success. 

I have made good my assertion that while in all 
else we have made astonishing progress our common 
schools have hardly progressed beyond their condition 
in the eighteenth century. Higher schools, colleges 



for the most part, and universities are modernised in 
methods, and in courses of study; but the way-side 
school, upon which depends our national character, 
and ability as agriculturists, has not been allowed to 
come under the force of evolution. The three malign 
consequences are, an unwholesome drift of population 
toward urban life ; the necessity of an enormous in- 
crease of distributive traffic, in order to feed our 
herded multitudes, — thus making commerce propor- 
tionately still more powerful ; and thirdly our remnant 
of agriculturists is left helpless to contend with natu- 
ral foes, as well as drearily unable to read the vast 
volume spread open at their doors. Jefferson, with 
instinctive apprehension, warned us that a Republic 
could thrive only when fundamentally agricultural in 
its tendencies. "Agriculture," he says, "is a science 
of the very first order. It counts among its hand- 
maids Chemistry, Mechanics, Geology, Physics, Bot- 
any. In every college and university a professorship 
of agriculture might be honored as foremost. Young 
men, closing their academical education with this, the 
crown of all other sciences, fascinated with its solid 
charms, and at a time when they are to choose an oc- 
cupation, — instead of crowding other classes, would 
return to the farms of their fathers, their own, or those 
of others, and replenish and invigorate a calling, now 
languishing under contempt and oppression." The 
advice of this pre-eminent statesman was not heeded. 
Our commerce and our manufactures havfe grown 
with astounding rapidity ; but now we find the under- 
lying soul of production still languishes, unfostered 
and overlooked, in the vast educational system of the 
people. The farmers' problem, like the problem of 
labor and capital, pertains to general sociology, and 
concerns us from a scientific standpoint. Sooner or 
later we find that the real basis of human progress and 
prosperity is right education ; and every possible 
phase of evil may with equal surety be traced to false 
or defective education. 



AFTER THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE TYPE. 

There is a little town in the New England states 
which lies aside from the rush and bustle of the world, 
but its inhabitants are not behind the timps ; they are 
quiet but thinking men and their thoughts are worthy 
of attention. 

There were two friends in that town, a smith, and 
a type-setter. The one was a political orator and a 
freethinker, the other an author and a poet ; the former 
strong, quick, and bold, the latter given to meditation, 
slow, and carefully weighing his words. 

They were returning from a funeral, and said the 
freethinker to the poet : "There we see how wise it is 
not to compromise with superstitions of any kind. 
The friend we have buried was a freethinker as you 



THE OF^KJST COURT 



3235 



are and as I am, and the clergyman spoke at his grave 
in the old bombastic phrases of the immortality of the 
soul, and he really talked on as if that man were alive 
still. Could the dead have risen he would have bid- 
den him hold his peace." 

The clergyman was a unitarian of liberal views and 
in the opinion of many of his brethren unsound in doc- 
trine, but he was dear to his parishioners, because in- 
stead of preaching the old theological dogmas, he 
taught what might be called a practical religion. He 
prayed little and his prayers were in the nature of in- 
junctions to his flock, not petitions to God for benefits 
but rather exhortations to his people to perform their 
duties in this world. This clergyman had spoken of 
the mysteries of the soul which, though the body die, 
lives on. 

"Well," said the type-setter, "I do not see why you 
do not allow the preacher to speak a truth in his own 
way. Would he not be misunderstood, if he spoke as 
you would express yourself?" 

"I think not," was the quick reply, "for look here ! 
What is a man? He is an organism, a million times 
more complex than a watch, and his soul consists of 
his constituent elements in their co-operative action. 
Break the watch and it is gone, prevent the co-opera- 
tion of the organs of an organism, and its unity is lost; 
it dies. The soul of a human being is the product of 
the co-operation of its parts. When the organism is 
out of order, the soul is out of order, if the organism 
breaks up, the soul dies and it is gone forever." 

" That is all very well, " said the type setter, "but I 
don't think that it covers the question, for the soul of 
man is something more than the co-operation of his 
organs. Does not a man think ? And has he not 
ideals ? " 

"What are man's thoughts," shouted the free- 
thinker, "but brain-action. All is mechanical. It 
seems you are not yet free from superstition." 

" I grant you," answered the other slowly, " that 
brain-motions are mechanical. The physiological ac- 
tion of the brain may be called molecular mechanics. 
But does the soul consist in brain-action ? Is it not 
something more ? I think it is. Our brain action is a 
feeling and our feelings are of different kinds and each 
feeling has a meaning. The soul, as I understand it, 
lives in the meaning of the brain-action, and I find that 
the soul continues to exist and have its effects, al- 
though the brain may rot in the grave." 

"Then you are a spiritualist," exclaimed the smith. 
"You believe that the soul can exist independently of 
its body." 

"Oh no ! " replied the type-setter, "I am no spirit- 
ualist. I do not believe that the soul can exist without 
a body. Spiritualism regards the soul as a substance 
and thus it is actually a psychological materialism. 



Let us bear in mind that the soul is not matter but 
that subtle something of which ideas consist." 

" Very well." 

" Now what is your soul? " 

"My soul is my feeling and thinking. " 

"Exactly. But would it not be quite indifferent 
how you feel and think, if when you cease to feel and 
think, all your ideas are gone forever." 

"Stop, I do not mean to say that, for I am not the 
only one who thinks and feels as I do. The books I 
read are still to be had and I teach my boys to think 
and act as I do." 

" Don't you think that you thus transplant your 
ways of thinking into the minds of others." 

" Certainly I do and I mean to do so." 

"And did not you say that your ways of thinking 
constitute your soul?" 

"Did I? Yes, I did!" 

"Thus you preserve your soul or at least parts of 
your soul in others." 

"Well in that sense, it will do, but I object to the 
very word immortality, for every individual soul dies, 
it is mortal and if it is dead, it is gone forever. Death 
is a finality and he who believes in any beyond is in 
my opinion still under the baneful influence of super- 
stition." 

"My dear friend," said the type-setter. "I am as 
radical as you are, but I differ from you. Listen. Many 
years ago, when I was a young fellow of twenty-five, I 
wrote a small volume — the one which 3'ou know. 1 wrote 
it in the evenings and when I had finished it, I set it in 
type in my leisure hours. Whenever I had finished 
sixteen pages I carried the form over to the printer, 
and 1 assure you I did it with a heavy heart. I had 
put my soul into the work and whenever I locked up 
a form, the taps of the hammer reminded me of the 
nailing of a coffin. A certain amount of work was done ; 
whether it was good or bad it was now beyond redemp- 
tion. The toil, the struggle, the activity, the labor was 
over. The black letters stood lifeless in rows and as 
soon as the)^ had been returned from the press, they 
were distributed back into the cases. I say my soul 
was in the work. Was my soul gone when the type 
ceased to stand in that order in which it had repre- 
sented my ideas? no! say rather my work was done 
and the soul lived. The soul lived a new life. It is 
a life of a greater and fuller activity, yet at the same 
time without toil, without labor, without trouble. This 
is an allegory, but it may fairly represent to you the 
truth that the soul of a beloved friend, father, mother, 
brother, or child may still be an active presence in our 
lives. It is a spiritual presence, it is not material as 
materialists regard substance or as spiritualists think 
of spirits which latter are too earthly in my view to 
deserve the name spirit, — but it is real nevertheless. 



3236 



THE OPEN COURT. 



And all our work in life is a preparation for that other 
Jiind of existence which Christians call the beyond. 
The preparation for, the beyond, is or at least ought 
to be the purpose of ever}- action of, the now. Thus I 
labored unmindful of my comfort to bring out my ideas 
in adequate words and have the type appear without 
misprints, for I knew as soon as I had locked up the 
forms, that any mistake I had made was gone beyond 
the possibility of mending. When on the following day 
I distributed the letters I thought of the words of 
Christ in his dying hour : It is finished. But what is 
finished? Certainly the work, not the life of the work, 
not its purport, its usefulness, its efficacy. The soul 
of the work lives. While the bookmaker toils, there 
is life in his efforts. After the distribution of the type, 
his labors cease but his book does not cease to exist, 
it enters a higher career of existence. That was a 
lesson to me and I am not sorry I learned it, and it 
came home to me whenever I received word that my 
book had met with a kind welcome and that ideas of 
mine had taken root in the souls of men. The body 
dies, that is true enough ; but do not tell me that death 
is a finality. After death our soul begins a new kind 
of activity and it seems to me there lies a certain 
grandeur and a holy perfection in that kind of exist- 
ence which is above anguish, pain, and anxiety, and 
yet full of efficacy and illimited, infinite in potentiali- 
ties." 

"I would fain answer you," impatiently said the 
smith. "It almost seems as though you intended to 
excuse the irrational dogmas of religion and the many 
sins which the church committed in past ages. I know 
you are a radical thinker and I'll forgive you. But 
are you not conscious that you subvert the principles 
of radicalism, the truth established by scientists and 
the ideals of the heroes of freethought? " 

"No," said the type-setter, "I do nothing of the 
kind. Yet I see that if a man of science passes out of 
this life, that the truth he has brought out is not lost, 
when a man that struggled for right and justice sinks 
into the grave that his principles and aspirations are 
not buried with him ; when a hero of thought dies his 
ideals remain with us. The body dies but the soul 
lives." p. c. 



CURRENT TOPICS. 

With or without authority, the newspapers are saying that 
Mr. Gladstone gives as the key to all his political changes this ex- 
planation : "I was educated to regard liberty as an evil ; I have 
learned to regard it as a good." Good for men, he meant, but not 
for women ; on the woman question, he still remains a Tory. Mr. 
Gladstone's explanation of his numerous political changes is a 
metaphysical picture showing the power of early training to influ- 
ence the actions of old age. The genii who broke him to political 
harness, and brought him into Parliament more than sixty years 
ago still hold the reins upon his revolutionary spirit and check 
him up when his radical instincts threaten mischief to ancient in- 



stitutions. By nature a destructive, he is through discipline and 
precept a conservative. Whenever any of his bonds give way they 
break by a pressure from without. No other great man was ever 
converted so much or so often as Mr. Gladstone. It has been his 
eccentric fortune to oppose as a duty, the numerous reforms which 
he afterwards thought it his duty to defend. Psychologically 
speaking, he has many a time sentenced himself in the astral body 
to imprisonment and fine, although the physical punishment was 
borne by others. Reacting on his own resistance he has been 
flung into the leadership of popular agitations which he formerly 
condemned and punished. He has had the sagacity and the au- 
dacity to assume command of the very storms that swept him 
off his feet. And when the Woman Suffrage movement in Eng- 
land becomes irresistible he will assume command of that ; not 
because of its popularity or its political force, but because he will 
then himself believe in it. 

4C- * 

In Tlic Foniiii, for May, there is an article on the Silver ques- 
tion written by the Hon. Michael D. Harter, a member of Con- 
gress from Ohio. Mr. Harter, although a new member, has al- 
ready achieved national distinction, not only by reason of his 
political knowledge, which is of a high order, but because of his 
political conscience, which is of a higher order still. He stands 
conspicuous as a statesman among politicians, and it is due to the 
courage of Mr. Harter that his party did not plunge over Niagara 
and go down into the whirlpool of defeat on the Silver question. 
His contribution to T/u' Forum contains a great deal of political 
instruction, but in some places it shows a moral carelessness de- 
serving of rebuke. It sanctions indirectly, and no doubt uninten- 
tionally, the economic error that America gets rich on the poverty 
of Europe, and the religious mistake that God hath made it so. 
Referring to the mischief already done by the coining of silver 
dollars to bury them in the ground, and advocating a reversal of 
that policy to save us from a predicted commercial panic, Mr. 
Harter says, "Great crops here and small ones abroad give us 
Heaven's opportunity to correct our mistakes of the past." The 
sentiment of that opinion springs from a selfish religion which is 
utterly unknown in Heaven, for no professors of that creed are 
there. Heaven does not blight the fields of Europe to give America 
an "opportunity." The religion of Heaven teaches that every 
man is interested in the welfare of every other man, and every 
nation in the prosperity of every other nation, and this is the 
moral foundation of true political economy, Mr. Harter warns 
his countrymen that Heaven may not blight the fields of Europe 
this year to save America from the folly of her statesmen ; and he 
says, "If we continue this wild craze for free silver, fair crops in 
Europe next year will bankrupt the United States." The danger 
is the other way ; and Mr. Harter may find by looking a little 
deeper down, that the "drain of gold," and the commercial peril 
he deplores are largely due, not to the " silver craze," but actually 
to the failure of the crops in Europe. 

A correspondent of the New York Nation complains of what 
he calls the " Law English " perpetrated by the Supreme Court of 
Illinois in the decisions of that unlearned and ungrammatical 
tribunal. In his letter he incloses a few samples such as this, 
" An attorney officing in the same building," an economical style 
very often adopted by writers out of ideas and short of words ; 
and this, "We are satisfied that the testimony given by the appel- 
lee establish these facts"; and this, " The train ran from Quincy to 
Hannibal and return." As volunteer counsel for the Supreme 
Court I submit that these barbarisms may be the work of some 
printer fiend in complicity with an abandoned proof-reader, but 
the following comic solecism is far beyond the perverse ingenuity 
of printers and proof-readers. The Supreme Court of Illinois 
alone has the genius to produce it, " We cannot say that five thou- 



THE OPEN COURT. 



3237 



sand dollars is a compensation too large for an injury so serious, 
and which at any moment may become strangulated and produce 
death." For that last offense I do not ask an acquittal for the 
Supreme Court, but a lenient sentence, because the court has 
merely followed the precedent set by the Illinois judge who in sen- 
tencing a culprit said, "Prisoner at the bar ! You have had a good 
education, and Christian surroundings, instead of which you go 
about stealing sheep." The correspondent of The Nation criticises 
only the " Law English " of the Illinois Supreme Court, but if the 
grammar of the court offends him, what would he say to its juris- 
prudence if he could only see that ? He would think that its Eng- 
lish is better than its law. "If your honors please, " chirruped 
the learned counsel, " I will now read a passage from Blackstone, 
bearing on the point." " Never mind reading that," said the Chief 
Justice, "this Court has read Blackstone." " Have you ! " said 
the counsel, in a tone of delighted surprise, as he laid the book 
down, "Well, I never suspected that." 

* 

* * 

At last Congress has entered upon a benevolent work which 
will be of great value to the country. It has resolved itself into a 
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. It will furnish 
reading matter for the people free of cost and thank them for ac- 
cepting the boon. It will provide a free circulating library on a 
scale of magnitude which in the language of the lamented Mr. 
Barnum "has never before been attempted in this or any other 
country." Our ancient statesmen were never competent for such 
an enterprise, and would very likely have been astonished had they 
seen the scheme attempted, simple and innocent as it is. All there 
is of it is for an Honorable member to rise in his place, and begin 
to make a speech on the silver question, or on the tariff, or on the 
proposed public building for Slab City, or on any other anomaly 
under the sun, and after speaking thirty seconds, finish his oration 
thus : " But, Mr. Speaker, I see that it is now time for me to go 
to lunch, and as the point which I wish to impress upon the House 
is made clear to the meanest understanding by Dean Swift in 
"Gulliver's Travels," Part the Third where he describes (he 
voyage to Laputa, I ask that " Gulliver's Travels" be printed 
in the Congressional Record as a part of my remarks." Leave is 
given as a matter of course, and "Gulliver's Travels" is printed 
in the Congressional Record, at nobody's expense, because the gov- 
ernment has plenty of paper and printing presses, and hired men 
on hand. It is then distributed by the million copies through the 
mails, also at nobody's expense, because the government has a post 
office of its own and can just as easily circulate the books as not. 
" Gulliver's Travels " having been transmuted by congressional 
alchemy into a " Public Document," goes free under the frank of 
any Honorable Member to "every home in the land." Lest I be 
accused of jesting I will quote Mr. Lodge of Massachusetts, who 
having pretended to make a speech on the tariff question, after 
saying little or nothing at the beginning of it, abruptly finished it 
thus : " But I will not detain the House with any remarks of my 
own, but will merely quote briefly a pamphlet by Mr. Welker 
Given." Mr. Welker Given's book on the Tariff is then made a 
part of Mr. Lodge's remarks, and by the process above explained, 
it goes free through the mails. Never was a plan of public edu- 
cation so comprehensive and so liberal as this. 

* * 

The credit for this new system of popular education is due to 
the Democrats, and may truly be called a Democratic Reform. It 
was begun in the House of Representatives, where some public 
spirited men anxious to give the people good political instruc- 
tion free, tacked Mr. Henry George's book on to " these few feeble 
remarks, Mr. Speaker," and thus converted it into a Public Docu- 
ment, so that we shall now get " Protection or Free Trade " that 
standard work on Political Economy for nothing. Of course those 
Democratic members of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful 



Knowledge never read the treatise, for if they had they would have 
noticed that while at the beginning of it Mr. George demonstrates 
that Free Trade is a scientific theory, he tries to show at the end 
of the book that Free Trade is of no practical use at all. The most 
insidious argument against Free Trade that I know of is put by 
Mr. George himself in the ten concluding chapters of his book. As 
a campaign document it will prove a boomerang for the Free 
Traders. But perhaps those Honorable Members did not adopt 
those last ten chapters and print them in the Record. What sur- 
prises me a little is that Mr. Jerry Simpson of Kansas has become 
a zealous evangelist in the Society, and drops his mite into the 
Treasury of Knowledge in the shape of six lines of his own gospel, 
and six pages of the gospel according to Mr. Henry George, but if 
he is not slandered by public rumor, Mr. Simpson, since he has 
been in Washington, has adopted the effeminate habit of wearing 
socks, and this may account for his curious interest in public re- 
finement and popular education. It is very gratifying that the re- 
publicans have not allowed party prejudice and political bigotry 
to warp their patriotism in this matter, for they have seconded 
the movement in the most disinterested way. In fact, they have 
really improved upon the strategy of the democrats, as they gen- 
erally do. They promise to contribute more free literature to the 
people than the democrats ever did or ever can. Mr. Milliken of 
Maine has already given to the country by the Congressional Rec- 
ord route, five lines of his own argument, and fifteen pages of a 
campaign document on the Protection side. Mr. Johnson of Da- 
kota contributes to the Education fund Mr. Robert P. Porter's 
book on the blessings of a Protective Tariff. Mr. Dolliver of Iowa, 
who has talent enough of his own if he had energy enough to use 
it, throws into the Congressional Record nine lines of his own, and 
five pages on something or other from an author named Horr. A 
celebrated Senator is going to insert Bunyan's ' ' Pilgrim's Progress " 
in his next "effort" to illustrate the weary journey of an eager 
soul towards the Presidential throne. And so the good work will 
go on until all the literature we need from Othello to Goody Two 
Shoes will come to us in the Congressional Record free. 

M. M. Trumbull. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

HIT HIM IN HIS 'WIND ! 

To the Editor of The Open Court : 

Far be it from my intention to provoke a controversy as to 
the meaning of ultimate "necessity." No one ought to go into a 
fray when it is a foregone conclusion that he will be worsted. 
Speaking of "frays" reminds me of what happened during my 
Third Class year at West Point. A classmate of mine named Tom 
took umbrage at something I said or did, and gave me some "lip.'' 
According to the barbaric code then in vogue (and now too for all 
I know) there was no alternative between being branded as a 
poltroon and tendering a gauge of battle. I tendered the gauge. 
It was not Christian conduct ; but it was better, — it was wise. 

My second arranged matters. He settled with Tom's man 
that the fight should be "stand up," and according to the rules of 
the Marquis of Queensbury. As it- happened, although brim full 
of pluck and resolved to die, if needs were, with an untarnished 
scutcheon, I had never even so much as heard that there was a 
Marquis of Queensbury. But, — as you may have noticed, — 
many a man fights according to the rules of one of whose name he 
is ignorant. 

We fell out of ranks after dress parade, cut supper, and pro- 
ceeded across the plain to Fort Clinton, — the Bladensburg of that 
locality. My man gave me a few tremors by producing a bottle, 
which he filled at the hydrant, and a big sponge (sponged from 
the chemical laboratory) which he soaked. It looked so blood- 
thirsty I trembled, and the more that whilst on our way across 



3238 



THE OPEN COURT. 



the cavalry ground, he regaled me with vivacious, and, I now 
fancy, somewhat mendacious accounts o£ conflicts wherein the 
vanquished was injured for life. He primed me with instructions, 
all of which I ignored for technicality, and dilated, as it seemed 
to me with needless severity, upon Tom's merits as a "bruiser." 

However, scared as I was, I kept on, and in due season we 
stood up together, Tom appearing much larger and more muscular 
than I had ever imagined possible. I spare you any account of 
the rounds. Tom's nose (which he wore big and imposing) was 
in my front, and the sole idea possessing me was to hit it. As at 
iirst I made no great business success at this my second thought 
to help matters by advice. 

' ' Hit him in the wind, Hudor 1 " was the form his advice took ; 
but I was too busy to heed, and kept right on my way. "Hit 
him in the wind ! In the wind ! " cried my man, till, vexed at his 
persistence, I turned right around, and inquired sharply : " Where 
in h — 1 is his wind ? " 

Perhaps you think that yarn hasn't any moral. It lacks dig- 
nity, I admit that cheerfully, for a philosophical journal ; but I'll 
be bound there's a moral to it. I can't reason it out, but I feel it. 

If I have any mission, — which some doubt, — it certainly is 
not to the philosophers, and perhaps I did wrong to instance the 
asymptote as a fact " not precisely determined by law." 

What I meant was the "actual determinedness" was the fact 
not actually determined. I know now I ought to have said that 
in the first place. Oh ! dear! dear! who would be a philosopher ? 
With the best intentions in the world, as soon as I write I go 
astray, and speak nonsense. In time, I trust, with plenty of fresh 
air, and exercise, and good wholesome nourishing food, such as I 
find in The Open Court and T/ie A/oiiis/ I may get to the true in- 
wardness of things. I regret to say that I am not there yet. 

Hudor Genone. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Great Hopes for Great Souls. By Jenldn Lloyil Jones. Chi- 
cago; All Souls Church. 1892. 
The title of this pamphlet is a misnomer. It may be true, as 
the author states, that "only great souls can have great hopes," 
and further, that great hopes "come not from great arguments 
but from great souls," but surely when once formed and uttered 
the hopes may be indulged in by small souls as well as great. 
Every one who has any thought for the future may hope that pov- 
erty and disease will someday be things of the past, and that good 
will at last triumph over evil in family, social, and political life. 
He may even hope for the time when religion shall be " a sublime 
following of the ideal, " and when churches shall become ' ' training- 
schools of character instead of being the guardians of dogmas." 
As to the hope of immortality, this is the common heritage of all 
Christians, but we would like to ask the author where is the " ex- 
perience of the past" which warrants the expectation that "the 
mind that has used the body religiously may reach the point where 
it can do without that body and be the better off." This appeal 
to experience, which is supported by the statement made near the 
close of the pamphlet, that to doubt. of immortality is "to deny 
science and to honor no truth," is not consistent with the depreca- 
tion of argument. This is valuable only so far as it is based on 
experience. We do not see how Mr. Jones's propositions can be 
maintained from a scientific point of view. c. s, w. 

NOTES. 

The Rev. W. G. Todd of Topeka, Kansas, is trying the ex- 
periment of a " People's Church," adapted to the spiritual and 
social needs of working men, and "especially those who feel os 
tracised by other churches, either on account of their social posi- 
tion or their attitude of unbelief towards what goes by the name 
of religion." The quotation is from the prospectus which explains 



the aim and proposed methods of the People's Church. Its general 
aim appears to be not worship but "respect, reverence, and love 
for the divine ideal of character in itself as it is foreshadowed to 
man by the orderly operations of the Supreme Intelligence in the 
Universe." And to make this ideal of character concrete " in such 
laws and customs of society as shall further the ends of human 
justice and social harmony." The methods by which this is to be 
attained are in brief, " the study of the natural revelation of God 
to-day," "purifying from the dross of superstition the so-called 
supernatural revelation of past ages," and by promoting " the so- 
cial companionship of a true fraternity of brothers and sisters based 
only on the respectability inhering in personal merit. The religion 
of the People's Church is to be a " Natural Religion," founded on 
a belief in " God, the one absolute unity of all," as he is revealed 
in the Scriptures of Evolution. Mr. Todd gave proof of bis ear- 
nestness and sincerity by offering to devote his time "to the up 
building of a People's Church, on the average wages of the me- 
chanic." The aim's of the People's Church are high, its methods 
rational, and under the guidance of a ze^;lous, and unselfish man 
as Mr. Todd appears to be, it will doubtless do much good. It 
comes when the time is ripe for it, and it ought to succeed. 



Some time ago Public Opinion, the eclectic journal of Wash- 
ington and New York, offered $300.00 in cash prizes for the best 
three essays on the question "What, if any, changes in existing 
plans are necessary to secure an equitable distribution of the bur- 
den of taxation for the support of the National, State, and Mu- 
nicipal Governments ? " 

The competition has attracted much interest, and the com- 
mittee, consisting of Hon. Josiah P. Quincy of Boston, Hon. Jno. 
A. Price, Chairman of Nat'l Board of Trade, and Mr. W. H. Page, 
Editor of The Forum, have just awarded the first prize to Mr. 
Walter E. Weyl of Philadelphia ; the second to Mr. Robert Luce, 
editor of The Writer, Boston ; and the third to Mr. Bolton Hall 
of New York. The successful essays are published in Pul>lic 
Opinion of April 23d. 

THE OPEN COURT. 

PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY BY 

THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING CO. 

EDWARD C. HEGELER, Pres. Dr. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 

TERMS THROUGHOUT THE POSTAL UNION : 
$2.00 PER YEAR. $:.oo FOR SIX MONTHS. 

All communications should be addressed to 

(Nixon Building, 175 La Salle Street,) 
P. O. DRAWER F. CHICAGO, ILL. 

CONTENTS OF NO. 245. 

THE SAINT OF NEW YORK. Moncure D. Conway.. 3231 
SCIENCE IN COMMON SCHOOLS. E. P. Powell... 3233 
AFTER THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE TYPE. Editor 3234 
CURRENT TOPICS. The Key to Mr. Gladstone's Polit- 
ical Changes. The Hon. Michael D. Harter on the 
Crops Abroad. The Law-English of the Supreme Court 
in Illinois. Congressional Liberality in the Distribution 

of Literature. M. M. Trumbull 3236 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

Hit Him in His Wind. Hudor genone 3237 

BOOK REVIEWS 323S 

NOTES 323S 



Llt5;v,-,KY I 
I CHICAGO , ] 



The Open Court, 



A VirEEKLY JOURNAL 



Devoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion -with Science. 



No. 246. (Vol. VI.— 19.) 



CHICAGO, MAY 12, 1892. 



Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher, 



WAVES AND RAYS.* 

BY PAUL SPIES. 

It has long been regarded as the ultimate problem 
of phj'sical science, to bring the manifold phenomena 
of nature within the reach of the mind, by reducing 
them to a set of fundamental phenomena of great uni- 
versality. The causes of such fundamental phenomena 
it is usual to call forces — gravitation or the attraction 
and repulsion of electrical particles may serve as ex- 
amples ; and hence we might conceive the business of 
physics to be the reduction of phenomena to a series 
of fundamental forces. But one easily perceives that 
such a manner of comprehension would be little satis- 
fying to us, and certainly much less so, the greater the 
number of forces might be with which we should have 
to conceive matter as mysteriously endowed. It must 
of course be known to you that for this reason modern 
natural science has striven to represent a single phe- 
nomenon of great comprehensibility and simplicity as 
the ultimate cause for all occurrences in nature — 
namely motion, whether this motion take place in large 
masses or in the smallest particles of bodies, the mole- 
cules, or finally, in the particles of that subtile sub- 
stance that fills up the whole world, the ether. 

The results which physical science has attained in 
this effort rest, as is probably not unknown to you, 
upon the consideration of a particular kind of motion 
which we usually call wave-motion or vibration. 

Now that I have undertaken, on the basis of this gen- 
eral aim of natural science, to consider the more special 
question of the departments of physics in which this 
kind of motion plays a part, allow me to begin at once 
with that simple natural occurrence which has given 
its name to the phenomenon with which we are here 
concerned. You have all observed waves of water as 
they occur when the equilibrium of plane water sur- 
faces is disturbed. And you have doubtless noticed 
two peculiarities of such a motion, — namely, first, that 
the movement spreads gradually farther and farther 
and secondly that at the same time the individual 
particles of water move but little from the place at 
which they originally lay ; that on the contrary the 
particles of water execute almost exclusively an up- 

* Translated from Himmet iind Erde. 



ward and downward vibratory motion whilst they ac- 
complish the propagation ; that, in other words at any 
definite place a periodically changing condition of things 
is presented. We can easily imitate this phenomenon 
by an experiment, which will lead us a step further. 
You see here a stretched rubber cord or rope. 



If I produce a disturbance of equilibrium near one 
of the extremities by striking the cord, you will observe 
first the propagation along the cord of the deformation 
I have produced, and secondly you will perceive it is 
impossible that any particle should move away from 
the position it had when at rest. And now you will 
observe a further phenomenon. The disturbance of 
the equilibrium is not destroyed when it reaches the 
extremity which is fixed, but on the contrary is reversed 
and transmitted back to me. We have here the re- 
flection of a wave before us, a phenomenon which you 
can also observe in connection with water-waves and 
to which I shall again recur. I will now take the free 
end of the cord in my hand and send out along it a 
succession of shocks, so that the reflected disturbances 
are constantly met by new ones. You see what the 
result is. The whole cord vibrates up and down. You 
perceive no transmission of the rope-wave. On the 
contrary, a stationary vibration, a stationary wave is 
produced, generated by the coincident effects of the 
waves reflected from the one side and the fresh ones 
sent out by me from this. Now it is easy to make the 
reflected wave meet a fresh one twice in its backward 
course ; to do so I have only to move my hand twice 
as fast. I thus produce a division of the cord into two 
parts. You see that an upward vibration of the one 
part is accompanied by a downward vibration of the 
other, and vice versa ; the middle remains almost to- 
tally at rest. Again, increasing still more the rapidity 
of the motion, the cord vibrates in three and now 
finally in four parts, so that we have two and then 
three points which remain at rest. 

Coming now to the clear establishment of some 
ideas on the subject, we have in addition to the desig- 



3240 



XHE OPEN COURT. 



nations wave-crest and wave-trough, the meaning of 
which in reference to waves of water explains itself, 
the notion of ray. By ray we understand simply the 
direction in which the motion is propagated. In our 
case this was fixed by the direction of the cord. Water- 
waves are in the simplest case circular, the propaga- 
tion taking place in all directions over the surface of 
the water. The rays, if we should here speak of such, 
would in this case be disposed like the spokes of a 
wheel. In both cases the direction in which the vi- 
brations take place is perpendicular to the direction 
of the transmission: and we have transversal vibrations, 
transversal waves. By a wave-length we understand 
generally the length between crest and crest or trough 
and trough twice taken, so that in the case above given, 
when the cord was vibrating in two parts, the length 
of the cord represented a wave-length. 

The points which remain at rest are called nodes, 
the parts lying between, the parts most violently agi- 
tated, are called the loops. The measurement of wave- 
lengths, which here indeed would have been very sim- 
ple, is universally effected by determining the distance 
apart of two successive nodes, or what is the same 
thing of two successive loops ; this distance is equal 
to half a wave-length. We shall have occasion to 
make use of this further on. 

I have, however, first to present to you another 
kind of wave. You see here a wave- machine whose 
principal component part is a spiral spring two me- 
tres long suspended by threads (Fig. 2). In order 



that the movements of this spring may be clearly vis- 
ible there is fixed at every turn of the spiral a polished 
metal ball on which I will cause to fall a ray of light 
from the electric lamp. If I strike one of the extremities 
with my flattened hand I press the turns of the spiral 
closer together; I produce an accumulation, a conden- 
sation. When the turns of the spring again expand they 
press against their neighbors, and the disturbance of 
equilibrium thus effected is further transmitted. Each 
single ball, however, simply performs a movement to 
and fro about its position of equilibrium. You ob- 
serve, that though we perceive here nothing whatever 
that resembles an undulatory motion, this phenomenon 
nevertheless in so far accords with the one before con- 
sidered as to exhibit the two properties of wave-motion 
which we emphasised as characteristic. The resem- 
blance would be still greater if we should quantita- 
tively examine the condition of the spiral, that is to 
say if we should determine what gradation the degree 



of the compression assumed in the different turns of 
the spring. 

We can also produce stationary undulations here. 
You see that I have set the spiral spring so vibrating, 
after having fastened one of its extremities by a clamp, 
that it swings back and forth as a whole. The sta- 
tionary end forms a node of vibration, the free end, 
which shows the strongest motion forms a loop of vi- 
bration. You will now again notice the spiral vibrat- 
ing in parts — namely so that a nodal point likewise 
occurs at one-third of the distance from the free end. 
The distance of this point from the stationary end cor- 
responds to half a wave-length. Notice that the no- 
dal points remain motionless but exhibit an accumula- 
tion and scarcity, condensation and attenuation of turns 
whilst in the loops the places of greatest movement, the 
turns constantly maintain the same distance apart. 
As here the motion of the particles corresponds with 
the direction of the propagation, this wave is called a 
longitudinal wave. 

Now that we are agreed regarding the most im- 
portant points in the province of the wave-theory, we 
may pass on to point out the importance of the ideas 
we have acquired for the theory of sound. When the 
air effects the transmission of sound it vibrates in so 
doing in exactly the same manner as did the spiral 
spring in the preceding example. I might show to 
you the condition of the air here involved by means of 
a large column of air, for example by means of the air 
in this glass organ-pipe, 220 centimetres long. When 
I blow a note upon this pipe, I produce in it stationary 
undulations with nodes and loops of vibration. 

If we should introduce a small barometer into the 
pipe, the barometer, if placed at one of the loops 
would indicate no change of air-pressure, because al- 
though there is rapid motion here, there is little con- 
densation or rarefaction. Nor indeed would it indi- 
cate any change at nodes of vibration, for condensa- 
tion and rarefaction succeed each other very rapidly — 
in this pipe 300 times in a second — so that the barom- 
eter is unable to follow it. With the tube which I 
here hold in my hand and which leads to the barom- 
eter, I have connected a little valve, so that when a 
condensation takes place the air forces itself in but 
cannot when a rarefaction takes place find its way out. 
With this valve we will explore the pipe. You per- 
ceive the barometer to which the tube leads now re- 
acts very strongly on the note being sounded : the 
valve is at a node of vibration. I push it further along. 
Our barometer now shows no result, the valve is at a 
loop of vibration. Here we again find a node ; and 
here, on going further along, we again find a loop, so 
that we have, as you see, explored the condition of 
the column of air. The air pressure is of course dis- 
tributed in the manner here found only in the case of 



THE Ol^EN COURT. 



3241 



the note which I have just produced. For a different 
note we have a different wave-length, and a different 
position of the nodes and loops. The barometer, 
which was not influenced in the last position of the 
valve, begins to move as soon as I blow a higher note. 
We are now in a position to measure the wave-length 
with facility. The distance between two successive 
loops here — a distance of 55 cm. — gives me as before 
in the case of the cord-vibration, the half wave-length ; 
so that the complete wave-length amounts to 1^\ 
metres. 

I will here point out the important connection 
between velocity of transmission, number of vibra- 
tions and the wave-length. Suppose that I had ob- 
served in the case of waves of water in a vessel that 
they are propagated a distance of 10 metres a second, 
and I had further observed that at a given fixed point 
of observation five waves are successively produced, 
during such a time. Plainly then five waves distribute 
themselves over a space of 10 metres, which would 
make the length of each individual wave 2 metres. 
So generally, if we know two of the three quantities, 
velocity of propagation, number of vibrations, and 
wave-length, we can find the third. We can, for ex- 
ample, from the wave-length just ascertained, and the 
number of vibrations before stated, compute the ve- 
locity of the propagation of sound by multiplying ly'jy 
by 300. This gives the well- known velocity of ?>'>i) 
metres a second. We shall make use of this principle 
later on. 

If the vibrations excited by a sonorous body strike 
another elastic body, they throw this second body 
likewise into vibrations. You know that use is made 
of this in the phonograph. These motions become 
especially strong when the body influenced is in con- 
dition to make the same number of vibrations as the 
originally sounding body, when, in other words, it is 
tuned to the same note. This concurrence of vibra- 
tion is called resonance. The pair of tuning-forks 
which you see here will show you this. I will exhibit 
the phenomenon to you by hanging a little pendu- 
lum near one of the tuning-forks. You see the image of 
the prongs of the tuning-fork and of the pendulum 
greatly magnified upon this screen. If I rub the other 
fork with a violin-bow, this one also will give out a 
sound. You hear it now, and you see how the prong 
of the fork casts off the pendulum. I will now ask 
you to suppose for a moment that the gift of hearing 
had been denied us, but that we knew such an elastic 
fork, which we should then of course not call a tuning- 
fork, produced vibrations, and that we wished to as- 
certain whether these vibrations were capable of ef- 
fecting an actio in distans through air-filled space. In 
that case we might explore space with a second fork, 
correspondjng to the one first described, and should 



be able to demonstrate the effect of the note without 
hearing it. For electric vibrations, of which we shall 
speak later on, we lack a special sensory-organ of per- 
ception, and the propagation of such vibrations has 
therefore been frequently investigated by means of 
electrical resonators. 

I should like to show you with this pair of tuning- 
forks still another experiment, one which we execute 
by producing two wave-systems of different wave- 
lengths, or what is the same thing, of different num- 
bers of vibrations. I accomplish this by simply en- 
cumbering one of the tuning-forks with a little weight. 
It then vibrates slower than the other. Now I will 
assume that the one sends out say 100, and the other 
99 undulations in a second, so that at a precise mo- 
ment, say at the beginning of a spcond, two condensa- 
tions of air coincidently strike your ear. A half-sec- 
ond later, when the first fork has completed exactly 
50 and the other 49 J vibrations, a condensation of air 
again proceeds from the former to the ear, while from 
the latter a rarefaction reaches it. And not till the 
end of the second, when the one fork has completed 
exactly 100 vibrations and the other exactly 99, do 
they again both influence your ear in the same way. 
Hence it follows that in the middle of the second the 
total effect upon your ear is considerably weaker, 
whilst at the end of every full second the effect will be 
strongest. The sound will thus rise and fall once in 
each second. You hear that now. You hear the beats or 
the tremors, which follow upon one another more quick- 
ly, of course, when the difference of the number of vi- 
brations is greater. This phenomenon rests, thus, upon 
the interaction, or interference, of two wave-systems. 
Such interferences are, obviously, a characteristic 
feature of the wave-nature of a phenomenon. 

I have already mentioned that the pitch of a sound 
is deducible from the number of its vibrations. To 
the lay person this is perhaps the best-known physical 
fact. You are aware that slow vibrations produce low 
tones, and that rapid vibrations produce high tones. 
But not always when we produce regular vibrations 
do we hear a sound ; for that would suppose a dis- 
tinct capacity of our sense-organs, a capacity which 
we do not possess as regards too slow and too rapid 
vibrations. In our room you will find a series of tun- 
ing-forks which allow vibrations to be produced up 
to the number of 50,000 a second. At this, or at least 
at a somewhat greater number of vibrations, our ear 
hears nothing. Upon the whole it cannot be said to 
what extent an increase of the number of vibrations is 
possible. Vibrations much more rapid than these are 
not observed in larger masses, as in the prongs of 
tuning-forks and the like ; but they are in the smallest 
particles of substances, in the molecules; for here since 
little parts are moved only small distances, rapid vi- 



3242 



XHK OF-EN COURT. 




brations are easily made. These are, as you know, 
the vibrations of heat and Hght. The wave-lengths 
of these vibrations are approximately the size of some 
few ten-thousandths of a millimetre, the longest being 
a few thousandths of a mm. in length; so that the 
smallest organisms which we know of, the bacteria 
and cocci, are a little smaller than the largest of these 
waves. 

It would lead me too far here, if I should draw 
from the theory that the phenomena of heat and of 
light are reducible to vibrations, only the most im- 
portant conclusions which science has drawn. The 
choice which I must make 
applies, in the case of 
heat-vibrations, to re- 
flection. The important 
aw of reflection is com- 
mon to water - waves, 
^'^' ^' to sound-waves, and to 

the type of waves just mentioned. This is the law 
by which the direction in which a wave-system is re- 
flected from a surface forms with that surface the 
same angle as the direction does from which the waves 
proceeded. A body which is thrown against an elas- 
tic wall, furnishes the best demonstration : for example 
a ball moving about upon a billiard table. It cannot 
be difficult, upon the basis of such a law, to construct 
a surface which 
will concentrate the 
rays in a common 
point. This is done 
for sound - waves, 
for example, by the 
ear-trumpet. You 
see here a pair of 
mirrors (Fig. 3) 
with whose help a 
similar phenomena 
may be exhibited. 
If we generate 
sound - waves in 
front of the centre 
of the mirror stand- 
ing at the left, they, 
agreeably to the 
particular construc- 
tion of the latter, 
will be so reflected as to proceed onward in parallel lines. 
They soon strike the second mirror, 5 metres distant, 
are there a second time reflected, and finally concen- 
trate themselves at a single point in front of the cen- 
tre. The two points that thus correspond to each 
other, and whose position is determined by the con- 
struction of the mirrors, are called the foci. We will 
perform the experiment for heat-rays by placing a 




glowing-hot ball in one of the foci. An easily in- 
flammable substance, placed in the. focus of the sec- 
ond mirror, is ignited as you see at once. If I now 
really wanted to convince you that the law of the re- 
flection for these heat-rays is the same for sound-rays, 
I should have to bring a sotmd into the one focus and 
beg you to step up here singly and be personally con- 
vmced whether the sound is clearly concentrated in 
the other focus. I think you will excuse me from the 
performance of this experiment. 

Light-rays have the same characteristics as heat- 
rays, only their undulations are somewhat shorter, and 
their vibrations follow one another more quickly : we 
have here, to some extent, higher notes in the tone- 
scale. But to us human beings they offer a much 
greater multiplicity and variety than sound, inasmuch 
as we are, by a wonderful sense-organ, placed in a 
position to distinguish from one another a whole se- 
ries of these sounds, namely the various colors. 

The assertion that we have before us here actual 
undulations in the ether, has its mainstay and chief 
foundation in the fact that a great number of light- 
phenomena maybe shown to be interference-phenom- 
ena; and we will now examine a few of these facts, 
the phenomena, namely, shown by polarised light. 
What polarised light means is best made clear by 
means of a rope-wave. Let us suppose that I have 

caused the rope to 
vibrate twice in def- 
inite time, first up- 
wards and down- 
wards in a vertical 
plane, and secondly 
to the right and to 
the left in a hori- 
zontal plane. Ob- 
viously, both these 
wave-systems, not- 
withstanding the 
fact that they have 
equal wave-lengths 
must exhibit dif- 
ferent properties. 
When they are con- 
sidered from any 
one determinate 
point of view you 
will see that such modifications of the experiment are 
only possible with transverse undulations, and not so 
with the longitudinal vibrations of the spiral spring. 
From the lamp there is emitted at this moment a 
rayof light which produces the luminous circle you 
see upon the screen. The vibrations which constitute 
the ray are transversal. But in its present state no 
one of the planes which you may imagine to pass 



THE OI^EN COURT. 



3243 



through the ray, possesses preference over the others. 
The vibrations take place in all directions that are at 
right angles to the direction of the ray. Such light- 
rays are termed unpo/arised rays. With the help of a 
special optical apparatus, a so-called ISficoPs prism, 
made out of a crystal, I can polarise this ray. (See 
Fig. 4a.) The undulations now take place wholly in 
one plane ; suppose in that which the pointer fixed to 
the prism indicates, — that is to say in a vertical plane. 
Such a prism does not allow undulations in any other 
plane to pass through it. You see, however, that in 
the light-phenomenon upon the screen, no change ap- 
parently has taken place. 

I now introduce a second prism, just like the first. 
It likewise allows the rays to pass through it, since 
the direction of the two pointers coincide and the rays 
that have passed through the first prism strike the 
second in a favorable position. But'if I turn the sec- 
ond prism the light gradually becomes fainter and 
fainter, and now, you will see, it is wholly extinguished : 
for as is evident from the position of the pointers the 
planes of undulations are now perpendicular to each 
other. 

I interpose a thin layer of transparent gypsum be- 
tween the crossed prisms. Light, you see, again ap 
pears ; but this time it is colored light. This remark- 
able phenomenon is the effect of a peculiar property 
possessed by such crystals of doubly-refracting light, 
or of decomposing a ray of light as it enters it into 
two separate rays. Each of these two rays, which 
pursue courses very close to each other, has its own 
determinate plane of vibration. I have inserted the 
layer now in such a manner that these two planes of 
vibration make an oblique angle with the plane of vi- 
bration of the first prism ; consequently the light polar- 
ised by the prism can pass through the layer. But as the 
planes of vibration of the light after passing through 
the crystal do not form a right-angle with the plane 
of the second prism, the latter does not hinder the 
transmission of tlie light. This explains why the 
layer of gypsum in some degree forms a bridge be- 
tween the crossed prisms. That colors appear here is 
a consequence of the interference of the two rays pro- 
duced in the crystal of gypsum. 

Just as the